Проект по английскомуязыку: «Школьная форма» Выполнила: Салимзянова Татьяна Ученица 11 «А» класса
A school uniform is an outfit—a set of standardized clothes —worn primarily for an educational institution.
They are common in primary and secondary schools in various countries (see list of countries below). When used, they form the basis of a schools dress code. Traditionally school uniforms have been largely subdued and professional. Boys uniforms often consist of dark short or long trousers and light- colored shirt, often with a tie. Girls uniforms vary greatly between countries and schooling systems, but typically consist of a dress or a blouse worn either with a skirt or culottes or under a pinafore; some countries allow girls to wear trousers. The use of a blazer or suit-like jacket for either gender is also fairly common, especially in countries with relatively cold weather. While some countries have school uniforms that are essentially standard in all schools using it, others have each school with an individual uniform, varying in and often making use of badges.
The arguments for school uniforms School uniforms, as well as any form, discipline, leading to cohesion, promotes development in the students a sense of community, teamwork, common cause and having common goals. Form eliminates (or at least, limit) the possibility of competition between students (and their parents) in clothes, significantly reduces the visual difference between students from families of different material well, preventing delamination on a "rich / poor." Single standard form if it is taken at the state level, ensures that the clothing students will meet sanitary requirements and adversely affect their health. If there is a single form, its production could be earmarked to subsidize, maintaining low prices and poor shooting from the burden of the cost of educating children.
Arguments against school uniforms Form - the egalitarian element of education and training. Form deprives students the opportunity to express their individuality in clothing, is a means of deindividuation school students. The requirement to wear the form is in itself a form of violence against the person, the requirement of strict compliance with the form can, if desired, to interpret school staff and used to the unjustified persecution of unwanted students. The form may be too expensive for poor families. The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to express their individuality as it is he likes. Uniform limits freedom of expression.
School uniform in different countries
British school uniforms School uniforms in England were first introduced on a large scale during the reign of King Henry VIII.The uniforms of the time were referred as "bluecoats", as they consisted of long trench-coat-style jackets dyed blue. Blue was the cheapest available dye and showed humility amongst all children. The first school to introduce this uniform was Christs Hospital and it is the oldest uniform of any school. In 1870, the Elementary Education Act 1870 made elementary education available for all children in England and Wales. The popularity of uniforms increased and eventually most schools had a uniform. During this period most uniforms reflected the trends of the age, with boys wearing short trousers and blazers until roughly the age of puberty and then long trousers from about 14 or 15. Girls mainly wore blouse, tunic dress and pinafore later progressing towards the beginning of the 20th century to gymslips. These uniforms continued until the 1950s when after the Butler reforms secondary education was made free and the school leaving age was raised to 15. These reforms encouraged schools to implement uniform codes which were similar to other schools. Distinct "summer" and "winter" uniforms were sometimes required, particularly for girls where dresses were mandated for summer and gymslip for winter. Today, the Government believes that school uniforms play a valuable role in contributing to the ethos of schools: The Department for Children, Schools and Families strongly encourages schools to have a uniform as it can instil pride; support positive behaviour and discipline; encourage identity with, and support for, school ethos; ensure pupils of all races and backgrounds feel welcome; protect children from social pressures to dress in a particular way; nurture cohesion and promote good relations between different groups of pupils. School uniforms are required to be fair for both genders, be available at a reasonably low cost and tolerate religious freedoms e.g. allowing Sikhs to wear turbans
Japanese school uniform The Japanese junior- and senior-high-school uniform traditionally consists of a military style uniform for boys and a sailor outfit for girls. These uniforms are based on Meiji era formal military dress, themselves modeled on European-style naval uniforms. The sailor outfit replace the undivided hakama designed by Utako Shimoda between 1920–30. While this style of uniform is still in use, many schools have moved to more Western-pattern parochial school uniform styles. These uniforms consist of a white shirt, tie, blazer with school crest, and tailored trousers (often not of the same color as the blazer) for boys and a white blouse, tie, blazer with school crest, and tartan culottes or skirt for girls. In the classroom, Japanese students are required to take off the shoes they wear outdoors and put on their uwabaki, a kind of soft slipper meant to be used only indoors. Regardless of what type of uniform any particular school assigns its students, all schools have a summer version of the uniform. Depending on the discipline level of any particular school, students may often wear different seasonal and activity uniforms within the same classroom during the day. Individual students may attempt to subvert the system of uniforms by wearing their uniforms incorrectly or by adding prohibited elements such as large loose socks or badges. Girls may shorten their skirts, permanently or by wrapping up the top to decrease length; boys may wear trousers about the hips, omit ties, or keep their shirts unbuttoned. Since some schools do not have sex-segregated changing- or locker-rooms, students may change for sporting activities in their classrooms. As a result, such students may wear their sports uniforms under their classroom uniforms. Certain schools also regulate student hairstyles, footwear, and book bags; but these particular rules are usually adhered to only on special occasions, such as trimester opening and closing ceremonies and school photo days. It is normal for uniforms to be worn outside of school areas, however this is going out of fashion and many students wear a casual dress. While not many public elementary schools in Japan require uniforms, many private schools and public schools run by the central government still do so.
Russian school uniform Compulsory school attendance form in Russia was canceled in the spring of 1994. The study of "Be in shape!" Conducted in 2005, found that of the 2,200 secondary and private schools in Moscow, about 60 percent have introduced or plan to introduce a form, and in St. Petersburg, the figure is at least 90 percent. In Russia today there is no single school uniform, as it was in the Soviet Union, but many high schools and high school, especially the most prestigious, and some schools have their own form, emphasizing the students belonging to a particular institution. In some schools there is no form, adopted officially, but the form can be administered at the class level, in consultation with parents of students (usually a "cool" form introduced in the lower grades). In addition, the school does not have uniforms, there may be a dress code of business style. Uniform of the Soviet time (or dress, styled it) with white apron traditionally worn by graduates last call as a symbol of farewell to the school, and at least - on other holidays. However, a number of schools (some schools in Naberezhnye Chelny, Prokhorov gymnasium, a number of schools in Krasnoyarsk and Ufa) dresses and skirts for girls or preserved from the Soviet era, or were introduced back in the 2000s in order to raise the discipline of students.
We also go to the school uniform and it is very beautiful!