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Origins of Gamification
 

Origins of Gamification

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A comprehensive review of the origins of gaming and how does it translates to the digital world

A comprehensive review of the origins of gaming and how does it translates to the digital world

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    Origins of Gamification Origins of Gamification Presentation Transcript

    • GAMIFICATIONFriday, February 3, 12
    • GAMES ARE UNIVERSAL PART OF HUMAN STORY“Play is a most fundamental human function andhas permeated all cultures from the beginning.” HOMO LUDENS “We play and know that we play, so we must be more than merely rational beings, for play is irrational.” VICTORY ...sweeter at the expense of others An economist at the University of Bonn has shown that test subjects who receive a given reward for a task enjoy it significantly more if other subjects fail or do worse—a finding that upends traditional economic theories that absolute reward is a person’s central motivation. Source: NEWSWEEK, 2011 Source: Homo Ludens, Johan Huzinga, 1938 2 5Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAMES ARE UNIVERSAL PART OF HUMAN STORY“Play is a most fundamental human function andhas permeated all cultures from the beginning.” HOMO LUDENS “We play and know that we play, so we must be more than merely rational beings, for play is irrational.” VICTORY ...sweeter at the expense of others An economist at the University of Bonn has shown that test subjects who receive a given reward for a task enjoy it significantly more if other subjects fail or do worse—a finding that upends traditional economic theories that absolute reward is a person’s central motivation. Source: NEWSWEEK, 2011 Source: Homo Ludens, Johan Huzinga, 1938 2 5Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAMING HALL OF FAME MOST DOWNLOADED iPHONE GAMES MOST POPULAR BOARD GAMES ANGRY BIRDS CHESS Launch the birds to get revenge on the pigs who stole the birds’ eggs. FEATURES: leveling up, rewards CHECKERS Over 200 million MONOPOLY minutes a day are spent playing Angry SCRABBLE Birds. DOODLE JUMP CLUE Source: BeaumontEnterprise.com Guide Doodle the Doodler up a dangerous sheet of graph paper. FEATURES: leveling up, rewards, status MOST POPULAR VIDEO GAMES TAP TAP REVENGE 3 LEGEND OF ZELDA FEATURES: rewards, status, countdown, Tap the balls on the screen in time blissful productivity with the beat to earn points. FEATURES: leveling up, rewards, status, SUPER MARIO GALAXY countdown FEATURES: leveling up, rewards POCKET GOD SUPER MARIO GALAXY 2 Act as a god and rule over an island of Pygmies FEATURES: leveling up, rewards FEATURES: status GRAND THEFT AUTO 4 FEATURES: rewards, status, countdown, PAPER TOSS blissful productivity, disincentives Toss the crumbled ball of paper into the basket. SOULCALIBER FEATURES: leveling up, rewards, blissful FEATURES: rewards, status productivity Source: GizmoCrazed.com Source: gamerankings.com 3Friday, February 3, 12
    • WHY ARE THEY SO ADDICTIVE? How can we spend so much time happily and heartily engaged in front of screens? There are several "hooks" that are built into games – video games especially – with the intent of making them addictive: The High Score Beating the Game Role-playing (RP) Discovery Relationship Achievements Simplicity/Interface* * Specially for mini-game/apps-game 4 Source: http://www.video-game-addiction.org/what-makes-games-addictive.htmlFriday, February 3, 12
    • WHY ARE THEY SO ADDICTIVE? How can we spend so much time happily and heartily engaged in front of screens? There are several "hooks" that are built into games – video games especially – with the intent of making them addictive: The High Score Beating the Game Role-playing (RP) Discovery Relationship Achievements Simplicity/Interface* * Specially for mini-game/apps-game 4 Source: http://www.video-game-addiction.org/what-makes-games-addictive.htmlFriday, February 3, 12
    • GAMIFICATION: WHAT DOES IT MEAN? start with add to the result (basic elements of games) (things that aren’t typically (something that’s more engaging, considered games) and even more fun) REA L LIFE 5Friday, February 3, 12
    • IT’S EVERYWHERE THESE DAYS 6Friday, February 3, 12
    • THIS IS NOT A NEW CONCEPT our world has been “gamified” since long before this buzzword existed. 7Friday, February 3, 12
    • SO HOW DO GAMES WORK? AND WE’RE NOT EXACTLY AHEAD OF THIS TREND The TBWA team at SXSW 2011 asked 8 interesting people 5 questions about technology, innovation and the information economy. The buzzword status of “gamification” seems to be exhausted. BUT UNDERSTANDING GAMES AND WHAT MAKES THEM SO POWERFUL IS STILL USEFUL 8 Source: TBWA Projeqt, 2011Friday, February 3, 12
    • SO HOW DO GAMES WORK? a dynamic in which to succeed,know-how and best practices for at Concepts, techniques, one must return Game dynamics developingsome and distinctive social games. a predefined time to take successful action. { ZYNGA has an internal playbook that has entered the realm of legend, and even was even the subject of a lawsuit. } SCVNGR has it’s own play deck where they explain nearly 50 different game mechanics that can be mixed and matched to form the foundation of any game. Let’s look at a few... appointment dynamic progression dynamic influence and status communal discovery countdown reward schedules 9 Source: Techcrunch 2010Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAME DYNAMICS APPOINTMENT DYNAMIC definition: in order to succeed, people must act at a certain predefined time. real world virtual world “Spend $100, get a $10 gift Crops take a certain amount of card” sales make the consumer To benefit from happy hour time to grow so the user has to Cafe World keeps your have to return to the store at deals, consumers have to go to a return after x amount of hours restaurant running in another time to get their reward. certain bar at a certain time. to harvest the crops for money. 10 the background. Source: Set Priebatsch TED talk, 2010Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAME DYNAMICS PROGRESSION DYNAMIC definition: when your pro g ress is tracked and then represented back to you in a more relatable form to encourage further involvement. real world virtual world On freerice.org, the bowl of rice On the new Ford Hybrids, a grows to represent how much tree grows as the average MPG BlackBerry BrickBreaker has 34 As your Pokemon gain rice you have donated as you increases, showing progress in levels that get progressively more levels, they evolve to answer more questions right. helping the environment. harder as you beat each one. represent their progress. 11 Source: Techcrunch 2010Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAME DYNAMICS INFLUENCE AND STATUS definition: the exertion of influence from one player to another through social pressure. real world virtual world Color symbolizes different levels of Girl Scout badges symbolize what When players progress through When Robot Unicorn Attack is played status for credit cards, and every you have accomplished, which can levels of Modern Warfare, they on Facebook, a list of friends’ high teime someone uses their card they be compared with other Girl Scouts, receive badges that show off their scores appear so you can see who influence those around them. showing how experienced you are. level of skill to other players. has the highest score. 12 Source: Set Priebatsch TED talk, 2010Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAME DYNAMICS COMMUNAL DISCOVERY definition: the collective effort of a group to deal with a problem that couldn’t be solved without collaboration. real world virtual world This large-scale, real-world Project Shiphunt included five scavenger hunt was won by MIT An online community forms The Fort Zed Community Energy high school students from students who created a platform around the McDonald’s Challenge has the community Michigan working together to and incentives for sharing Monopoly game, where people working together to become a hunt for a sunken ship in Lake valuable information about the trade information and properties. net-zero energy district. Huron. location of the balloons. 13 Source: Set Priebatsch TED talk, 2010Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAME DYNAMICS COUNTDOWN definition: Players are given a time limit to complete a task. As time winds down players become more frantic in completing the task until there is no time left and the are forced to stop. real world virtual world Bejeweled gives players a In Fruit Ninja, players have a certain amount of time to In the final round of Jeopardy, players have 30 limited amount of time to cut identify the clusters of seconds to submit their answer to the big question. fruit with their swords. different types of jewels. 14 Source: Techcrunch 2010Friday, February 3, 12
    • GAME DYNAMICS REWARD SCHEDULES definition: The timeframe and means through which tangible rewards are distributed. Three main parts exist in a reward schedule: • contingency: the problem that must be solved • response: the expected action from the player. • reinforcer: the expected reward that is given after the first two parts of the reward schedule have been completed real world virtual world In order to receive a new badge in When flying, people receive rewards in direct relation to Call of Duty, players must be their flying behavior. People earn points for flying, and successful in the problems they are as they fly more and more, they level up in the type and presented with. Badges are the amount of rewards they can receive. reinforcer, motivating further action. 15 Source: Techcrunch 2010Friday, February 3, 12
    • WHAT CAN HAPPEN WHEN YOU GAMIFY start with a vision change enjoyment behavior engagement 16Friday, February 3, 12
    • BUT THIS CAN ALSO HAPPEN... 17Friday, February 3, 12
    • FALLING OUT OF ZEN Not enough companies are asking themselves if anding a game level to their experience is adding any true value to the customer experience Google News Badges Tim Pawlenty Badges Source: http://mashable.com/2010/07/13/game-mechanics-business/ 18Friday, February 3, 12
    • WHY DO WE CARE? 19Friday, February 3, 12
    • WHY DO WE CARE? games are great and all, but we don’t need literal games to make our brands better. 19Friday, February 3, 12
    • WHY DO WE CARE? games are great and all, but we don’t need literal games to make our brands better. let’s look past the mechanics, to the deeper concepts behind gaming. 19Friday, February 3, 12
    • CONCEPT REWARDS Theory: If you provide people with rewards, they’ll be more motivated to complete tasks. important to know the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards If you offer extrinsic rewards for things people are already Certain extrinsic rewards can doing and enjoying, there could be irrelevant. be negative repercussions. in real life People hike because they feel People in the corporate good about themselves after. world are motivated by both Extrinsic rewards would success and money. Without probably do little to change this. the money, people would be much less motivated. 20 Source: Jane McGonigal, Reality is BrokenFriday, February 3, 12
    • CONCEPT LEVELING UP Leveling up is when a character experiences some sort of progression that usually entails unlocking new abilities, skills, items, access to a new area of the game, or a marker of a benchmark of how far into the game a character is. important to know Personal Competition Rewards for Voluntary pride with others advancement action LvL1 LvL 80 21 Source: http://www.giantbomb.com/leveling-up/92-475/Friday, February 3, 12
    • AND IT ALL COMES BACK TO MOTIVATION infuse epic meaning people will be highly motivated if they believe they are working to achieve something great, something awe-inspiring, something bigger than themselves. link/schedule external rewards by linking reward to a series of challenges, people tend to treat these as individual challenges and unlocking a step is viewed as an individual reward. allow for learning feedback enables learning, and learning allows for discovery, progress, achievement, satisfaction. (double-loop learning: ability to modify or even reject a goal based on past attempts to achieve it) 22Sources: Jane McGonigal, Reality is Broken; Techcrunch 2010; Argyris, C.; Schon, D. (1978). Organizational Learning: A theory of action perspective.Friday, February 3, 12
    • APPENDIX 25Friday, February 3, 12
    • ADDITIONAL RESOURCES TED talks: • Jane McGonigal, Gaming can make a better world, 2010 • Jesse Schell, Gaming can make a better world, 2010 • Seth Priebatsch, The game layer on top of the world, 2010 • gamification.org • http://designmind.frogdesign.com/blog/the-gamification-of-healthcare.html • http://bigthink.com/ideas/39192 • http://www.gamerdna.com/quizzes/bartle-test-of-gamer-psychology • Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture, Johan Huizinga, 1938 (Google Books, Amazon) 26Friday, February 3, 12