TCI2013 Knowledge-driven entrepreneurship in clusters

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By Murat Akpinar & Melike Mermercioglu, JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Finland and Koç University, Turkey, presented at the 16th TCI Global Conference, Kolding 2013.

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TCI2013 Knowledge-driven entrepreneurship in clusters

  1. 1. Knowledge-driven Entrepreneurship in Clusters: A Comparative Study of Two Information Technology Clusters in Turkey and Finland Murat Akpinar & Melike Mermercioglu Academic Summit: Innovation and business models in clusters 4 September 2013
  2. 2. Outline 1. Objectives 2. Theoretical framework 3. Methodology 4. Results 5. Implications and future prospects
  3. 3. Objectives • Assess the knowledge potentials of clusters and identify dimensions that lead to enhanced entrepreneurial activity • Understand how clusters in advanced economies perform in their knowledge potential vs. clusters in emerging economies
  4. 4. Theoretical Framework The emerald model adapted from Sasson and Reve (2012)
  5. 5. Hypotheses Educational attractiveness Talent attractiveness R&D&I attractiveness Ownership attractiveness Environmental attractiveness Cluster attractiveness Knowledge dynamics Level of entrepreneurial activity / new business development Knowledge potential ++ + + + + + +
  6. 6. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  7. 7. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  8. 8. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  9. 9. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  10. 10. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  11. 11. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  12. 12. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  13. 13. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  14. 14. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  15. 15. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  16. 16. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  17. 17. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  18. 18. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  19. 19. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland
  20. 20. Cluster benchmarking (1) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Location and cluster characteristics Emerging economy, large domestic market, constructed cluster (technopark at university campus), both SMEs and large companies Advanced economy, small domestic market, evolutionary cluster, mostly small companies Cluster size No. of companies: 86 Total employment: 3,832 Annual revenue: 86 million Euro No. of companies: 410 Total employment: 2,913 Annual revenue: 527 million Euro Educational attractiveness 5 universities, admitting 1,049 students per year to IT studies. Graduates per year: 701 (582 bachelor, 102 master, 17 doctoral) Equally Attractive 2 universities, admitting ca. 400 students per year to IT related studies. Graduates per year: 354 (223 bachelor, 115 master, 16 doctoral) Equally Attractive Talent attractiveness PPP adjusted (vs. Finland) average monthly salary: 6,136 Euro 49% more than average salary in Turkey More Attractive Average monthly salary: 4,500 Euro 42% more than average salary in Finland Attractive
  21. 21. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  22. 22. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  23. 23. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  24. 24. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  25. 25. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  26. 26. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  27. 27. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  28. 28. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  29. 29. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  30. 30. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  31. 31. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  32. 32. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby
  33. 33. Cluster benchmarking (2) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland R&D&I attractiveness No. of patents per year: 15 Annual R&D spending (Turkey in 2011): USD 839 million Not Attractive No. of patents per year: 67 Annual R&D spending (Finland in 2011): USD 3,185 million Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness FDI in IT sector (Turkey, 2007 – 2011): USD 455 million (0.6% of all FDI) Total of 10 venture capital investments since 2003 Not Attractive FDI in IT sector (Finland, 2007 – 2011): USD 2,719 million (12.8% of all FDI) Venture capital 4% of all investments Better public funding opportunities More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Waste per person per day: 2.58 kg Air pollution (PM10): 66 ug/m3 Constructing renewable energy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant Waste per person per day: 0.73 kg Air pollution (PM10): 19 ug/m3 Leading bioenergy cluster nearby Not Directly Relevant
  34. 34. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Attractive Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover Moderately Attractive High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover More Attractive
  35. 35. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover Moderately Attractive High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover More Attractive
  36. 36. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover Moderately Attractive High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover More Attractive
  37. 37. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Attractive Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover Moderately Attractive High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover More Attractive
  38. 38. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Attractive Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover Moderately Attractive High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover More Attractive
  39. 39. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Attractive Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover More Attractive
  40. 40. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Attractive Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover
  41. 41. Cluster benchmarking (3) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Cluster attractiveness Two-star cluster Employment: 3,832 (4% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 15.1 National agglomeration: 0.6 Attractive Two-star cluster Employment: 2,913 (4.6% of the region) Regional agglomeration (LQ): 7.5 National agglomeration: 1.4 Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderate level of competition Moderate level of cooperation (mostly with customers) Low level of employee turnover Moderately Attractive High level of competition High level of cooperation with customers and suppliers, moderate levels with research institutes, governmental organizations and related industries, and lowest level with competitors Moderate level of employee turnover More Attractive
  42. 42. Cluster benchmarking (Summary) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Educational attractiveness Equally attractive Equally attractive Talent attractiveness More Attractive Attractive R&D&I attractiveness Not Attractive Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness Not Attractive More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Not Directly Relevant Not Directly Relevant Cluster attractiveness Attractive Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderately Attractive More Attractive
  43. 43. Cluster benchmarking (Summary) IT cluster in Sariyer, Istanbul IT cluster in Central Finland Educational attractiveness Equally attractive Equally attractive Talent attractiveness More Attractive Attractive R&D&I attractiveness Not Attractive Very Attractive Ownership attractiveness Not Attractive More Attractive Environmental attractiveness Not Directly Relevant Not Directly Relevant Cluster attractiveness Attractive Attractive Knowledge Dynamics Moderately Attractive More Attractive
  44. 44. Main Findings and Suggestions for Policy-makers • Environmental attractiveness is not necessarily a relevant dimension for assessing IT cluster’s knowledge potential. • R&D&I attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, and knowledge dynamics seem to be the most influential dimensions to drive entrepreneurial activity and new business development in a cluster. • Constructing a cluster is not enough. There must be a dynamic innovation ecosystem with policies, programs and institutions in place to support entrepreneurial activities.
  45. 45. Suggestions for Future Research • More attempts to reveal the connection between clustering and entrepreneurship (e.g., case studies with in-depth interviews) • Similar studies in other industries and other IT clusters
  46. 46. THANK YOU! Your ideas, comments and questions Want to conduct joint research in this area, please contact us at mmermercioglu@ku.edu.tr murat.akpinar@jamk.fi

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