fMRI EVIDENCE FOR PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONAL REASONING BRAIN MODULES
Sylvie Pelletier YORK UNIVERSITY Thesis DefenseDecember 07, 2011
IntroductionObjectives & HypothesisResearch Design and MethodResultsDiscussionConclusion
Mental Mental Dual- Model Multiple Reasoning Logic (Johnson-Laird system Systems(Rips, 1994) (Evans, 2003) (Goel, 2007) & Byrne, 1991)
Main Effect Content Domain Prado et al (in press) Reverberi (2010); Canessa et al. Goel (2000) (2005) Abstract/Non- Causal Conditional Bilateral parietal-frontal Physical: Reasoning pathway Left linguistic system Left posterior parietal cortex, Left precentralgyrus, medial frontal gyrus Causal Social Left hemispheric Right-hemispheric frontotemporal prefrontal cortex system
Objectives: Examine the neural substrates of conditional reasoning with various types of conditional content and causal conditional content with fMRIHypothesis:1. Main effect: I. Conditional reasoning: Bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal activation (visuo-spatial/formal and syntactic/semantic processing) II. Causal conditional reasoning: Left fronto-parietal activation (syntactic/semantic processing)2. Content effect: I. Content reasoning: Left fronto-temporal activation(syntactic/semantic processing) II. Abstract reasoning: (visuo-spatial/formal processing)3. Domain effect: I. Physical reasoning: Leftfronto-temporal (syntactic/semantic processing) II. Social reasoning: Right lateral prefrontal cortex, medial and superior frontal, and parietal activation (social cognition)
CONTENTS (N=96) Causal (n=72) Abstract (n=24) Physical-causal (n=24) Social-causal (n=48) If TTTTTT are KKKKKK, then YYYYYY are AAAAAA. MP If the brake is depressed, then the car will If Ray misses Wendy, then he TTTTTT are KKKKKK, (n=24) slow down. will visit her. YYYYYY are AAAAAA The brake is depressed, Ray misses Wendy, The car slows down Ray visits Wendy ReasoningT Tasks MT If the car is out of gas, then it will stall. If Vic pressures Jim, then Jim If JJJJJJ are EEEEEE, thenA (n=80) (n=24) The car didnt stall, will be stressed. NNNNNN are PPPPPP.S The car wasnt out of gas. Jim isn’t stressed, NNNNNN arent PPPPPPK Vic didn’t pressure Jim. JJJJJJ aren’t EEEEEE.S AC If the key is turned, then the car will start. If Tim is charitable, then he will If BBBBBB are TTTTTT, then (n=16) The car starts, help the poor. VVVVVV are NNNNN. The key was turned. Tim helps the poor, VVVVVVV are NNNNNN, Tim is charitable. BBBBBB are TTTTTT. DA If it is raining, then the road will be wet. If Pam sees a stranger, then she If RRRRRR are FFFFFF, then (n=16) It isnt raining, will cry. JJJJJ are TTTTTT. The road isnt wet. Pam doesn’t see a stranger, RRRRRR arent FFFFFF, She doesnt cry. JJJJJJ arent TTTTTTT. If the brake is depressed, then the car will slow If Tim is charitable, then he will If KKKKKK are YYYYYY, Baseline down. help the poor. then OOOOOO are TTTTTT. Tasks The foundation is cracked, Joe loves Ann, MMMMMM are KKKKKK (n=16) It rains Amy hangs out with Ellen JJJJJJ are EEEEEE
1. Interaction physical > social2. Interaction social > physical
Main effect of conditional reasoning: Right and left hemispheric activity in fronto-temporo- parietal Integration of both syntactic language-based activity and visuo-spatial processingMain effect of causal conditional reasoning: Left frontoparietal activation left inferior frontal Syntactic/semantic processing
Causal reasoning: Left-lateralized activation of lateral frontal structures and structures near the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Linguistic processing and semantic integration.Abstract reasoning: Right lateralized activation of occipito-parieto-temporal regions Spatial manipulation and internal representation of symbols
Social reasoning: Right lateralized activation of the inferior frontal gyrus and the insula. Social cognition & empathyPhysical reasoning: Left fronto-parietal activation Non-social conditional reasoning structures Lexico-semantic processing
Behavioral results Poor accuracy for invalid formsConfusing instructionUse of force-choice responses (true or false): If the brake is depressed, then the car will slow down. The car slows down ∴ The brake is depressed.
Reasoning is a fractionated cognitive system thatrelies on various neural pathways Content DomainFuture studies: Brain lesion studies
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