The Ubiquitous Digital Map(Abridged)Gary GaleDirector, Global CommunityProgramsHERESyncConf 2013Norwich, UK52.62968, 1.29765
I’m Gary; a Geo-Technologist and a Geographer at heart                              Director, Global Community Programs, H...
Abridge; To Shorten    In Duration Or Scope3
http://vtny.org/lS
Thanks StevenPaul Clarke / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/paul_clarke/4306649681/
WarningContains #mapporn
Some Ancient                  HistoryKristian Bjornard / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/bjornmeansbear/4249524324/
Babylon600 BC
Hemispheriu[m] ab aequinoctiali     linea, ad circulu[m] Poli Arctici                   1593Norman B. Leventhal Map Center...
Les Isles Britanniques   ou sont le royaumes dAngleterre                  1730Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the BPL / ...
Napoleon’s March To Moscow           Charles Minard, 1869Wikipedia / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Minard.png
Metro Route Maps
Joe Bennett on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/jbennett/168171561/
Jaina on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pizzagirl/4854457974/
Paul Adams on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/padday/3213420864/
Some Modern(ish)    History
A Map? On The            Internet? Why?Mor Naamon on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmoorr/2440318125/
Mid To Late 1980’s
1989 - GPShttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-iif.jpg
1991 – The World   Wide Web
June 1993 – First                   Web Map ServerJune 1993 – Final GPS  Satellite Launched
1995 – MultiMap
1995 – Vicinity
1996 – MapQuest
Digital Maps; UglyMaps; Small Maps
1997 – MapInfoMapXSite Store   Locator
IPO =1999 – Map Deals
1999 - AOL Buys MapQuest          For $1.1 BillionNick Ares on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/aresauburnphotos/2678...
February 2000 –Vicinity IPOs for     $120M
May 2000 – “Selective Availability” of GPS        Ends
December 2000 –Multimap Goes WAP
March 2000 - Dot Com Madness
April 2002 –Microsoft MapPoint
October 2002 –           Microsoft Acquires           Vicinity For $96MMeddy Garnet on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/phot...
2003 – MultiMap Serves Up   Over 1 Billion Maps
March 2004 – Yahoo! Maps
2004 – Google Local
August 2004 – More PeopleUse Online Maps Than Use          Email
August 2004 –OpenStreetMap Conceived
October 2004 – Google                          Acquires Where 2                            TechnologiesData Storage Falls ...
October 2004 – Google                        Acquires KeyholeJune 2005 – Google Earth
2005 – The Map World                 ChangedFrederik Hermann / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/netzkobold/2029727221/
February 2005 – Google        Maps
April 2005 – First Internal Google Maps Mashup
June 2005 – 1st Mashups  June 2005 – First Public  Google Maps Mashups
This Is A Pivotal Moment           For Web MapsKrissy Venosdale on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/venosdale/4538665...
June 2005 – Google            Releases A Maps APIRich Huxley / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/huxhombre/5321871461/
Yahoo! And MicrosoftQuickly Launch Maps APIs
June 2005 – Open SourceAnd Maps Start To Come       Together
20% Of Web Users Are                           Using Online MapsOctober 2005 – 2nd. Web 2.0       Conference
June 2006 – OpenStreetMap  Maps The Isle Of Wight
June 2006 – Google Maps  Enters The Enterprise
2006 – The “GeoWeb”      Emerges
November 2006 – The OS  Demos OpenSpace      Mashups
December 2006 – Neogeography
May 2007 – Google   StreetView
June 2007 – Google Adds   Draggable Routing
July 2007 – The FirstOpenStreetMap Conference
2007 – 50,000 Google Maps         Mashups
2007 –                   Ovi Maps Launches2007 – Nokia Acquires       NAVTEQ
December 2007 –Microsoft Acquires    MultiMap
2008 – Google Drives Down          Costs
2008 – Things Are Speeding            Up
October 2009 – Farewell TeleAtlas (In The US)
July 2010 – MapQuest OpenUses OpenStreetMap Data
End Of 2010 – 350,000 Sites    Use Google’s Maps APINiall Kenndy on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/niallkennedy/454...
2011 – Ovi MapsRebrands as Nokia Maps
October 2011 – NokiaPowers Yahoo! Maps
And Then …
September 2012iOS 5 and Earlier                         iOS 6  Google Maps                      Apple Maps
Drives Onto Airport Runwayhttp://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/33227341418/drives-onto-airport-runway
What Bridge?http://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/33227307405
Las Vegas Is Meltinghttp://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/32188676002/las-vegas-is-melting
http://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/32188676002/las-vegas-is-melting
November 2012 – Farewell    Yahoo! Maps API
December 2012   Google Maps for iOShttp://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/32188676002/las-vegas-is-melting
2012 – Nokia Powers     Bing Maps
2012 – HERE Maps
Where Do We Go          From Here?Raquel and Soren / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/electrobizarre/3056520700/
Cheap StoragePotjie / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/potjie/2148096753/
Fast ProcessingPascal / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pasukaru76/3536246838/
More BandwidthMr. Thomas / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/exalthim/1594948378/
Map ExitsStewart Macfarlane / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pencefn/6406866503/
Map ConcentrateAlex/ Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/microwavedboy/2226170715/
Map ExplosionNiklas Friedwall / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/nirufe/7999746744/
Make Your Own    Maps
Maps As Art
A Bright FutureRichard Rutter / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/clagnut/2865788674/
http://vtny.org/lS
Thank You For ListeningGary GaleDirector, Global CommunityProgramsHERE+49.1515.5150909+1.408.242.2329+44.7508.000336gary.g...
The Ubiquitous Digital Map (Abridged) by Gary Gale
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The Ubiquitous Digital Map (Abridged) by Gary Gale

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Long gone are the days of walking the streets of a city with an A-Z street atlas. Whether on your laptop or on your phone, digital maps are both everywhere and in the mainstream news these days. Be they professional maps (hello Nokia/NAVTEQ and Google Maps), crowd sourced open maps (hello OpenStreetMap) or maps that doesn't work as well as intended (hello Apple Maps), we're using maps more and more with each passing year. But how did we get here? When did the digital map start being ubiquitous and the printed map less so? Digital maps have been around longer than most of us realise; this talk will tell you how and why.

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  • So, hello, I’m Gary and I'm from the internet. I’m a self-confessed map addict, a geo-technologist and a geographer. I’m Director of Global Community Programs for HERE, Nokia’s maps group. Prior to Nokia I led Yahoo’s Geotechnologies group in the United Kingdom. I’m a founder of the Location Forum, a co-founder of WhereCamp EU, I sit on the Council and Executive for the AGI, the UK’s Association for Geographic Information, I’m the chair of the W3G conference, a committer to the Mapstraction open source maps API and I’m also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
  • This is the abridged version of this talk; the original is a whole lot bigger but I’ve been warned that there’s a speed limit for slides in this county so I’ve had to pare the talk down and I’ll try hard not to exceed the slides-per-minute rate.
  • There are URLs in this talk but this is the only URL in the entirety of this talk you might want to take a note of. Although if you go there right now, it'll 404 on you, later today or tomorrow, this is where this slide deck, my notes and all the links you'll be seeing will appear on my blog. That’s an upper case “I” and an upper case “S” at the end of the URL by the way …
  • Before I go any further I need to thank this man, Steven Feldman. There’s a lot of maps history in this talk and while it’s easy to get hold of snapshots of how the web looks right now, it’s less easy to get hold of snapshots about how the web used to look. So I’m thoroughly indebted to Steven for allowing me to rummage through his collection of digital maps history.
  • As the name of this talk probably suggests, there’s a lot of maps in the slide to come. Some people have called previous talks I’ve done map porn. This is true and I make no apology for it.
  • But before I talk about ubiquitous digitalmaps, I want to set a little historical context.
  • This isn’t the earliest map but it’s one of the earliest that’s recognisable as a map; it’s of the world as the Babylonians thought of it. Babylon is in the centre of the map and there's seven triangular islands, 3 of which are missing due to damage, in the "river of bitter water", or the sea. To me, the Babylon map is both art, hope and inspiration for the unmapped areas of their world and the best attempt of the age to be authoritative.
  • Fast forward several centuries to the "golden age of exploration" and while maps are more recognizably accurate, they're also art. But this art came at a price. You needed to be wealthy to commission such a map and such a map was often given as a notional gift to the rich and powerful to curry favour.
  • Furthermore maps were state secrets; sharing maps was sharing power and influence. The entrepreneurs of the time were the great navigators like Columbus and Magellan, their sponsors were kings and countries; their business plan were maps.
  • But maps don't just have to be geographically accurate. They can show data as well. This 1869 map by Charles Minard shows the losses suffered by Napoleon's army in his 1812 Russian campaign. Beginning at the Polish/Russian border on the left, the thick pinkish band shows the size of the army as they advanced towards Moscow. The thinner black band shows the ever decreasing size of the remains of the army as they retreated in the bitterly cold winter.
  • Another type of not necessarily geographically accurate map are the familiar mass transit and metro maps that you probably all recognise, all descended in some shape or form from Harry Beck's iconic map of London's Tube system.
  • So we have maps trying to tell the story of the world. Maps as art. Maps as power. Maps to get you around a city by train. But if you wanted to get around on foot or by car, up until just over 10 years ago, if you lived in a major metropolitan area you probably went around with a city street atlas, such as this one from London, with you.
  • I lugged one of these around for the best part of two decades, getting ever more battered and worn and filled with hand written navigation notes on how to get from A to B.
  • Then rather than carry around a local street atlas, people started instead to carry round a laser printed copy of the web map for where they wanted to go. Its this digital web map that I want to talk about
  • So fast forward to the early days of the internet, before the World Wide Web was formed, before people started to recognise URLs and web site addresses, before smartphones and tablets …
  • Just like people questioned why you’d want to put a camera in a mobile phone, the early days of digital maps were met with incredulity by traditional map makers. Why on earth would you put a map onto a computer when you could carry a printed map out into the street with you. And while we take modern digital maps pretty much for granted, on our laptop and desktop, on our smartphone and on our tablets, they’ve actually been around a lot longer than most people realise …
  • The story of the digital map starts over 30 years ago in the mid to late 1980’s. In 1984 a company called TeleAtlas formed in the Netherlands and the following year another company called Navtech formed in Silicon Valley. Both made rudimentary digital map data and TeleAtlas’s data would form part of ETAK, the first in-car navigation system.
  • In 1989 the rollout of the US controlled Global Positioning System starts. These days we know this as GPS.
  • Then, in 1991, at Cern in Switzerland a man called Tim Berners-Lee started to link a web of documents together and on this very NeXT cube (formed by Steve Jobs after he’d been ousted from Apple), the first webserver and web site was born and the World Wide Web officially started.
  • Mid 1993 and the final of the first set of GPS satellites were launched and the same month the first web server that served up maps went online; the Xerox PARC Map Viewer. These were static maps with none of the clicking, tapping, dragging, panning and zooming that we associate with online maps today.
  • In 1995, MultiMap launched. This is important. We tend to think of digital maps as being a purely Silicon Valley product thanks to Yahoo, Google and the like. But MultiMap was a pioneer and more importantly, it was a British pioneer.
  • MapBlast! was a web mapping service launched in the mid-1990s by Vicinity Corporation. It allowed website owners to incorporate maps in their own web pages, and was later syndicated across most major Web, wireless, handheld and interactive TV platforms including Yahoo!, Excite, Lycos, ATT Interactive and Palm, among others.[1] By 2000, MapBlast was the #2 mapping site on the Web
  • In 1996, MapQuest started; a subsidiary of R. O’Donelly that produced maps for the Blue Pages, the local information section at the front of US phone directories. MapQuest launched the first commercial web maps application. You could now put maps and other map related content on web sites. The maps came from Navteq and other sources, including MapQuest’s own. The Automobile Association of America were an early customer with a very primitive form of turn-by-turn navigation; you called the AAA, told them your route and they printed a map for your journey.
  • So we now have early digital maps. But they were small maps. Converting map vector data to raster images took time, the bigger the image the more time it took. Bandwidth over dial up modems also meant that putting a map in a browser was slow. So digital maps were small; they were quicker to produce and they downloaded quicker. They were also ugly maps; a stock cartography style and, in the UK, the dominance of OS map data didn’t make the maps appealing to the eye. Browsers were primitive compared with today and map functionality was very limited; no panning or zooming here. Even MultiMap used this way of producing digital maps though they did a much better job of it than most.
  • In 1997, MapXsite launched; the first dedicated web maps app for locating local stores and businesses, paving the way in the future for 100’s of Starbucks coffee store locator apps.
  • By February 1999, MapQuest had served up 76.2M maps and was the number 5 travel/tourism site on the web according to Media Metrix Inc. May 1999 and MapQuest goes public and raises $69M USD into the bargain. In July Microsoft sells its SideWalk property to TicketMaster and gets out of web mapping, starting the company’s on, off, on again affair with maps.
  • December 1999 and AOL buys MapQuest for $1.1Bn. That’s a £1,031M increase in less than 12 months. This is the start of the dot-com boom madness. Bear in mind that MapQuest were largely making money on B2B deals; their consumer web site was loosing money fast.
  • February 2000 and Vicinity goes public, raising $120M and peaking at a market cap of $2BN before dropping by 25%. Vicinity were trading as 160 times their revenue and losing over $1M a month at the time.
  • Up until 2000 there was two sorts of GPS signal – a degraded civilian one and and an accurate military one. This difference stopped in May 2000. As a result GPS starts to become widespread in civilian devices, leading to the explosion of personal satnav devices and the presence of GPS in our smartphones
  • This isn’t really web maps but it’s interesting as a taste of things to come. MultiMap launches a WAP service using TeleAtlas street level maps with travel directions, aerial imagery and London Underground maps. Suddenly everyone’s talking about mobile but due to a lack of mobile data bandwidth, a lack of applications and a lack of battery life, mobile won’t take off for another 7 or 8 years.
  • By March 2000, dot com madness is in full swing. The value of map data was completely distorted by the licensors; compare and contrast with the ridiculous prices paid for 3G licenses in the UK. Most of the original maps start-ups will go out of business as a result of the dot com boom turning into the dot bomb crash.
  • April 2002 and Microsoft is back in the mapping game with MapPoint.
  • October 2002 and Microsoft buys Vicinity, which already had $80M in the bank from its IPO for $96M. A great deal for Microsoft, or pouring money down the drain?
  • By 2003MultiMap had served up over 1Bn maps!
  • Not many people realise that Yahoo were the first people to launchslippy maps, where you can click and drag to pan and zoom the map, and integration with search. One of the original engineers behind Vicinity jumped ship to help Yahoo! launch their maps; I worked with him whilst I was at Yahoo! and he’s still there.
  • By 2004 things are changing and starting to morph into what we now recognise as today’s web map landscape and players. Google launches Local, searching local business listings and displaying the results on a map. Sounds familiar? It’s worth noting that in 2003-2005 Google used MapQuest for their maps.
  • Towards the end of 2004 and maps are the most popular online activity according to the Pew Internet & American Life Project survey. Email and online chat was number 2.
  • The same month, a man called Steve Coast presented ideas for a publicly editable map of the world … OpenStreetmap … at EuroFOO after being inspired by the success of Wikipedia and a growing frustration with the license around proprietary data in general, but in the UK in particular.
  • October 2004. Google acquires Where 2 technologies, getting a tile server that was capable of serving up map tiles to a desktop client, with early use of AJAX. At the same time, the cost of data storage falls to < $0.50 a GB (today’s prices are closer to $0.07 a GB) … suddenly storing all of that map data becomes cheaper and easier.
  • The same month, Google also acquires Keyhole and 9 months later Google Earth launches.
  • Despite being phenomenally popular, web maps were limited by complexity, cost and lack of interaction. Developing a web map app was complex, needing expensive maps and knowledge of how to manipulate geographic and spatial data sets. Surely there was an easier way to use maps on the web? Then, in 2005, there was.
  • February 2005 and Google Maps launches; apparently maps can be fun and useful. Firstly in the US, then in Japan, Canada and the UK.
  • 2 months later and the first mapsmashup emerges; a ride sharing app, built internally at Google using an undocumented API.
  • Google’s technology is being used in a way they didn’t foresee. Google are paying licensing fees for maps data and the unofficial mashups are getting this for free. What should Google do? Slam the door in the faces of this new and rapidly developing way of using maps?
  • Instead, John Hanke (ex of Keyhole) formally released the Google Maps API. It made sense. Google needed the internet to grow; more web content to index; more space to place ads on; more brand recognition. What would this free maps API do to the other businesses in this sector? I don’t think they took it too seriously … at least to start with.
  • And as maps APIs explode across the web, the Open Source communities start to take notice too.
  • In 2005, O’Reilly publish Web Mapping Illustrated and the first Where 2.0 conference soon follows. 20% of web users are now using online maps.
  • In May 2006 a group of OSM mappers took a trip to the Isle of Wight. This is what the OSM map looked like when they arrived. And this is what it looked like 2 days later; completely mapped.
  • June 2006 and the Enterprise and Google start to court each other and 24% of web users worldwide are using web maps; that figure increases to 45% in the UK and 40% in the US
  • By 2006, web mapping and location technologies are starting to attract the media and with Where 2.0 and Web 2.0 in full swing, the GeoWeb emerges as a term.
  • In November the OS demos OpenSpace, even if it did take a year to release.
  • In December people start talking about Neogeography‘a socially networked mapping platform which makes it easy to find, create, share, and publish maps and places’ - Di-Ann Eisnor“Neogeography means ‘new geography’ and consists of a set of techniques and tools that fall outside the realm of traditional GIS, Geographic Information Systems. Where historically a professional cartographer might use ArcGIS, talk of Mercator versus Mollweide projections, and resolve land area disputes, a neogeographer uses a mapping API like Google Maps, talks about GPX versus KML, and geotags his photos to make a map of his summer vacation.Essentially, Neogeography is about people using and creating their own maps, on their own terms and by combining elements of an existing toolset.Neogeography is about sharing location information with friends and visitors, helping shape context, and conveying understanding through knowledge of place.Lastly, Neogeography is fun . . .” (Turner 2006, 2–3)
  • At the start of 2007, Google launches StreetView to an at best indifferent public and at worst to cries of invasion of privacy. Initially using Immersive Media data, soon Google are driving the streets, but with cameras that aren’t only looking from side to side but also up and down.
  • The following month Google adds draggable routing to their maps. Originally using Telcontar but replaced with Google’s own technology a year later. As Google’s Ed Parsons notes “routing algorithms aren’t rocket science; by scaling them are”. Notice the continuing pattern here. Google buys technology and then builds on top of it. Other web maps vendors are left trailing by this move.
  • By July there’s sufficient OSM users to hold the first annual State Of The Map conference.
  • By 2007, there’s 50,000 Google Maps mashups. Google Maps has 71.5M users per month; Google Earth 22.7M users per month
  • In 2007 Nokia acquires NAVTEQ and launches Ovi Maps
  • The same year, Microsoft is firmly back in the web maps game and acquires MultiMap.
  • In 2008 Google wants to save on the costs that its web mapping activities incur. The main cost saver is the licensing fees that Google pays TeleAtlas. Remember those StreetView cameras that were pointing up and down? Google is making their own map.
  • Just look at this for a year’s releases to Google Maps, difficult for the other players to keep up! 21 announcements in 1 year!On January 22, 2008, Google expanded the Local Onebox from 3 business listings to 10On February 20, 2008, Google Maps allowed searches to be refined by User Rating & neighborhoods.On March 18, 2008, Google allowed end users to edit business listings and add new places.On March 19, 2008, Google added unlimited category options in the Local Business Center.On April 2, 2008, Google added contour lines to the Terrain view.In April 2008, a button to view recent Saved Locations was added to the right of the search field.In May 2008, a "More" button was added alongside the "Map", "Satellite", and "Terrain" buttons, permitting access to geographically-related photos on Panoramio and articles on WikipediaOn May 15, 2008, Google Maps was ported to Flash and ActionScript 3 as a foundation for richer internet applications.On July 15, 2008, walking directions were added.On August 4, 2008, Street View launched in Japan and Australia.On August 15, 2008, the user interface was redesigned.On August 29, 2008, Google signed a deal under which GeoEye would supply them with imagery from a satellite and introduced the Map Maker tool for creation of map data.On September 9, 2008, a reverse business lookup feature was added.On September 23, 2008, information for the New York City Metropolitan Transit Authority was added.On October 7, 2008, GeoEye-1 took its first image, a bird's-eye view of Kutztown University in Pennsylvania.On October 26, 2008, reverse geocoding was added to the Maps API.On November 11, 2008, Street View in Spain, Italy, and France was introduced.On November 23, 2008, AIR support for the Maps API for Flash was added.On November 25, 2008, a new user interface for Street View was introduced.On November 27, 2008, maps, local business information, and local trends for China were introduced.On December 9, 2008, 2x Street View coverage was introduced
  • And finally in 2009 and in the US at least, Google ways goodbye to TeleAtlas.
  • Jul 2010 and MapQuest starts using open source and open data through OpenStreetMap. There’s several drivers here. One is cost. Another is a trial to see how good crowd sourced maps really are. Microsoft follows suite, announcing use of OSM data and OSM’s founder, Steve Coast, joins Microsoft.
  • By the end of 2010, 350,000 web sites are using Google’s Maps API
  • In 2011, Nokia’s Ovi maps rebrand to Nokia Map
  • Nokia starts to build on the strength of the mapping services gained by acquiring NAVTEQ and partners with Yahoo!, replacing their native maps with Nokia’s own
  • And then something happened that really brought the ubiquity of digital maps, on your phone or tablet, to the mainstream media’s attention. All of a sudden tech industry commentators, who should really know better and who had been proclaiming that making maps wasn’t that hard, changed their tune and proclaimed that making usable digital maps was actually hard after all.
  • Up to and including version 5, Apple’s iOS had a maps app. It may have been called just “Maps” but it used Google’s mapping technologies on the back end. It was, and up to the end of version 5, remained one of the most popular and often used apps that came on a new iPhone or iPad. But in September 2012 when Apple released iOS 6, the maps app, still called “Maps” was replaced by the much heralded Apple native offering and millions of anguished iOS used cried out …
  • … as they got directed onto the middle of an airport runway
  • … as bridges just vanished
  • … and as Las Vegas apparently melted under the heat of the midday Nevada sun
  • Originally Google was seen by Apple as a partner but for a variety of reasons, including the growth of Google’s Android phone OS, Apple decided to replace Google’s maps with their own. Apple makes an embarrassing public apology and recommends rival mapping platforms including those by Nokia, Microsoft and MapQuest as alternative while they make Apple Maps better.
  • Capitalising on the problems surrounding Apple’s maps, Google releases a native iOS app and quickly gains 10M downloads in 48 hours as iOS users sigh with relief.
  • Just as with Yahoo!, Microsoft and Bing pretty much exit the mapping game as Nokia takes over their mapping services
  • And Nokia maps rebrands as HERE maps in San Francisco
  • So that’s the story of the ubiquitous digital map up until the present day. I’ve missed out a lot of other significant developments and milestones in this story but this is the abridged version. But where does the digital map go from here?
  • The explosion of maps, location based services and digital cartography has been made possible by several factors … the ever falling price of data storage. In 1980 a 26 MB disk drive cost $5,000, that’s $193,000 per GB. By 1990, the cost per GB had fallen to $9,000 per GB. In 2000 that cost was down to around $15 per GB and in 2009 a 1 TB drive cost just $75, working out at $0.07 per GB. Over the last 30 years, space per unit cost has doubled roughly every 14 months (increasing by an order of magnitude every 48 months).
  • At the same time, CPUs have got faster as Moore’s Law continues to be true and the number of transistors on an integrated circuit doubles roughly every two years. Digital maps take up a lot of data and a lot of computing power to render and this has got progressively easier with each passing year.
  • Of course, the best digital maps in the world are severely reduced in effectiveness if the only way people can access them is via a dial up modem, so hand in hand with cheap storage and faster processors, the availability of broadband internet connections and 3G and now 4G mobile data networks have allowed digital maps to become ever more widespread and easier and faster to access.
  • Although a lot of the original pioneers have left the playing field, either sinking as part of the dot bomb crash or outsourcing to other maps providers, such as Yahoo! and Microsoft have done
  • And although there’s been massive consolidation and concentration in the map market, with Nokia buying NAVTEQ, TomTom buying TeleAtlas, Google making their own maps and OSM generally disrupting everyone
  • There’s been an explosion of interest in digital maps and the way in which these maps are used over the last few years
  • And we’ve gained a whole new set of terms in the English language into the bargain.
  • It’s never been easier to put a map onto a mobile device or onto a web site and companies such as MapBox are capitalising on this by letting you not only make your own maps but also letting you create your own style of maps
  • I started this talk with the notion that early maps were art and I think we’ve come full circle, with companies like San Francisco’s Stamen producing maps that are not only effective but are also, to my mind at least visually gorgeous and qualify as art.
  • The growth, variety and use of the ubiquitous digital map shows no sign of stopping; I think the state of the map, to steal OpenStreetMap’s conference name, is one with a very bright future indeed.
  • Finally, here’s that short URL again …
  • … and thanks for listening
  • The Ubiquitous Digital Map (Abridged) by Gary Gale

    1. 1. The Ubiquitous Digital Map(Abridged)Gary GaleDirector, Global CommunityProgramsHERESyncConf 2013Norwich, UK52.62968, 1.29765
    2. 2. I’m Gary; a Geo-Technologist and a Geographer at heart Director, Global Community Programs, HERE http://www.vicchi.org - http://www.garygale.com - @vicchiKen Yeung / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/kyeung808/4820451850/
    3. 3. Abridge; To Shorten In Duration Or Scope3
    4. 4. http://vtny.org/lS
    5. 5. Thanks StevenPaul Clarke / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/paul_clarke/4306649681/
    6. 6. WarningContains #mapporn
    7. 7. Some Ancient HistoryKristian Bjornard / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/bjornmeansbear/4249524324/
    8. 8. Babylon600 BC
    9. 9. Hemispheriu[m] ab aequinoctiali linea, ad circulu[m] Poli Arctici 1593Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the BPL / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/normanbleventhalmapcenter/2675672726/
    10. 10. Les Isles Britanniques ou sont le royaumes dAngleterre 1730Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the BPL / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/normanbleventhalmapcenter/5385389984/
    11. 11. Napoleon’s March To Moscow Charles Minard, 1869Wikipedia / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Minard.png
    12. 12. Metro Route Maps
    13. 13. Joe Bennett on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/jbennett/168171561/
    14. 14. Jaina on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pizzagirl/4854457974/
    15. 15. Paul Adams on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/padday/3213420864/
    16. 16. Some Modern(ish) History
    17. 17. A Map? On The Internet? Why?Mor Naamon on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmoorr/2440318125/
    18. 18. Mid To Late 1980’s
    19. 19. 1989 - GPShttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-iif.jpg
    20. 20. 1991 – The World Wide Web
    21. 21. June 1993 – First Web Map ServerJune 1993 – Final GPS Satellite Launched
    22. 22. 1995 – MultiMap
    23. 23. 1995 – Vicinity
    24. 24. 1996 – MapQuest
    25. 25. Digital Maps; UglyMaps; Small Maps
    26. 26. 1997 – MapInfoMapXSite Store Locator
    27. 27. IPO =1999 – Map Deals
    28. 28. 1999 - AOL Buys MapQuest For $1.1 BillionNick Ares on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/aresauburnphotos/2678453389
    29. 29. February 2000 –Vicinity IPOs for $120M
    30. 30. May 2000 – “Selective Availability” of GPS Ends
    31. 31. December 2000 –Multimap Goes WAP
    32. 32. March 2000 - Dot Com Madness
    33. 33. April 2002 –Microsoft MapPoint
    34. 34. October 2002 – Microsoft Acquires Vicinity For $96MMeddy Garnet on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/meddygarnet/2794608347/
    35. 35. 2003 – MultiMap Serves Up Over 1 Billion Maps
    36. 36. March 2004 – Yahoo! Maps
    37. 37. 2004 – Google Local
    38. 38. August 2004 – More PeopleUse Online Maps Than Use Email
    39. 39. August 2004 –OpenStreetMap Conceived
    40. 40. October 2004 – Google Acquires Where 2 TechnologiesData Storage Falls To Less Than $0.50 a GB
    41. 41. October 2004 – Google Acquires KeyholeJune 2005 – Google Earth
    42. 42. 2005 – The Map World ChangedFrederik Hermann / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/netzkobold/2029727221/
    43. 43. February 2005 – Google Maps
    44. 44. April 2005 – First Internal Google Maps Mashup
    45. 45. June 2005 – 1st Mashups June 2005 – First Public Google Maps Mashups
    46. 46. This Is A Pivotal Moment For Web MapsKrissy Venosdale on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/venosdale/4538665373/
    47. 47. June 2005 – Google Releases A Maps APIRich Huxley / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/huxhombre/5321871461/
    48. 48. Yahoo! And MicrosoftQuickly Launch Maps APIs
    49. 49. June 2005 – Open SourceAnd Maps Start To Come Together
    50. 50. 20% Of Web Users Are Using Online MapsOctober 2005 – 2nd. Web 2.0 Conference
    51. 51. June 2006 – OpenStreetMap Maps The Isle Of Wight
    52. 52. June 2006 – Google Maps Enters The Enterprise
    53. 53. 2006 – The “GeoWeb” Emerges
    54. 54. November 2006 – The OS Demos OpenSpace Mashups
    55. 55. December 2006 – Neogeography
    56. 56. May 2007 – Google StreetView
    57. 57. June 2007 – Google Adds Draggable Routing
    58. 58. July 2007 – The FirstOpenStreetMap Conference
    59. 59. 2007 – 50,000 Google Maps Mashups
    60. 60. 2007 – Ovi Maps Launches2007 – Nokia Acquires NAVTEQ
    61. 61. December 2007 –Microsoft Acquires MultiMap
    62. 62. 2008 – Google Drives Down Costs
    63. 63. 2008 – Things Are Speeding Up
    64. 64. October 2009 – Farewell TeleAtlas (In The US)
    65. 65. July 2010 – MapQuest OpenUses OpenStreetMap Data
    66. 66. End Of 2010 – 350,000 Sites Use Google’s Maps APINiall Kenndy on Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/niallkennedy/45491564/
    67. 67. 2011 – Ovi MapsRebrands as Nokia Maps
    68. 68. October 2011 – NokiaPowers Yahoo! Maps
    69. 69. And Then …
    70. 70. September 2012iOS 5 and Earlier iOS 6 Google Maps Apple Maps
    71. 71. Drives Onto Airport Runwayhttp://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/33227341418/drives-onto-airport-runway
    72. 72. What Bridge?http://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/33227307405
    73. 73. Las Vegas Is Meltinghttp://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/32188676002/las-vegas-is-melting
    74. 74. http://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/32188676002/las-vegas-is-melting
    75. 75. November 2012 – Farewell Yahoo! Maps API
    76. 76. December 2012 Google Maps for iOShttp://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com/post/32188676002/las-vegas-is-melting
    77. 77. 2012 – Nokia Powers Bing Maps
    78. 78. 2012 – HERE Maps
    79. 79. Where Do We Go From Here?Raquel and Soren / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/electrobizarre/3056520700/
    80. 80. Cheap StoragePotjie / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/potjie/2148096753/
    81. 81. Fast ProcessingPascal / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pasukaru76/3536246838/
    82. 82. More BandwidthMr. Thomas / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/exalthim/1594948378/
    83. 83. Map ExitsStewart Macfarlane / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pencefn/6406866503/
    84. 84. Map ConcentrateAlex/ Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/microwavedboy/2226170715/
    85. 85. Map ExplosionNiklas Friedwall / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/nirufe/7999746744/
    86. 86. Make Your Own Maps
    87. 87. Maps As Art
    88. 88. A Bright FutureRichard Rutter / Flickr : http://www.flickr.com/photos/clagnut/2865788674/
    89. 89. http://vtny.org/lS
    90. 90. Thank You For ListeningGary GaleDirector, Global CommunityProgramsHERE+49.1515.5150909+1.408.242.2329+44.7508.000336gary.gale@nokia.com

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