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    Formal Reports 1 Formal Reports 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Writing Formal Reports in Business
      Xakema Henderson
    • What is a formal business report?
      A formal report is a written account of a major project –something you did, discovered, or organized.
      The audience may be managers, co-workers, or someone from outside your organization.
      Formality, accuracy, and ethical standards should be maintained because reports can be used in court cases and other situations.
    • Prepwork
    • Get it together
      Writers of formal business reports do have to cite sources, so they must devise a system to keep track of reading, interviews, emails, conversations, visuals—anything that contributed to the final product should be credited.
    • Format
      Often a business will prescibe a format for publications such as formal reports.
      Usually, there are 3 main parts:
      Front Matter
      Body
      Back Matter
      Use headings to help readers navigate.
    • Front Matter
      Must include:
      Cover
      Title page
      Abstract
      Table of contents
      If necessary…
      • List of figures
      • List of tables
      • Foreword
      • Preface
      • List of abbreviations & symbols
    • Abstract
      • Addressed to others researching the same topic; key words help researchers find it in databases
      • Highlights major points so that readers can decide if they want to read the entire report
      • About 250 words in length
      • The following four can be used as a road map for composition:
      Purpose
      Scope/Methods
      Results
      Recommendations
    • Body Sections
      Executive summary (not always included)
      Introduction
      Procedures (Methods)
      Results or Discussion
      Conclusions
      Recommendations
      Works Cited
    • Executive Summary
      An executive summary is like abstract, but longer, up to 2 pages. It provides information in abbreviated form for busy decision-makers.
      It highlights a project’s benefits or sells the project.
      It should cover costs and benefits or anything decision makers must know.
      It can exclude the details of methods, results, problems encountered but solved, etc.
    • Introduction
      Tells the reader about the project or study
      Includes the purpose
      Includes the scope (how broad was the project?)
      May repeat some of what was previously stated in the abstract or executive summary
    • Procedures
      Lets readers know how data was obtained or what procedures led to a conclusion
      • The study may have required only a review of existing literature, which should be outlined. If it required surveys, interviews, or product testing, this section should explain how research was set up so others can evaluate the quality of the data.
    • Results or Discussion
      Narrates what was found
      Connects the data to the purpose and findings
      Includes visuals where efficient or effective to show large amounts of data (Data not related to the conclusions goes in an appendix.)
      Includes limitations, need for further research, problems
    • Conclusions
      Conclusions are the implications drawn from the main ideas.
      • What is the significance of the project or study?
      • What are the recommendations, if any?
      What course of action needs to be taken?
      What benefits come from this project?
    • Bibliography or References
      List of ALL sources that were consulted and/or cited (If the writer looked at them and got ideas or background from them, they were consulted.)
      Documentation style depends on the field
    • ME, ME , ME!!!
      When the report is a written account of a project performed by the author first person (I) can be used
      Must be objective and procedural
      No anecdotes
      No subjective implications
      i.e. “I think”
    • References
      Alred, Gerald J., Brusaw, Charles T., Oliu, Walter E. Handbook of Technical Writing. Boston: Bedford, 1996.
      Markel, Mike. Technical Communication. Boston: Bedford, 2001.