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  • MAKE SURE TO LEAVE THIS OUT OF THE PARTICIPANT’S BOOKLET
  • Introduction – Identifying Stress and Stressors It has become clear through our opening activity that people today still experience a lot of stress and they are working hard to cope with it. What are some of the things that cause stress for people? [Write down the responses on a flip chart.] While one person may welcome constant phone calls, another person might find them very frustrating and stressful. Demonstration • Balloon and pin • Putting air into a balloon is equated to stressors in a person’s life. For the moment, let’s think of this as representing a person. This balloon does not have any air in it so it is deflated . Would adding a little air to this balloon be harmful to it? You are right. Adding air to the balloon would be beneficial to it. Similarly, people need some things in their lives that add some energy to it. Things that get you stimulated. So let’s add a little air to this balloon. [While you are adding air say out loud a few things from the list of stressors the group generated earlier (e.g., “So maybe this balloon just encountered some phone calls and a crying baby”) It is only when we keep adding stressors to this balloon that we start to get into trouble . [Continue to mention stressors from the list and blowing air into the balloon until it is very full.] What do you think will happen if I continue to pile stressors onto this balloon and blow air into it? You are right. The balloon will break. [Mention a few more stressors and pop the balloon with a sharp object, e.g. a pin or your nails.] What we just saw by adding stimulation and excitement, and then filling the balloon too full, is the difference between good stress (eustress) and bad stress (distress). A little stress in our lives is good. If we don’t feel overwhelmed and we have the resources to cope with the stressor, we can enjoy stress. It is only when stress becomes overwhelming that it can be very harmful to us.

Tag Stress In The Workplace Presentation1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE
    • Douglas L. Griest, Ph.D.
    • Management Psychology Group
    • Peter Thomas, Ph.D.
    • Private Practice
    • March 3, 2010
  • 2. Presentation Objectives
    • To provide an overview of the following:
    • 1. What is Stress?
    • 2. How does it affect us?
    • 3. The effect of the current economic turndown
    • 4. How can we cope with stress as individuals and as organizations?
  • 3. Measure Your Stress DOLPHIN STRESS TEST On the next slide is a picture of two dolphins, which appear normal when viewed by a stress-free individual. This test is not accurate enough to pick up mild stress levels. If there is anything that appears different about the dolphins (ignore the fact of the slight color differences) it is often an indication of potential stress related problems. Differences, if any, may also indicate the source of your stress.
  • 4. Measure Your Stress DOLPHIN STRESS TEST INSTRUCTIONS Sit upright and view the screen head-on, take a deep breath, breathe out and then look directly at the picture on the next slide. If you notice anything out of the ordinary, you should consider taking things a little easier.
  • 5. If you see anything other than two dolphins, take a few days off and unwind…
  • 6. The Definition of Stress
  • 7. Identifying Stressors
    • What are some of the things that cause stress for people?
      • These things are called “stressors”.
      • Stressors are different from one person to another.
  • 8. NOT ALL STRESS IS BAD
    • Eustress = Positive stress
      • Stress in these circumstances is pleasurable even though it involves placing physical and mental stress on the body.
      • Examples : Exercise, successful completion of a challenging task.
      • Results : Enabled concentration, increased performance, motivation and energy.
  • 9. BUT SOME STRESS IS…
    • Distress = Negative stress
      • The type of stress usually referred to in everyday conversation; “I’m stressed out!”
      • Examples: Heavy workload, infrequent rest breaks, long work hours; hectic and routine tasks that have little inherent meaning, little sense of control over outcomes.
      • Results: Loss of motivation, reduced effectiveness, physical, mental, and behavioral problems.
  • 10. Performance Stress Low - - Too little stress + Too much stress High + STRESS – PERFORMANCE CURVE
  • 11. Understanding Your Core Personality and How Personality Relates to Stress
  • 12.  
  • 13. Core Personality and its Relation to Stress
    • The Five Factor Model
    • (Big 5)
  • 14. Core Personality and its Relation to Stress
    • Sociability
    • Emotionality
    • Conscientiousness
    • Agreeableness
    • Openness to Experience
  • 15. What is Stress?
    • Stress can be interpreted in a variety of ways:
      • Psychologically : As a state of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities.
    HELP ME!
  • 16. What is Stress?
    • Stress can be interpreted in a variety of ways:
      • Physically : Increased heart rate, blood pressure, rapid breathing, and sweating.
  • 17. What is Stress?
    • Stress can be interpreted in a variety of ways:
      • Emotionally : Depression, anger, fatigue, fright, worry, and even elation.
  • 18. What is Stress?
    • Stress can be interpreted in a variety of ways:
      • Behaviorally :
    Overeating or loss of appetite Impatience Change of sleep pattern Procrastination Alcohol and drug abuse Increased smoking Withdrawal or isolation from others Neglect of responsibility
  • 19. Behaviorally at work
    • Absenteeism
    • Accidents
    • Poor morale
    • Impaired cognitive functioning
    • Poor decision making
    • Lower creativity
    • Burnout
    • Workplace violence
    • Poor job performance
  • 20. APA’s Stress in America Survey
    • On-line survey of 1791 adults with an oversample of 243 residing in Atlanta
    • Survey averaged 26 minutes in length
    • Survey conducted between June 2008 and
    • August 2008
  • 21. Key Findings
    • 36% of Atlanta workers vs. 30 % nationally rated their stress level as extreme (8,9,or 10 on a 10 point scale)
    • During periods of high stress Atlanta residents reported levels equal to national average (7.1 Atlanta, 7.0 nationally)
    • Nearly 3 in 10 Atlantans said they had managed their stress poorly in past month
  • 22. Key Findings
    • While 50% of Atlanta workers say they would recommend their workplace to others (44% nationally), 37% were intending to seek new employment vs. 32% nationally
    • 51% of Atlantans mention lack of growth or advancement opportunity vs. 43% nationally
  • 23. Key Findings
    • 38% of Atlantans mentioned commuting having a significant impact on work stress vs. 31% nationally
    • 81% nationally say they manage stress well vs. 73% of Atlantans with 27% saying they handled stress poorly.
    • Nevertheless 20% of Atlantans say stress level has decreased in past year vs. 14% nationally (this does not taken into account the recent downturn.
  • 24. Stress in Atlanta
    • More people in Atlanta identify as significant stressors:
    • 1. Money (80% vs. 72% nationally)
    • 2. Relationships (68% vs. 59% nationally)
    • 3. Housing costs (56% vs. 47% nationally)
    • 4. Personal safety (42% vs. 31% nationally)
  • 25. Other common stressors in America
    • The economy
    • Family responsibilities
    • Family Health problems
    • Personal Health problems
    • Job stability
  • 26. How Atlantans Handle Stress
    • Spend time with friends and family (52% vs. 41%)
    • Pray (45% vs. 37%)
    • Play sports (18% vs. 9%)
    • Get a massage (15% vs. 9%)
  • 27. American Stress Reducers
    • Atlanta Nation vs. Atlanta
    • 1. Listen to music (52% vs. 52%)
    • 2. Exercise or Walk (47% vs. 48%)
    • 3. Read (44% vs. 47%)
    • 4. Watch TV/Movies 2 hrs. plus (41% vs. 45%)
    • 5. Nap (38% vs. 40%)
    • 6. Video games/surf net) (37% vs. 38%)
    • 7. Eat (34% vs. 37%)
    • 8. Hobbies (30% vs. 34%)
  • 28. American Stress Reducers
    • Atlanta Nation vs. Atlanta
    • 9. Religious services (21% vs. 24%)
    • 10.Alcohol (18% vs. 18%)
    • 11.Shop (18% vs. 22%)
    • 12. Smoke (16% vs. 17%)
    • 13. Do nothing (8% vs. 12%)
    • 14. Meditation/Yoga (8% vs. 6%)
    • 15. See mental health prof. (7% vs. 6%)
    • 16. Gamble (4% vs. 2%)
  • 29. Stress in the Workplace
    • Sense of Powerlessness
    • a. Helplessness
    • b. Hopelessness
    • c. Unfairness
    • Poorly defined job description
    • Being a “Square Peg in a Round Hole”
    • Traumatic Events on the job
    • Stress due to the Physical Environment
  • 30. The Effects of Stress on the Body
    • Can damage the brain & impair memory
    • Raises blood pressure
    • Stimulates the production on inflammatory hormones that can:
    • a. contribute to plaque in the arteries
    • b. increase risk of heart disease
    • b. aggravate painful joints
    • Trigger symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome
  • 31. The Effects of Stress on the Body
    • Damage the DNA of immune system causing early aging.
    • Aggravate diabetes
    • Destroy relationships at:
    • a. home
    • b. work
    • c. play
  • 32. A Healthy Workplace Promotes
    • Employee Involvement
    • Health and Safety
    • Employee Growth and Development
    • Work-Life Balance
    • Employee Recognition
  • 33. Benefits of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace
    • Promotes employee health and well-being while enhancing Organizational performance
    • Rewards the employer and employee alike even in tough economic times
    • Some of the ways this is accomplished are through Employee participation in decision-making, Skills training, Leadership development, Flexible work arrangements, & Promotion of healthy life style and behavior choices
  • 34. APA Psychological Healthy Workplace Awards (http://www.phwa.org)
    • Five organizations received this award in 2009 and found:
    • 1. They had an 11% turnover rate
    • compared to the national rate of 39%
    • 2. Only 25% vs. 39% nationally
    • experienced chronic work stress
  • 35. APA Psychological Healthy Workplace Awards
    • 3. 85% vs. 61% nationally were satisfied
    • with their job
    • 4. 87% vs. 44% nationally would
    • recommend their organization to
    • others as a good place to work
    • 5. 5% vs. 32% were seeking employment
    • elsewhere
  • 36. APA Psychological Healthy Workplace Awards
    • Separately these organizations reported:
    • 1. A 34% reduction in absenteeism and
    • a third fewer sick days
    • 2. An average tenure of 8 yrs. with 93%
    • saying they felt job was important to
    • company and 91% saying they care
    • about their organization
  • 37. APA Psychological Healthy Workplace Awards
    • 3. Lower accident and injury rates
    • 4. Lower need to hire temporary
    • replacements
  • 38. It is estimated (APA 2009) that 60% of patients visiting their primary care physician do so for a mental health issue. Timely and early interventions can speed recovery, allowing a faster return to full daily functioning. More focused medical benefits targeting mental health issues coupled with Healthy Psychological workplace practices can lower work stress and increase productivity.
  • 39. Coping with Stress
    • ABC STRATEGY
  • 40. ABC STRATEGY
    • A = AWARENESS
    • What causes you stress?
    • How do you react?
  • 41. ABC STRATEGY
    • B=BALANCE
    • There is a fine line between positive and negative stress
    • How much can you cope with before it becomes negative?
  • 42. ABC STRATEGY
    • C = CONTROL
    • What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress?
    • Learn techniques to deal with stress
  • 43. How to Manage Stress Stress Management Strategies Remove the stressor Withdraw from the stressor Change stress perceptions Control stress consequences Receive social support
  • 44.  
  • 45. Stress Management Techniques Remove the stressor Flexible work time Job sharing Telecommuting Personal leave programs Childcare support
  • 46. Stress Management Techniques
    • Go to a room and relax (even if it’s the restroom)
    • Take a day off
    • Go on a vacation
    Withdraw from the stressor
  • 47.  
  • 48. Stress Management Techniques
    • Change your perception of the situation
    • Use humor
    • Engage in mental simulation
      • This can help reduce the uncertainty of future work activities
    • Set personal goals for yourself
    Change stress perceptions
  • 49. Stress Management Techniques
    • Cognitive behavioral strategies
      • Self-reinforce
      • S-R Model
      • Use positive self-talk
    Change stress perceptions, cont’d.
  • 50. Stress Management Techniques
    • Physical exercise
      • Results in lowered respiration, muscle tension, heartbeat, and stomach acidity
    • Relaxation and meditation
    • Better nutrition and regular sleep
    • Counseling services (Employee assistance programs – EAPs, and/or therapists)
      • These people can help you overcome personal or organizational stressors and adopt more effective coping mechanisms
    Control stress consequences
  • 51. Stress Management Techniques
    • Progressive relaxation training (PRT)
    • Meditation
    Control stress consequences
  • 52. Stress Management Techniques
    • Ask for support from co-workers, supervisors, family, friends, and others.
    • Social support refers to one’s interactions with others as a means of obtaining emotional or informational support to buffer the stress experience
    Receive social support
  • 53. WRAP UP THOUGHTS
  • 54. To Do’s and Don’t Do’s
    • Response oriented thinking rather than Cause oriented thinking
    • Give up the “Blame Game”
    • Give up the “Just World” hypothesis
    • Reframe the situation
    • Don’t ignore emotions but also don’t emphasize them
  • 55.
    • Plan, clarify, and find direction
    • Stay focused
    • Reset expectations to be successful
    • Rely on friends and family for support
    • Focus on the positive
    • Look for ways to have fun
  • 56.
    • Innovate – the old isn’t working
    • Exercise
    • Eat healthy
    • Moderate alcohol
    • Don’t smoke
    • Seek help if you feel overwhelmed