SOLUBILITYPRESENTED BY:-              GUIDED BY:-TARUN POKHARIYAL             MISS. STUTI SINGHM.PHARM.(PHARMACEUTICS)    ...
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION EXPRESSION OF SOLUBILITY MECHENISM OF SOLUBILITY SOLVENTS FOR SOLUBILISATION SOLUBILITY SYSTEM...
INTRODUCTION:-PROPERTY OF A SOLID, LIQUID  OR GAS TO DISSOLVE IN SOLID, LIQUID OR GAS.o IN QUANTITATIVE TERMo IN QUALITAT...
TERMS USED              PART OF SOLVENT                        REQUIRED FOR ONE PART                        OF SOLUTEVERY ...
OTHER TERMS TO EXPRESS THE SOLUBILITY:-1. MOLARITY2. MOLALITY3. %RELATED TERMS OF SOLUBILITY:-1. SATURATED SOLUTION2. SUBS...
SOLUBILITY CAN BE DESCRIBED BY THE GIBBSPHASE RULE AS FOLLOW:-             F=C-P+2WHEREF= NO. OF DEGREE FREEDOMC=SMALLEST ...
• HILDEBRAND& SCOTT APPROACH:-SOLVENT POWER OF A LIQUID IS INFLUENCED BYITS INTERMOLECULAR COHESIVE FORCES &THAT THE STREN...
MECHENISM OF SOLUBILITYSOLUTE –SOLVENT INTERACTION:-       FOR THESOLUBILIZATION INTERMOLECULAR FORCES MUSTEXIST.1.   REPU...
VAN DER WAAL FORCES:- MOLECULE TEND TOALIGN THEMSELVES WITH THEIR NEIGHBOUR SO THATNEGATIVE POLE OF ONE MOLECULE POINT TOW...
• POLAR SOLVENTS:- THESE DISSOLVE IONIC SOLUTES    AND OTHER POLAR SUBSTANCESMECHENISM:-I. REDUCE FORCE OF ATTRACTION BETW...
• NONPOLAR SOLVENTS:- DISSOLVE NONPOLAR  SOLUTE WITH SIMILAR INTERNAL PRESSURE  THROUGH INDUCED DIPOLE INTERACTION.  eg.oi...
 HOLES OPEN IN THE SOLVENT MOLECULES OF SOLID BREAK AWAY FROM THE BULKFREE MOLECULES INTEGRATED INTO THE HOLE IN SOLVENT
SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN LIQUID:-                           eg. AMMONIUMWATER.       CONC.OF DISSOLVED GAS WHEN IT IS INEQUI...
IDEAL OR REAL SOLUTION:-           RAOULT’S LAW                           Pi =pi⁰ Xi  where,         pi = partial pressure...
TYPES OF LIQUIDS –LIQUIDS SYSTEM:-(1) COMPLETELY MISCIBLE-WATER AND ALCOHOL(2) PARTIAL MISCIBLE-PHENOL WATER SYSTEM(3) TER...
FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY:-1. PARTICLE SIZE2. TEMPERATURE-SOLID↑ GAS↓3. PRESSURE  FOR GAS        HENARY LAW:- C=ớPC= CO...
5.MOLECULAR SIZE:-6EFFECT OF CHEMICAL REACTION:-. eg. HCL IS10000 TIMES MORE SOLUBLE IN WATER THAN ISOXYGEN7.POLARITY:-8.P...
APPROACHES OF SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT:-PHYSICAL MODIFICATION.1. PARTICLE SIZE REDUCTIONI.   MICRONIZATIONII. NANO SUSPENSI...
4.COMPLEXATION:I. STACHING COMPLEXATION:overlap of planar     region.II. INCLUSION COMPLEXATION:insertion of     nonpolar ...
CHEMICAL MODIFICATION:-1. ADJUST THE PH2. CHANGE DIELECTRIC CONSTANTeg.nonionizable and hydrophobic substances3. USE OF S...
2. CO-SOLVANCY:-solubilisation of drug into co-solvent    weak electrolyte and non nonpolar moleculeshave poor water solub...
4.SOLUBILISING AGENTS:- eg PEG 400IMPROVES SOLUBILITY OF HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE5.NANOTECHNOLOGY APPROACHES:-1. NANOCRYSTALS:-p...
REFERENCES1) PHYSICAL PHARMACY-ALFRED MARTIN2) REVIEW ARTICLE ( THE PHARMA RESEARCH )3) ADVANCE PHARMACEUTICS –CHERNG-JUKI...
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Solubility.seminar

  1. 1. SOLUBILITYPRESENTED BY:- GUIDED BY:-TARUN POKHARIYAL MISS. STUTI SINGHM.PHARM.(PHARMACEUTICS) JAIPUR NATIONALJAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY (JAIPUR)JAIPUR DATE- 29 AUG 2011
  2. 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION EXPRESSION OF SOLUBILITY MECHENISM OF SOLUBILITY SOLVENTS FOR SOLUBILISATION SOLUBILITY SYSTEM FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY APPROCHES OF SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT REFERENCES
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION:-PROPERTY OF A SOLID, LIQUID OR GAS TO DISSOLVE IN SOLID, LIQUID OR GAS.o IN QUANTITATIVE TERMo IN QUALITATIVE TARMEXPRESSION OF SOLUBILITY:- ACCORDING TO USP AS NUMBER OF MILILETRES OFSOLVENT IN WHICH 1 GRAM OF SOLUTE WILL DISSOLVE
  4. 4. TERMS USED PART OF SOLVENT REQUIRED FOR ONE PART OF SOLUTEVERY SOLUBLE LESS THAN 1 PARTFREELY SOLUBLE 1-10 PARTSSOLUBLE 10-30 PARTSSPARINGLY SOLUBLE 30-100 PARTSSLIGHTLY SOLUBLE 100-1000 PARTSVERY SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE 1000-10000PRACTICAL Y MORE THAN 10000INSOLUBLE/INSOLUBLE
  5. 5. OTHER TERMS TO EXPRESS THE SOLUBILITY:-1. MOLARITY2. MOLALITY3. %RELATED TERMS OF SOLUBILITY:-1. SATURATED SOLUTION2. SUBSATURATED SOLUTION3. SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION
  6. 6. SOLUBILITY CAN BE DESCRIBED BY THE GIBBSPHASE RULE AS FOLLOW:- F=C-P+2WHEREF= NO. OF DEGREE FREEDOMC=SMALLEST NO. OF COMPONENT THAT DESCRIBE THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EACH PHASEP=NUMBER OF PHASE
  7. 7. • HILDEBRAND& SCOTT APPROACH:-SOLVENT POWER OF A LIQUID IS INFLUENCED BYITS INTERMOLECULAR COHESIVE FORCES &THAT THE STRENGTH OF THESE FORCES.
  8. 8. MECHENISM OF SOLUBILITYSOLUTE –SOLVENT INTERACTION:- FOR THESOLUBILIZATION INTERMOLECULAR FORCES MUSTEXIST.1. REPULSIVE AND ATTRACTIVE FORCES2. VAN DER WAAL FORCE3. ION DIPOLE & ION INDUCED DIPOLE4. HYDROGEN BONDS
  9. 9. VAN DER WAAL FORCES:- MOLECULE TEND TOALIGN THEMSELVES WITH THEIR NEIGHBOUR SO THATNEGATIVE POLE OF ONE MOLECULE POINT TOWARDTHE OPPOSITION DIPOLE AND ION INDUCED DIPOLE:- CATIONATTRACT THE NEGATIVE OXYGEN ATOM OF WATERAND ANION ATTRACTING HYDROGEN ATOM OFWATER MOLECULESOLVENTS FOR SOLUBILIZATION:-• POLAR SOLVENT• NONPOLAR SOLVENTS• SEMIPOLAR SOLVENTS
  10. 10. • POLAR SOLVENTS:- THESE DISSOLVE IONIC SOLUTES AND OTHER POLAR SUBSTANCESMECHENISM:-I. REDUCE FORCE OF ATTRACTION BETWEEN OPPOSITELY CHARGED ION IN CRYSTAL.II. SOLVENTS BREAK COVALENT BONDS OF POTENTIALLY STRONG ELECTROLYTE BY ACID BASE REACTION HCL+H2O H3O +CL⁻III. FINALLY POLAR SOLVENTS ARE CAPABLE OF SOLVATING MOLECULES THROUGH DIPOLE INTERACTION FORCES WHICH LEAD TO SOLUBILITY OF COMPOUND.
  11. 11. • NONPOLAR SOLVENTS:- DISSOLVE NONPOLAR SOLUTE WITH SIMILAR INTERNAL PRESSURE THROUGH INDUCED DIPOLE INTERACTION. eg.oil in benzene• SEMIPOLAR SOLVENTS:- eg KETONE AND ALCOHOL. CAN INDUCE CERTAIN DEGREE OF POLARITY IN NONPOLAR SOLVENTS. eg. ACETONE INCREASE SOLUBILITY OF ETHER IN WATER.
  12. 12.  HOLES OPEN IN THE SOLVENT MOLECULES OF SOLID BREAK AWAY FROM THE BULKFREE MOLECULES INTEGRATED INTO THE HOLE IN SOLVENT
  13. 13. SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN LIQUID:- eg. AMMONIUMWATER. CONC.OF DISSOLVED GAS WHEN IT IS INEQUILIBRIUM WITH SOME OF THE PURE GAS ABOVETHE SOLUTION .SOLUBILITY OF LIQUIDS IN LIQUIDS:-eg.ALCOHOL+ WATER=HYDROALCOHOLIC WATER
  14. 14. IDEAL OR REAL SOLUTION:- RAOULT’S LAW Pi =pi⁰ Xi where, pi = partial pressure of component in liquid pi⁰= vapor pressure in pure state xi= mole fraction of component in solutionTWO DEVIATION:-NEGATIVE DEVIATION:-ADHESIVE ATTRACTION B/W MOLECULE OFDIFFERENT SPECIES EXCEED THE COHESIVE ATTRACTION B/W LIKEMOLECULEPOSITIVE DEVIATION:-
  15. 15. TYPES OF LIQUIDS –LIQUIDS SYSTEM:-(1) COMPLETELY MISCIBLE-WATER AND ALCOHOL(2) PARTIAL MISCIBLE-PHENOL WATER SYSTEM(3) TERNERY SYSTEM addition of third compound in the pair of partialymiscible liquidCONJUGATE SOLUTIONS:-CONTAIN TWO LIQUIDS WHICH ARE PARTIALLYMISCIBLE THAN LAYER OF SATURATED SOLUTIONFORMED IN LITTLE AMOUNT ON THE BORDERLINEEg PHENOL IN WATER.CRITICAL SOLUTION TEMP:-1. UPPER CONSOLUTE TEMP.phenol water system(66.8O)2. LOWER CONSOLUTE TEMP.trietylamine& water (18.5)
  16. 16. FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY:-1. PARTICLE SIZE2. TEMPERATURE-SOLID↑ GAS↓3. PRESSURE FOR GAS HENARY LAW:- C=ớPC= CONC. OF DISSOLVED GASP= PARTIAL PRESSURESIGMA= SOLUBILITY CONSTANT4.NATURE OF THE SOLUTE AND SOLVENT eg.1 GM OF LEAD CHLORIDE DISSOLVE IN 100 gm. Of WATERAT ROOM TEMP. 200GM OF ZINC CHLORIDE CAN DISSOLVE
  17. 17. 5.MOLECULAR SIZE:-6EFFECT OF CHEMICAL REACTION:-. eg. HCL IS10000 TIMES MORE SOLUBLE IN WATER THAN ISOXYGEN7.POLARITY:-8.POLYMORPH:-9.SALTING OUT:-10.pH.:-as pH increase OF SOLUTION THEQUANTITY OF DRUG IN SOLUTION INCREASE BCZTHE WATER SOLUBLE IONIZABLE SALT IS FORMED HA↔H+ A-
  18. 18. APPROACHES OF SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT:-PHYSICAL MODIFICATION.1. PARTICLE SIZE REDUCTIONI. MICRONIZATIONII. NANO SUSPENSION2. MODIFICATION OF CRYSTAL HABITCRYSTALLINE FORM, AMORPHOUS FORMANHYDROUS FORM,HYDRATES3. DRUG DISPERSION IN CAREEIERS:-1. EUTECTIC MIXTURE:-poorly soluble drug with highly water soluble carrier.eg.urea with chloramphanicol2. SOLID DISPERSION:drug in an inert carrier. Eg pvp, polyethylene glycol.3. SOLID SOLUTION
  19. 19. 4.COMPLEXATION:I. STACHING COMPLEXATION:overlap of planar region.II. INCLUSION COMPLEXATION:insertion of nonpolar molecule into host.eg cyclodextrin5.BY USING SURFACTANTS:-I. ANIONICII. CATIONICIII. NONIONIC6. MICROEMULSION:-IS A FOUR COMPONENTSYSTEM COMPOSED OF EXTERNALPHASE,INTERNAL PHASE,SURFACTANT ANDCOSURFACTANTDROPLET DIAMETER 0.1 MICRON
  20. 20. CHEMICAL MODIFICATION:-1. ADJUST THE PH2. CHANGE DIELECTRIC CONSTANTeg.nonionizable and hydrophobic substances3. USE OF SALT FORMOTHER TECHNIQUES:-1.CO-CRYSTALLIZATION- CO-CRYSTALS ARECRYSTALLINE MATERIAL THAT CONSIST TWO OR MOREMOLECULAR (ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL) SPECIES HELDTOGETHER BY NON COVALENT FORCES.eg.sacchrin,nicotinamide ,acetic acid
  21. 21. 2. CO-SOLVANCY:-solubilisation of drug into co-solvent weak electrolyte and non nonpolar moleculeshave poor water solubility can be improve by altering polarity of solvents.Solubility enhancement as high as 500 fold achievedusing 20% 2-pyrollidone.3. HYDROTROPHY:-it increase the solubility inwater due to presence of large amount of additives.eg. sodium benzoate, urea.
  22. 22. 4.SOLUBILISING AGENTS:- eg PEG 400IMPROVES SOLUBILITY OF HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE5.NANOTECHNOLOGY APPROACHES:-1. NANOCRYSTALS:-particle size 1-1000 nm2. NANOMORPH
  23. 23. REFERENCES1) PHYSICAL PHARMACY-ALFRED MARTIN2) REVIEW ARTICLE ( THE PHARMA RESEARCH )3) ADVANCE PHARMACEUTICS –CHERNG-JUKIM4) PHYSICAL PHARMACY –DR. SHYAMLA BHASKARAN5) MODERN PHARMACEUTICS-GILBERT S. BANKER6) AULTON’S PHARMACEUTICS- MICHAEL E. AULTON
  24. 24. 1
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