Imam khomeini


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Some aspects of Imam Khomeinis revolutionary leadership.

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Imam khomeini

  1. 1. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini The Man Who Changed The IranBy : Syed AqeelSubmitted To: Sir Syed Asad RazaCourse: Foundation of Leadership & Team Work, EMBA (2010-12) MSD GCU Lahore Tuesday, December 27, 2011
  2. 2. IntroductionAyatollah Khomeini was the founder and supreme leader of the IslamicRepublic of Iran. The only leader in the Muslim world who combinedpolitical and religious authority as a head of state, he took office in1979.Imam Khomeini was considered a marja-e taqlid to many Muslims, andin Iran was officially addressed as Imam rather than Grand Ayatollah;his supporters follow this convention. Imam Khomeini was also ahighly-influential and innovative Islamic political theorist, most notedfor his development of the theory of velayat-e faqih (governmentshould be run in accordance with traditional Islamic sharia).He was named Times Man of the Year in 1979. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  3. 3. Imam Khomeini’s Basic InfoName: Imam/Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini.Born: May 17, 1900 , Town of Khomein (which is about 200 miles south of Tehran,Iran)Died: June 3, 1989, Tehran IranFather: Mustapha Musavi was the chief cleric (those with religious authority) of thetown and was murdered only five months after the birth of Ruhollah.The child was raised by his mother (Hajar) and aunt (Sahebeh), both of whom diedwhen Ruhollah was about fifteen years old.The title Ayatollah (the Sign of God) reflected his scholarly religious standing in theIslamic tradition. His first name, Ruhollah (the Spirit of God), is a common name inspite of its religious meaning, and his last name is taken from his birthplace, the townof Khomein. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  4. 4. Revolutionary leadershipNo revolution is possible without a revolutionary leadership. In anyrevolutionary situation, leaders play a crucial role in inspiring andguiding the struggle toward the assertion and realization ofrevolutionary change. The presence of a charismatic leader at theforefront of the revolutionary struggle, who rallies the aspirations ofthe discontented masses, is central to the generation of enthusiasticand loyal support for the revolutionary movement.The victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran, which ended in theoverthrow of the Shah in February 1979 and the subsequent layingdown of the foundations of the Islamic Republic, owed a great deal tothe leadership qualities of the late Imam Khomeini. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  5. 5. Imam Khomeinis revolutionary leadershipImam Khomeini possessed all the qualities andaccomplishments required to recommend him to the Muslimsas a leader and an authentic hero in the Islamic tradition:exceptional personal integrity and unselfishness in lifestyle,the will and ability to be a strong leader, incredible courageand steadfastness in the face of great odds and hardships,extraordinary and spellbinding communication and debatingskills.His Spartan lifestyle which avoided worldly luxuries. ImamKhomeini lived a simple life both before and after therevolution, eating simple food, wearing plain clothes, sleepingon the floor, and tirelessly performing the nightly prayers andQuran recitation sessions day in, day out without fail to theend of his life. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  6. 6. Imam Khomeinis revolutionary leadershipAnother cornerstone of Imam Khomeinisrevolutionary leadership was his ability andcharisma to unite the disparate opposition to theestablished order around the highest demands:putting an end to Pahlavis dictatorship and todependency on the west. In achieving this hemaintained his finger on the pulse of the people,skillfully gauging the latent moods and dispositionsprevailing among the Iranian masses who hated theauthoritarian Pahlavis. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  7. 7. Imam Khomeinis revolutionary leadershipIn fact, the most important quality of ImamKhomeinis leadership lies in his ability to mobilizethe resources and skills of the Iranian massestowards the attainment of the desiredrevolutionary change. In this regard he displayedremarkable organizational skills and ability to utilizealternative modes of communication with themasses in the face of the total monopoly of politicalpower and domination of the media by the Pahlaviregime. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  8. 8. Imam Khomeinis revolutionary leadershipIn order to maintain contact with the natural source ofstrength of the revolutionary movement, i.e. the people,Imam Khomeini made use of an existing complex web ofreligious institutions, centered on mosques anduniversities. These institutions provided an effectivemedium of public communication to influence theformation of public opinion. Under his guidance, skillfulorganizational techniques were utilized by a network ofrevolutionary ulama’s in order to employ theseinstitutions in mobilizing mass meetings anddemonstrations. Hence, these institutions became thecores of an extensive grass-roots movement throughoutthe country. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  9. 9. Phases of Ayatollah Khomeinis lifeAyatollah Khomeinis life after childhood wentthrough three different phases.• The first phase, Early life and education, from 1908 to 1962.• The second phase, Preparation for political leadership, from 1962 to 1979.• The third phase, Founding the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1979 to 1989. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  10. 10. The first phase Ayatollah Khomeinis life Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  11. 11. Early life and education (1908 to 1962)The first phase, from 1908 to 1962, was marked mainly by training,teaching, and writing in the field of Islamic studies.At the age of six he began to study the – Quran (Islams holy book) – Elementary Persian, an ancient language of Iran.Later, he completed his studies in – Islamic law – Ethics – Spiritual Philosophyunder the supervision of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri-ye Yazdi, in Qom,where he also got married and had two sons and three daughters.Although during this scholarly phase of his life Khomeini was notpolitically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writingsrevealed that he firmly believed in political activism by clerics (religiousleaders). Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  12. 12. The second phase Ayatollah Khomeinis life Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  13. 13. Preparation for political leadership(1962 to 1979)The second phase of Khomeinis life, from 1962 to 1979, was markedby political activism which was greatly influenced by his strict, religiousinterpretation of Islam. He practically launched his fight against theshahs regime (the kings rule) in 1962, which led to the eruption of areligious and political rebellion on June 5, 1963. This date is regardedby the revolutionists as the turning point in the history of the Islamicmovement in Iran. The shahs bloody crushing of the uprising wasfollowed by the exile (forced removal) of Khomeini in 1964.Khomeini spent more than 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy city ofNajaf, Iraq. Initially he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964 wherehe stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. Later in October 1965he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until beingforced to leave in 1978, after which he went to Paris, France. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  14. 14. Preparation for political leadership (1962 to 1979)In early 1970, Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government later publishedas a book titled "Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e Faqih"This was his most famous and influential work, and laid out his ideas on governance as followings,• The laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life."• Since Shariah, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia. Since Islamic jurists or faqih have studied and are the most knowledgeable in Sharia, the countrys ruler (Guardian or Supreme Leader) should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice, (known as a marja), as well as having intelligence and administrative ability.• This system of clerical (religious leader) rule is necessary to prevent injustice, corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers.A modified form of this wilayat al-faqih system was adopted after Khomeini and his followerstook power, and Khomeini was the Islamic Republics first "Guardian" or Supreme Leader. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  15. 15. The third phase Ayatollah Khomeinis life Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  16. 16. Founding the Islamic Republic of Iran (1979 to 1989)Khomeini had refused to return to Iran until the Shah left. On 17 January1979, the Shah did leave the country ("on vacation"), never to return. Twoweeks later, on Thursday, 1 February 1979, Khomeini returned in Iran,welcomed by a joyous crowd of up to at least six million (source ABC Newswho was reporting the event from Tehran). On the Air France flight on his wayto Iran, Khomeini was asked by Jennings (a news reporter): "What do you feelin returning to Iran?" Khomeini answered: "Hichi" (Nothing). This statementwas considered reflective of his spiritual beliefs, and his non-attachment toego.On February 11 revolutionary forces loyal to Khomeini seized power in Iran,and Khomeini emerged as the founder and the supreme leader of the IslamicRepublic of Iran.On March 30 and 31 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with anIslamic Republic passed with 98% voting in favor of the replacement.After assuming power, Islam was made the basis of Irans new constitutionand obedience to Islamic laws made compulsory. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  17. 17. Death and funeralAfter eleven days in a hospital, Khomeini died atthe age of 89 in Iran on June 3, 1989. Around 3.5million people attended his funeral.Khomeini is still a popular figure to Iranians andmany Muslims. Each year on the anniversary ofhis death, hundreds of thousands of peopleattend a ceremony at his shrine at the Behesht-e-Zahra cemetery. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  18. 18. ConclusionImam/Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini is the only leader in the Muslim world who combinedpolitical and religious authority as a head of state.The leadership qualities of the late Imam Khomeinifurnish a historic model for revolutionary praxisthat will continue to inspire and guide the struggleof the Islamic movement in the future. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel
  19. 19. Thank you for your timeReferences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini By : Syed Aqeel