For tens of thousands of years, people had passed on traditional agrarian (land based) roles from generation to generation. Then suddenly, with the advent of the industrial age, the human conditions changed. The conditioned roles and responses that had given stability to society no longer worked. Work roles evolved ... People moved from villages into cities. Extended families were scattered. The changes were incessant. People needed to learn new responses. As a result the human condition was changed ...gone was the stability that traditional roles allowed. Now , people battle competitively for new opportunities. Some people are left behind, feeling increasingly betrayed as contract after contract is broken. Comfort is no longer assured, hard work does not yield security. Stripped of their former roles, people begin to search for the answer to the basic question of human experience: “who am I?” Robert R. Carkhuff 1993.
I need to be very patient I need to accept that you might not get the end result you want. It takes a lot of skill It takes a lot of practice Sometimes you have to keep going back to the start Sometimes you feel like you have achieved the next stage, then it all falls apart again Others?
In Client-Centred/Experiential Psychotherapy, fragile process is described as follows: “Many clients have a fragile style of processing experience that makes it difficult for them to work in standard psychotherapy formats. Therapists often find the experiences of these clients hard to understand and feel thwarted in their therapeutic efforts. Such clients are often diagnosed as having borderline, narcissistic, or schizoid personality disorders...... ...working with these clients is only effective once the therapist is able to understand the sorts of experiences clients are having”. Margaret S. Warner, PhD Chicago Counseling Center Illinois School of Professional Psychology
The ‘Going Places’ project uses the model of anon-going, interrupted rather than terminated,therapeutic engagement. i.e. once part of theproject individuals can ask to be re-connected atany time with the on-going programme ofactivities. (Interruption replaces termination in focused, intermittent Psychotherapythroughout a life cycle. Cummings,N.A. 2007)
At the end of the day or the week one feels wornout, ready for a break or respite. The worn out state isnot physical but mental (fatigue).However, people so fatigued that they can hardlyfunction can non the less spring into action when anemergency arises or when something of particularinterest happens to come along.William James (1892) Identified two types of attention:(distinguished in terms of the effort involved in their use)Involuntary attention (attention that requires no effort atall. )Voluntary attention (directed attention) where payingattention demands a good deal of effort.As James envisioned it, the way one maintains directedattention is by inhibiting everything else.
Increased specialisation has meant that eachof us spends longer hours pursuing a singleactivity,Such persistence requires discipline, whichdepends heavily on directed attention.The struggle to pay attention in cluttered andconfusing environments turns out to be centralto what is experienced as mental fatigue.Achieving rest from directed attention fatiguerequires environments and task that makeminimal demands on directed attention.The effects of the wilderness environment arepowerful (studied) and deeply restorative.
Environments that are restorative have aquality of “being in a whole other world”.The Experience of nature – A PsychologicalPerspective. Rachel Kaplan and Stephenkaplan. 1989.
The term schizoid refers to anindividual the totality of whoseexperience is split in two main ways:In the first place, there is a rent in hisrelation with his world and,In the second, there is a disruption in hisrelation with himself. The Existential-phenomenologicalfoundations for a science of persons. „The Divided Self. R.D. Laing 1960.
Pre-Therapy is used with clients who cannot utilise relationships because they are experiencing a level of „Contact‟ impairment‟. „Contact‟ is defined as a necessary condition of any therapeutic relationship. Underpinning all therapeutic interventions is the assumption that someone is able to be in Contact.
What are the Contact functions – Awareness of the world, Awareness of moods, feelings and emotions Communication of personal experience and self to others through words or sentences.
On 5th June 1901, 40 patients (with TB )were moved intotwo large tents on the grounds of a New York StatePsychiatric hospital.The physical and mental improvements were so markedthat the camp size was extended to 60.At the end of the summer most were moved back in.Physicians noted that many regressed to incontinence andwithdrawal.Those left outside in tents continued to improve.By the following summer several formely hopelesspatients showed enough improvement to be discharged.Taken From: Camping Therapy its uses in psychiatry and rehabilitation. 1974