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Renewable energy course#06

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Renewable energy course#06

1. 1. Hydel Power
2. 2. Types of Hydro Turbines Reaction, Impulse, Mixed Flow Axial for Low Head (3-33 meters) Radial or Combined Flow Kaplan – Variable pitch blades – High efficiency at off load conditions Francis – radial, mixed flow – 5-500 meter heads – poor at off load conditions Pelton Wheel – Impulse turbine > 50 meter head – high efficiency over wide range Fixed Bladed Propeller ~ High efficiency at design conditions Poor at low flow rates
3. 3. Three Gorges Dam – Yangtze River - China Installed capacity 22.5 GW - 32 Main Turbines of 700 MW Capacity factor 0.45 Height 181 m Length 2,335 m Crest width 40 m Base width 115 m Spillway capacity 16,000 m3 /s Reservoir Capacity 39.3 km3 Catchment Area 1,000,000 km2 Surface area 1,045 km2 Normal elevation 175 m Reservoir length 600 km Max. reservoir width 1.1 km
4. 4. Pelton Wheel – Impulse Turbine
5. 5. Francis – Reaction Turbine
6. 6. Kaplan – Reaction Turbine
7. 7. Principle Po = ρQgH (Watts) Rain fall > 40 cm/y desired Ha = Ht - Hf Q = ⌠ u dA u ≈ 0.8 us (for rectangular cross section)
8. 8. Pelton Wheel F = 2ρQj (uj – uc) Force experienced by the cup Pj = F uc = 2ρQj (uj – uc) uc Power transferred to one cup Maximum for uc/ uj = 0.5 Hence Pj = ρ Qj uj 2 / 2 100% efficiency
9. 9. Uj 2 = 2g Ha Bernoulli’s Principle Pm = ηm ρ Qj (2gHa) / 2 = ηm ρ (a uj) (2gHa ) /2 = ηm ρ a (2gHa)3/2 / 2 Power from one nozzle = ηm ρ a n (2gHa)3/2 / 2 for n nozzles 2 ≤ n ≤ 4
10. 10. Angular Velocity and Turbine Size Since uc = Rω R = 0.5 uj / ω R = 0.5 (2gHa)1/2 / ω Radius of the nozzle r2 = Pm / (ηmρnπ(gHa)3/2 (2)1/2 ) Hence r / R = 0.68 (ηmn) -1/2 δ Where δ = Pm 1/2 ω / [ ρ1/2 (gHa)5/4 ] Shape Number
11. 11. Peak Efficiencies of Various Turbines w.r.t. Shape Number
12. 12. Banki Turbine – Cross flow
13. 13. η = 0.9, δ = 0.11 Hence ω1 = δ ρ1/2 (gHa)5/4 / Pm 1/2 = 0.11 x (1000)1/2 (9.8 x 81)5/4 / (160000)1/2 = 36 Rad/s Further, R = uj / 2ω = (2gHa)1/2 / 2ω = 40 / 2ω = 0.55 m Similarly, ω2 = 1.1 Rad/s, R = 4.5 m Therefore, Pelton wheels rotate slowly with low heads – Suitable only with low heads and small flows
14. 14. World Hydro Electricity Generation (Twh/year)
15. 15. Hydro Power Capacity by Region
16. 16. Hydraulic Ramp Pump
17. 17. Social & Environmental Aspects  Multiple applications – Water storage, fishing, recreation, bird sanctuaries, river flow control, flood mitigation  Debt burden – high capital investment, public displacement, destruction of eco-systems, loss of historical and cultural heritage, inequitable sharing of costs and benefits  Small reservoirs and Run-of-River projects considered having less environmental impacts – China having large numbers
18. 18. S. No Power Station Installed Capacity (MW) 1. Tarbela 3,578 2. Ghazi Barotha 1,450 3. Mangla 1,000 4. Warsak 243 5. Chashma 184 6. Khan Khwar 72 7. Duber Khwar 130 8. Allai Khwar 121 9. Others 178 Total Capacity 6,956 Currently Installed Hydel Power Capacity in Pakistan
19. 19. S. No . Power Station Capaci ty (MW) Expect ed Compl etion 1. Jinnah Hydropow er 96 Dec. 2012 2. Gomal Zam Dam 17.4 Feb. 2013 3. Golen-Gol 106 Feb. 2015 4. Neelum Jhelum 969 Oct. 2015 Total 1188.4 Near completion hydel power projects in Pakistan
20. 20. S. No . Project River Water Storage (MAF) Power Capacity (MW) 1. Diamer Basha Indus 8.1 4500 2. Kurram-Tangi Kurram 1.2 84 3. Tarbela-4th Extetnsion Indus 1410 4. Munda Swat 1.3 740 5. Kohala Jhelum RoR* 1100 6. Bunji Indus RoR* 7100 7. Dasu Indus 1.15 4320 8. Lower Spat Gah Indus RoR* 496 9. Lower Palas Valley Indus RoR* 665 10. Mahl Jhelum RoR* 600 Total Capacity 11.75 21015 Identified Sites whose Feasibility Study is Complete
21. 21. Current National News  7 – Wind Projects of 450 MW in the pipeline  50 MW by FFC erected one – 25 out of 33 towers manufactured in Pakistan  Blades will be locally manufactured in the next phase  220 MW of Solar Grid applications in the pipeline @ 25c/kWh  14000 Biogas plants under installation by Dutch Govt.
22. 22. What Choices Do We Have ?  The shift in the energy sources is viewed as both a challenge and an enormous opportunity  The choice we face is either prosperity or decline  We can either remain an importer of oil at increasingly higher costs or to become an exporter of clean energy  We can allow the climate change to wreck unnatural havoc across the landscape or we can create jobs working to prevent its worst effects  The nations that will lead the world in creating new energy sources will be the nations that lead the 21st century global economy
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