RECORDING PROGRESS OF LABOUR PARTOGRAM PROF DR MN MOHD AZHAR ROYAL COLLEGE OF MEDICINE PERAK
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO RECORD THEPROGRESS OF LABOUR Documentation is important To provide continuity of care. To provide a basis of decision making. To facilitate research. To allow audit and review. To defend one’s actions – no documentation – no defense.
TOOL FOR RECORDING THE PROGRESS OF LABOUR PARTOGRAM
PARTOGRAM PARTOGRAM is a graphical information about the progress of labour in which the salient information about the fetal well-being, maternal well-being and the progress of labour are recorded into a chart.
PARTOGRAM IT’S SIGNIFICANT: Is a managerial tool used to record all observations made on a woman and fetus in labour in one chart. Partogram helps to identify at an early stage those women whose labour is slow. A managerial tool for prevention of prolonged labour.
PARTOGRAM WHO REQUIRE PARTOGRAM RECORDING For all women who are in labour (i.e. either low or high risk group).
PARTOGRAM Friedmans partogram - 1954 2 phases of labour (base on dilatation of the cervix ) Active phase Latent phase (dilatation < 3 cm) Active phase (>3 cm dilated)Latent phase Philpott and Castle - 1972 Introduced the concept of “ALERT” and “ACTION” lines. ALERT LINE – represent the mean rate of slowest progress of labour ACTION LINE – appropriate action should be taken. Normal labour is plotted to the left alert line
PARTOGRAM Mother information Fetal well-being • Fetal heart rate • Character of liquor • Moulding Labour progress • Dilatation • Descent • Uterine contraction Medications • Oxytocin • Pain relief (e.g. pethidine) Maternal well-being • BP, Pulse, Temperature • Urine – albumin, glucose, acetone • Urine output
PARTOGRAM RECORDING 3 Notes should be legible, dated and timed. 41 Enter the outcome of deliveryBegin plotting at the“zero” hour on thepartogram2All entries made inrelation to time whenthe observations aremade
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Mother information Name Age Parity Gestational period Date/time of admission Time of rupture membrane Short antenatal history
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Fetal information Fetal heart rate Membrane and amniotic fluid Moulding
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Fetal information Fetal heart rate monitoring 1. Safe and reliable way of knowing fetus is well. 2. Listen after each contraction for one minutes. 3. Recorded ½ hourly (each square is ½ hour)
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Fetal information Character of amniotic fluid 1. State of liquor can assess in monitoring fetal condition. 2. Observation to be recorded - Membrane intact record as “I” - Membrane rupture: a) liquor clear record as “C” b) meconiun stained liquor “M” c) liquor absent record as “A”
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Fetal information Moulding of fetal skull 1. Provide information about the adequacy of pelvis to accommodate fetal head 2. Record the degree of moulding 0 → bones separated + → bones touching but can be separated. ++ → bone over lapping +++ → bones over lapping severely
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Labour progress Dilatation and Descent 1. Latent (0-3 cm) and Active (3-10 cm) phase. 2. Dilatation of cervix plotted as “X” axis and Descent plotted as “O” axis. 3. First vaginal examination done on admission is recorded. 4. Subsequent vaginal examination is done every 2-4 hourly. 5. Transfer from latent to active phase.
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Labour progress recording in latent phase Plot dilatation as “X”Latent phase Plot descent as “O” At admission:++ - Dilatation → 2 cm - Descent → -2 2 hours after admission: - Dilatation → 2 cm - Descent → -1 As the dilatation is only 2 cm therefore the labour progress is in the latent phase
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Labour progress recording in active phase Plot dilatation as “X”Latent phase Plot descent as “O” Active phase + Latent phase+ ++ 0 hours 2 hours 4 hours (admission) Dilatation “O” 2 cm 4 cm 7 cm Descent “X” -2 -1 +1
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Cervical dilatationLatent phase + If labour progress well plotting+ + of cervical dilatation should+ always remain to the left of alert line. If it cross to right of action line this warns that labour may be prolonged.
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Labour progress Uterine Contractions 1. Observation is made ½ hourly 2. Assess the frequency, duration. 3. Each square represent 1 contraction felt in 10 minutes. 4. Frequency – highlight the numbers of square. 5. Duration – shade the contraction in the square. < 20 sec - Mild 20-40 sec - Moderate > 45 sec - Strong
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Labour progress Recording the uterine on the partogram Nos. of Contraction in 10 mins 2 weak contractions in 10 minutes 5 strong contractions in 10 minutes 3 moderate contractions in 10 minutes
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Mother condition Vital signs – BP, Pulse, TºC Urine analysis – acetone, albumin, glucose Urine volume Medications or drug given
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Mother condition Vital signs recording BP – 4 hourly or more frequent if indicated Pulse - ½ hourly TºC – 4 hourly Urine analysis – dipstick acetone → Nil or + albumin → Nil or + glucose → Nil or + Urine volume
PARTOGRAM RECORDING Analyzing the progress of labour from the partogram Active phase If progress is satisfactory theLatent phase + plotting will remain on or to the left + of the alert line.+ ++ If labour is not progressing normally the plotting will be to the right of the alert line.
PARTOGRAM RECORDING LABOUR PATTERNS Active phaseLatent phase Normal labour Prolonged latent phase Primary dysfunctional labour Secondary arrest
RECORDING PROGRESS OF LABOUR - PARTOGRAM THANK YOU PROF DR MN MOHD AZHAR ROYAL COLLEGE OF MEDICINE PERAK