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BIO168 Emphysema Presentation


This was an oral presentation I had to do for my Anatomy & Physiology I class. I chose the disease because my father has it. I gathered information on what the disease is, its prevalence (gender, …

This was an oral presentation I had to do for my Anatomy & Physiology I class. I chose the disease because my father has it. I gathered information on what the disease is, its prevalence (gender, ethnicity, age), causes, symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and its effects.

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  • 2. LUNG ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYThe function of the lungs is to Oxygenate our blood byremoving Carbon Dioxide and replacing it with Oxygen.
  • 3. What is EmphysemaEmphysema (em-fi-SE-ma) is a type of Chronic ObstructivePulmonary Disease. COPD for short. COPD is generally a combination of Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis both with varying degrees. It is a progressive disease of the lungs. The alveoli (air sacs) are irreversibly damaged causing breathing to become difficult. There is no curehttp://www.muschealth.com/video/Default.aspx?videoId=10192&cId=38&type=rel
  • 6. What Are The CausesMOST COMMON Smoking (#1 cause) Prolonged exposure to second hand smoke Chemical fumes Dust Air pollution
  • 7. IN RARE CASES Deficiency of the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin A protein made by the liver that protects the lungs. That is inherited MM: normal level MS: 80% of normal MZ: 60% of normal SZ: 40% of normal ZZ: 10% of normal level
  • 8. WHO IS AT RISK Emphysema effects both men and women. Usually does not appear until the sixties.  But the disease can appear as early as forty depending on certain factors. Any ethnic group can develop emphysema.  One exception is the inherited form that mainly effects European Caucasians.
  • 9. SYMPTOMS OF EMPHYSEMA Coughing with or without phlegm(sometimes referred to as “smokers cough”) Dyspnea (shortness of breath) Trouble catching one’s breath Fatigue Wheezing Barrel- like distended chest Lethargy or difficulty concentrating Difficulty sleeping
  • 10. DIAGNOSIS Chest X – ray Blood test  Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Lung Function Test also called Pulmonary Function Test or PFT (most common)Copyright © 2012, A.D.A.M., Inc.
  • 11. Treatment STOP smoking (if you smoke) Bronchodilators (inhalers)  Ex. Atrovent, Spiriva, Serevent, Foradil, and Albuterol Anti-inflammatory medication  Ex. Singulair and Roflimulast Antibiotics Oxygen therapy Pulmonary rehabilitation  Conserve energy, improve stamina, and reduce breathlessness SurgeryOther things include Avoid being around smoke and other irritants Avoiding the cold
  • 12. SOME FACTS ON COPD Close to 13 million American adults have been diagnosed with COPD. Many others have the disease and not know it. 51% say it limits their ability to work (lost productivity). The cost of COPD on the nation was approximately 49.9 billion dollars in 2010 (American Lung Association, February 2011). Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease is the third cause of death in the United States in 2011 with 143,382 deaths
  • 13. Worldwide Mortality Rate 0.80% 0.70% 0.70% 0.60% 1.40% 0.60% 0.70% 1.40% 1.50% United States 1.50% Japan 1.80% Brazil 1.90% Mexico 2% Germany Netherlands 2.90% South Africa 36.60% 2.90% Hungary Romania Canada4.80% Thailand Australia Austria 5.80% Spain Kyrgyzstan Argentina Sweden 10.40% Colombia Poland 16.40% Venezuela
  • 14. A NOTE ON THE POSITIVE SIDEResearch is strong and on going in the fight of Emphysema. How to measure airspace enlargement accurately How to define aging of the lung There are studies showing promise that changing ones diet to include olive oil, fish, and grapes, peanuts, and berries (sources of resveratrol) may limit the lung damage caused by smoking.
  • 15. REFERENCESAlpha-1 Canadian Registry Website:http://www.alpha1canadianregistry.com/alpha1/info/faq.htmlAnatomy of the Lung Picture. Retrieved from 3d Science Pics Website:http://3dsciencepics.com/wp-content/uploads/lung_anatomy2.jpgAetna, INC.(November 21, 2011) Emphysema Retrieved fromhttp://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/10600.html (August 2011) Trends in COPD (Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema): Morbidity andMortality Retrieved from American Lung Association Website: www.lung.org/finding-cures/our.../trend.../copd-trend-report.pdfEmphysema Animation Video Retrieved from Website:http://www.muschealth.com/video/default.aspx?videoId=10192Emphysema by country", World Health Organisation Statistical Information System.Retrieved fromhttp://www.NationMaster.com/graph/mor_emp-mortality-emphysemaEmphysema Lung Picture (December 10, 2010). Emphysema Causes and Treatment.Retrieved from Website: http://ic.steadyhealth.com/emphysema_causes_and_treatment.htmlHoyert, Donna L PhD, Xu, Jiaquan M.D. (October 10, 2012) Deaths: Preliminary Data for2011 Retrieved from Department of Health and Human Services Website:www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_06.pdfPereira, E. B., Viana, C., Taunay, T. E., Sales, P. U., Lima, J. O., & Holanda, M. A. (2011).Improvement of Cognitive Function After a Three-Month Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programfor COPD Patients. Lung, 189(4), 279-285. doi:10.1007/s00408-011-9303-6Spirometry (7/9/2012) Reviewed by: David Zieve, MD, MHA, MedicalDirector, A.D.A.M., Inc., and Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Assistant Professor ofMedicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University ofPennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute, & Voelkel, Norbert F. (2008) Molecular Pathogenesis ofEmphysema. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 118 (2) 394 – 402. doi: 10. 1172/JCI31811