TAG Manufacturing Kick Off Meeting, The Future of Manufacturing

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TAG Manufacturing Kick Off Meeting, The Future of Manufacturing

  1. 1. Future Manufacturing Technologies April 7, 2010 Dr. Steven Danyluk Director Manufacturing Research Center Georgia Institute of Technology Manufacturing Research Center Atlanta, GA 30332-0560 www.marc.gatech.edu
  2. 2. The Manufacturing Research Center at GT <ul><li>What is MARC and how does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>MARC Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Selected Technologies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Snapshot of Georgia Tech <ul><li>In the top 5 graduate engineering schools in the US. (US News and World Report: MIT, Stanford, Cal-Berkeley, GT) </li></ul><ul><li>#1 in Manufacturing (US News and World Report) </li></ul><ul><li>GT, Multi disciplinary organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GTRI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Innovation Institute (EI2) Spin-off Companies </li></ul></ul>IBB MIRC MARC
  4. 4. How Does MARC Work? Industry Funds (70%) Government Funds (20%) Startup Companies Research Results Students/Employees MT Connect Industrial Consortia Gov’t Agency Industry MARC
  5. 5. MARC Technology Clusters <ul><li>Design, Mfg., Support </li></ul><ul><li>Standards (SysML, Internet, STEP, …) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-Based Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>CAD-CAE-CAX Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous Engineering Computing (Wireless, Mobile, …) </li></ul>Precision Machining <ul><li>Models/ Experiments of Material Removal </li></ul><ul><li>Processes Grinding </li></ul><ul><li>Control Strategies of Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Condition- Based Maintenance </li></ul>Rapid Prototyping/ Direct Digital Manufacturing <ul><li>Development of new materials </li></ul><ul><li>Medical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Die design for injection molding </li></ul>Sustainable Design and Manufacturing <ul><li>Energy/ Materials Balance in facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Process Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Control Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics </li></ul>Product and Systems Lifecycle Management Factory Information Systems <ul><li>Machine Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Product Data Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Human Decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Recipe Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Line Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Execution Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Standards Development (CAMX, MTConnect) </li></ul>Aerospace Manufacturing <ul><li>In Process </li></ul>
  6. 6. MARC Objectives <ul><li>Develop technology to improve productivity Use technology to lower cost of production Develop technology to make better products </li></ul><ul><li>Partner with industries, government on grants/contracts Educate Students Transfer technology to industry </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to state, region and national wealth, security Spin out companies Develop next generation technologies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Next Generation Material Processing <ul><li>Precision Machining Research Consortium (PMRC) </li></ul><ul><li>http://pmrc.marc.gatech.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Machining of Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Process Monitoring </li></ul>
  8. 8. PMRC: Nanolubricants for Grinding and Micromachining <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize frictional energy dissipation in grinding and micromachining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize cutting fluids and their negative environmental impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1~2wt% of nanoplatelet graphite mixed in conventional cutting fluids applied at very low flow rates (~ml/min) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial results are very promising; up to 40% reduction in specific energy consumed in grinding  more energy efficient process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current focus on applying nano particulate solid lubricants to micromachining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other collaborators: D. DeBra (Stanford), A. Malshe (Univ. Arkansas) </li></ul></ul>Exfoliated Graphite (Scale Bar=100 mm) M. Alberts, K. Kalaitzidou, and Melkote, S.N., Int. J. Machine Tools & Manufacture , Vol. 49, pp. 966-970, 2009
  9. 9. PMRC: Cavitation Shotless Peening Goal: Develop flexible method/system to engineer compressive residual stress into machined aerospace parts for enhanced fatigue performance Side Panel View: Pumping Unit Inside Machine: Combining Nozzle Sponsor: Boeing/Phantom Works Unpeened: 419.6 HV Peened: 468.2 HV 11.6 % Change (w/o optimization)
  10. 10. PMRC: Laser-Assisted Hard Turning Process <ul><li>Turning is more energy efficient than grinding </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no cutting fluids needed  minimal environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost tools can be used (alumina vs. CBN) </li></ul>A. Laser Scanning B. Turning Approach 2 Approach 1 Sponsor: The Timken Company F R F F F C Tool Laser treated surface Laser Beam Tool Feed Direction Beam Scan Direction Beam Scan Direction Laser Beam Laser treated surface F R Tool Feed Direction F F F C Tool Laser treated surface
  11. 11. PMRC: Thin-film Wireless Sensors for Machining Process Monitoring <ul><li>Goal: To improve machining performance via low-cost non-intrusive sensors fixed to the tool and transforming the data into process responses of interest using physics based models </li></ul>Sponsor: Boeing/Phantom Works
  12. 12. Manufacturing Process Modeling <ul><li>Product & Systems Lifecycle Management Center (PSLM) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pslm.gatech.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>System Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Design of Complex Systems </li></ul>
  13. 13. Modeling and Simulation Testbed Complex System Simulation Models Combination of Tools & Models Leading to System-Level Models of Complex Systems Simulation Tools } Descriptive Tools Solvers Assembly Models Factory Tools Work Cells Reliability Dynamic Solver Costs Mechanical/ Fluid Tools CAD Mechanical& Fluid Models FEA Solver System Particulars Hydraulics Requirements
  14. 14. PSLM: Hydraulics Subsystem Simulation Model SysML Model
  15. 15. PSLM: What you can do with a SysML model ... <ul><li>Describe requirements, system structure, & allocations </li></ul><ul><li>Generate and/or link to simulations & verify requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Support system trade studies </li></ul><ul><li>Link to domain models & analyses: S/W, M/ECAD, ... </li></ul><ul><li>I.e., do the Vee and more ... (e.g., support system operation) </li></ul>&quot;Vee&quot; model by Forsberg and Mooz, 1992
  16. 16. ‘ DNA’ Description of a 2-Spring Physics Model Interconnectedness Shows Dependability http://eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/conferences/2007-incose-is-1-peak-primer/ Governing Equations Analytical Model
  17. 17. Broadly Applicable Technology : Executable SysML Parametrics b. Mini Snowman a. Snowman c. Snowflake d. Mouse g. Robot f. ? e. Cactus Examples of Managing “Model DNA” Using SysML Parametrics a. 2-spring physics model b. Car gas mileage model c. UAV road scanning system model d. Airframe mechanical part model e. 3-year company financial model f. Design verification model (automated test for two Airframe mechanical part models) g. South Florida water mgt. (hydrology) model Panorama Tool by Andy Scott (Undergrad Research Asst.) and Russell Peak (Director, Modeling & Simulation Lab)
  18. 18. Sustainability in Manufacturing <ul><li>Sustainable Design and Manufacturing Program (SDM) http://www.sdm.gatech.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Future Factories </li></ul><ul><li>Lifecycle Assessment of Existing Production Systems </li></ul>
  19. 19. SDM: Research Thrust Areas <ul><li>Sustainable Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable movement of people AND goods using a variety of modes & technologies </li></ul></ul>Copyright Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009 Re-X: Reuse, Remanufacturing, Recycling, Recovery, etc. New and innovative approaches and technologies to recover, reuse, recycle products and associated materials Factories of the Future New ideas and designs for “off-the-grid”, all electric, low or carbon neutral factories <ul><li>Underlying Research Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Life-Cycle Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-Inspired Design </li></ul>Technologies: Materials Processes Parts/Products Users Localities Interactions
  20. 20. SDM: GT-Boeing Factory of the Future Project <ul><li>Product : Focus on subassembly that represents a product with different possible configurations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wing torque box with different structural geometry & skin combinations, e.g., composite-Al, Al-Al. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes : Characterize, quantify, and model fabrication and assembly processes (from mass & energy balance point of view) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Casting, forming, drilling, fastening, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials : Characterize, quantify, and model cradle to gate impact of materials used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al, composite, titanium, process materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify, model, and quantify opportunities of improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New technologies, materials, supply chains, etc . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model all of the above to get unified product-process design framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient, effective, profitable, green manufacturing organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tangible Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Macon Facility to be used as case study </li></ul><ul><li>Build a research and demonstration facility in Manufacturing Research Center at Georgia Tech </li></ul>
  21. 21. 12/21/09 Source: Bras, Romaniw, et al. 10/2009 www.sdm.gatech.edu “ Object-Oriented Spreadsheet” plus more ... F-86 Wing Section Test Case in SysML Parametrics Comparing Sustainability Metrics for Design Alternatives
  22. 22. SDM: Life Cycle Assessment <ul><li>LCA is one means to try to investigate some of the issues for these systems </li></ul><ul><li>LCA examines the environmental burdens and impact of a product over its entire life-cycle (see ISO 14040) </li></ul>Bras, B. (1997). &quot;Incorporating Environmental Issues in Product Realization.&quot; United Nations Industry and Environment 20 (1-2): 7-13.
  23. 23. Direct Digital Manufacturing <ul><li>Rapid Prototyping/Direct Digital Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>http://ddm.me.gatech.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Repair of Airfoils </li></ul>
  24. 24. Direct Digital Manufacturing of Airfoils <ul><li>Manufacture state-of-the-art ceramic molds directly from digital data. </li></ul><ul><li>Cast single-crystal superalloy airfoils with serpentine internal cooling passages and film cooling holes </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate over 1,000 tools and 5 major processes to create a major disruption to both cost and lead time for defense aircraft propulsion. </li></ul>Objective : DR. SUMAN DAS DIRECT DIGITAL MANUFACTURING LABORATORY Large Area Maskless Photopolymerization (LAMP) Airfoil investment casting process with direct digital manufacturing Cutaway view of Honeywell ICCM design High resolution bitmaps of CAD slices 1- DDM built molds 3 - Casting 4 - Finishing 5 – Zyglo Inspection 6 – Gauging 7 – X-Ray inspection 8 – Shipment 2 - Mold Assembly
  25. 25. Laser-Based Repair Manufacturing of Airfoils <ul><li>Repair of high value nickel superalloy turbine blades in DoD and commercial jet engines. </li></ul><ul><li>High speed laser melting of pre-placed powder on substrate combined with partial remelting of underlying substrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of sophisticated control techniques to refurbish turbine engine hardware back to flightworthy condition. </li></ul>DR. SUMAN DAS DIRECT DIGITAL MANUFACTURING LABORATORY
  26. 26. Integration of the Internet to Factories <ul><li>Factory Information Systems Group (FIS) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fis.marc.gatech.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Working with Consortia </li></ul>
  27. 27. MTConnect Overview A light-weight protocol used for transferring sensor level data using internet based protocols on the factory floor “ Bringing Manufacturing to the Internet Age” Open Standard
  28. 28. MTConnect <ul><li>Started in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in Response to the Needs of the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT) </li></ul><ul><li>AMT Invested $2M in Development </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Development Partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia Institute of Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of California, Berkeley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debut at International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>MTConnect Foundation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>GT/MARC objective is to anticipate technology needs in the long-term, yet implement technology in the short-term. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology development will save the manufacturing industries by contributing to productivity gains and spur employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of technology being developed in MARC were presented. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Future Manufacturing Henrik I Christensen [email_address]
  31. 31. CCC Study <ul><li>GT Coordination (0806-) </li></ul><ul><li>Congress Presentation (0905) </li></ul><ul><li>OSTP/White House (0912) </li></ul><ul><li>Roll-out (10-Spring) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security/Services </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Manufacturing <ul><li>Large Scale Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of SME Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility is key to progress </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics is major target </li></ul><ul><li>Process consideration is key </li></ul><ul><li>Perception, Learning & Safety </li></ul>
  33. 33. Issues
  34. 34. Industry Studies <ul><li>General Motors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory of the Future - The CoWorker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boeing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Factory of the 21th Century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yujin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The next generation home robot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>iRobot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The design parameters for new home appliances </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Robot Logistics
  36. 36. Smart Robotic Manufacturing <ul><li>Multi-Robot Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Human-Robot Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor Based Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Small series efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Safe Joint Operations </li></ul>
  37. 37. Human Robot Interaction <ul><li>PI: A. Thomaz & H.I. Christensen </li></ul><ul><li>Programing by Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Skill & Task Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Social Interaction Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>HRI Toolkit </li></ul>
  38. 38. Vision f Manipulation <ul><li>Recognition of Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Servo close to object (2D) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate Pose of Object </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a grasp strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Execute plan under 3D servoing </li></ul>
  39. 39. AeroSpace Robotics <ul><li>Mobile Tooling </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Tooling </li></ul><ul><li>Added Security </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Design </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Stiffness </li></ul>
  40. 40. Summary <ul><li>Robotics offers major new opportunities for manufacturing & automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible manufacturing - Lot Size 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automating the logistics chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily programable automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment across small and large companies </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Innovation at the Interface between Technology & Business Dr. Ron Bohlander Director, Commercial Product Realization Office Georgia Tech Research Institute 404.407.6836 [email_address]
  42. 42. In global competition, is automation … just part of answer?
  43. 43. It's tough to find one product today that's built by one company. It's all about partnership, alliances and affiliation. Today, it's all about strategy and service.” – Tom Koulopoulos
  44. 44. Where does “product” stop & “service” begin? … & how does that affect alliances? Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy
  45. 45. Invention … just part of answer Innovation
  46. 46. Collaboration

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