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Electric arc furnace (EAF)
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric
arc.An electric arc furnace is a high-temperature furnace that uses high-voltage electric arcs to
Arc furnaces range in size from small units of approximately one ton capacity (used
in foundries for producing cast iron products) up to about 400 ton units used for
secondary steelmaking. Arc furnaces used in research laboratories. Industrial electric arc
furnace temperatures can be up to 1,800 °C (3,272 °F).
Diff b/w arc and induction:
Arc furnaces differ from induction furnaces in that the charge material is directly exposed to an
electric arc, and the current in the furnace terminals passes through the charged material.
Acc to a poster in Metallurgy dept. :
EAF uses the Eddy current for generating arc and induction furnace uses hysteresis for
A schematic cross-section through an EAF. Three electrodes (yellow),
molten bath (gold), tapping spout at left, refractory brick movable roof,
brick shell, and a refractory-lined bowl-shaped hearth
An electric arc furnace used for steelmaking consists of a refractory-lined vessel, usually water-
cooled in larger sizes, covered with a retractable roof, and through which one or
more graphite electrodes enter the furnace.
The furnace is primarily split into three sections:
the shell, which consists of the sidewalls and lower steel "bowl";
the hearth, which consists of the refractory that lines the lower bowl;
the roof, which may be refractory-lined or water-cooled
An electric arc furnace is simply a furnace lined with heat-resistant ceramic refractory material.
The furnace has a water-cooled lid that lifts off for loading with scrap. The lid also holds the
three graphite electrodes that create the electric arc to melt the scrap into new steel. Large
electric lines lead to the furnace. The lid tilts up for loading. When the furnace is loaded, the lid
is lowered and clamped tight, and the electrodes are lowered into the scrap. When power is fed to
the furnace, the electricity jumps into the steel from the two energized electrodes and travels
through the steel to the neutral electrode connected to ground. The direct and radiant heat from
the electric arcs melts the steel scrap.