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Contents Intestinal Microflora Formation Gut Microflora (Microbiota) History Of Probiotics Probiotics definition Probiotics : An edge over Antibiotics Probiotic strains currently used Key properties of probiotics Established effects of probiotics Mechanism for the benefit of Probiotics
Advantages of Probiotics1. Antibiotic associated diarrhea2. Probiotics and Cancer3. Hepatic Diseases4. Helicobacter pylori Infections5. Treat high cholesterol6. Use of probiotics beyond GIT (Allergy) Effects of Probiotics in Livestocks Prebiotics Synbiotics Health benefits of Synbiotics Market Of Probiotics
Intestinal Microflora:Location & Prevalence Rare in the esophagus Uncommon in the stomachprimarily gram (+)102 - 103 105 in the duodenum & jejunum – primarily aerobes 105 -107Ileum 109 – 1012 in the colonprimarily anerobes1000x more anerobes than aerobes
More than total cells in the human body At least 17 families At least 50 genera 400-500 species in any single person 80-90% unculturable
History Of ProbioticsIn 76 BC the Roman historian Plinius recommendedthe administration of fermented milk products fortreating gastroenteritis .Russian scientist Eli Metchnikoff in early 20th centurysuggested that it would be possible to modify thegut flora and to replace harmful microbes by usefulmicrobesThe term “Probiotics” was first introduced in 1965 byLilly and Stillwell, when it was described asgrowth promoting factors produced bymicroorganisms.
Parker was the first to use the term probiotic inthe sense that it is used today “organisms andsubstances which contribute to intestinalmicrobial balance”. In 1989, Fuller attempted to improve Parker’sdefinition of probiotic with the followingdistinction: “A live microbial feed supplementwhich beneficially affects the host animal byimproving its intestinal microbial balance.”
Probiotics‘‘Live microorganisms which whenadministered in adequate amountsconfer a health benefit on the host’’ asdefined by WHO.
Antibiotics Emergence of antibiotic resistance micro-organisms. Unpleasant side effectsProbiotics Non-invasive Preventive Free from undesirable side effectsProbiotics :An edge over Antibiotics
Probiotic strains currentlyusedLactobacillus species1) L. acidophilus2) L. plantarum3) L. casei subspecies rhamnosus4) L. brevis5) L. delbreuckii subspecies bulgaricusBifidobacterium species1) B. adolescentis2) B. bifidum3) B. longum4) B. infantis5) B. breve Contd….
Key properties of probiotic1. Non-pathogenic, non-toxic and non-allergic.2. Capable of surviving and metabolizing in upper G.I.tract e.g. Resistant to low pH, organic acids, bilejuice, saliva and gastric acid3. Human in origin, genetically stable and capable ofremaining viable for long periods in field condition.4. Able to modulate immune response and provideresistance to disease through improved immunity or bythe production of antimicrobial substance in the guts.Contd….
5. Good adhesion/ colonization to human intestinaltract and influence on gut mucosal permeability.6. Antagonistic against carcinogenic/ pathogenicorganism.7. Clinically proven health benefit, e.g. gastrointestinaldisorders, diarrhoea, clostridium difficlecolitis, antibiotics associated diarrhoea, acuteinfantile gastroenteritis.8. Technologic properties for commercial viability suchas stability of desired characteristics duringprocessing, storage and transportation.
Established effects ofprobioticsAid in lactose digestion Resistance to enteric pathogens Anti-colon cancer effect Anti-hypertensive effect Small bowel bacterial overgrowth Immune system modulation Blood lipids, Heart disease Urogenital infections Hepatic encephalopathy
Mechanism for the benefit ofProbiotics: Adherence and colonization of the gut Suppression of growth or epithelial binding/invasion bypathogenic bacteria and production of antimicrobialsubstances Improvement of intestinal barrier function Controlled transfer of dietary antigens (Iron etc.) Stimulation of mucosal and systemic host immunity
• Produce lactic acid- lowers the pH of intestines andinhibiting bacterial villains such asClostridium, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli, etc.• Decreases the production of a variety of toxic orcarcinogenic metabolites.• Aid absorption of minerals, especially calcium, due toincreased intestinal acidity.• Production of β- D- galactosidase enzymes that breakdown lactose .Contd….Advantages of Probiotics
Produce a wide range of antimicrobial substances– hydrogen peroxide– organic acids– Bacteriocin– acidophilin Produce vitamins (especially Vitamin B and vitamin K) Act as barriers to prevent harmful bacteria fromcolonizing the intestines
Effects of probiotics onpathogenic bacteria Probiotics reduce levels of bacterial endotoxinconcentrations, by inhibiting translocation of bacteriaacross the GI lumen into the bloodstream. Decrease in translocation of bacteria may occur as aresult of the ability of probiotics to tighten the mucosalbarrier. Probiotics disallow colonization by disease-provokingbacteria through competition for nutrients, immunesystem up-regulation, production of antitoxins, and up-regulation of intestinal mucin genes. contd…
• Probiotics lower colon luminal pH and fostergrowth of non-pathogenic commensal bacteria bySCFA (Short Chain Fatty Acid) production. OneSCFA, acetic acid, has antimicrobial activityagainst molds, yeasts, and bacteria.• Probiotics exert protective effects throughproduction of hydrogen peroxide and benzoicacid, which inhibit many pathogenic, acid-sensitivebacteria .
Enzymes (Glycosidase, B- glucuronidase , azoreductase, and nitroreductase) of the intestinal flora convert theprecarcinogens to active carcinogensProbiotics reduce Faecal concentrations of enzymes Reduce absorption of harmful mutagens that maycontribute to colon carcinogenesis.Activity of L. acidophilus and L. casei supplementationin humans helped to decrease levels of these enzymesProbiotics and Cancer
Several mechanisms have been proposed as to howLACTIC ACID BACTERIA may inhibit colon cancer1. Enhancing the host’s immune response2. Altering the metabolic activity of the intestinalmicroflora3. Binding and degrading carcinogens4. Producing antimutagenic compounds5. Altering the physiochemical conditions in the colon
Hepatic DiseasesMechanisms by which probiotics may treat HepaticEncephalopathy1. Decreased portal blood ammonia by reduced bacterialurease activity2. Decreased pH due to less ammonia absorption3. Reduce intestinal permeability and improved gutepithelium4. Decreased inflammation and oxidative stress due toreduced ammonia toxins5. Reduced uptake of other toxins
Helicobacter pylori InfectionsChronic gastritis, Peptic ulcers, Gastric adenocarcinoma,and a number of non-gastrointestinal disorders.Bifidobacteria and B. subtilis may inhibit the growth orattachment of H. pylori.Possible mechanisms by which L. salivarius eradicates H.pylori include the ability of the former to bind to gastricepithelial cells, to produce a high quantity of lactic acid,and to proliferate rapidly.
Treat high cholesterol Helping to treat high cholesterol. Helping to lower blood pressure due to theACE inhibitor-like peptides produced duringfermentation of milk.
Lactic acid bacilliIncreases production ofShort chain Fatty AcidInhibits cholesterol synby liverDecreases blood chlesterolIncreases bile.Bile syn. IncreasesMore cholesterol is used upDecreases plasma cholesterolHelping to treat highcholesterol
Allergy To modify the structure of antigens Reduce their immunogenicity Reduce intestinal permeability Generation of proinflammatory cytokines thatare elevated in patients with a variety ofallergic disordersUse of probiotics beyond GIT
Effects of Probiotics inLivestocks resistance to infectious disease improvement of digestion increased growth rate better absorption of nutrients provision of essential nutrients improvement of milk quality reduction of bad ordor in feces
Probiotics: prescribing– Lactobacillus best studied to date– Combination products not wellstudied, but may work as well– 10 billion organisms/day– Keep in fridge– Give in cool food/drink– 2% risk bloating/gas
• The term prebiotic was introduced by Gibsonand Roberfroid who exchanged “pro” for “pre,”which means “before”.A non-digestible food ingredientBeneficial effectsPrebiotics
PrebioticsBiochemistry Inulin : long-chain (2-60sugars) fructooligosaccharides (FOS) xylooligosaccharides(XOS) Polydextrose galactooligosaccharides(GOS)It is not clear which type of prebiotic is most effective.
Synbiotic = Probiotic + Prebiotic The concept of synbiotics has been proposed tocharacterize health-enhancing foods andsupplements used as functional food ingredients inhumans Potential synergy between pro- & prebiotics Improve survival in upper GIT More efficient implantation Stimulating effect of ProbioticsSynbiotics
Health benefits of Synbiotics• Improved survival of live bacteria in foodproducts, prolonged shelf life• Increased number of ingested bacteria reaching the colon ina viable form• Stimulation in the colon of the growth and implantation ofboth exogenous and endogenous bacteria• Activation of metabolism of beneficialbacteria, antagonistic toward pathogenic bacteria
• Production of antimicrobial substances(bacteriocins , hydrogen peroxide, organicacids etc)• Immuno-stimulation• Anti-inflammatory, Anti-mutagenic, Anti-carcinogenic, and production of bioactivecompounds (enzymes, vaccines, peptides etc)
Increased from $14.9 billion in 2007 to anestimated $15.9 billion by the end of 2008. Itshould reach $19.6 billion by 2013, acompound annual growth rate (CAGR) of4.3%. Japan accounted for the largest share of totalsales in 2007 with 39.5%, driven primarilyby the country’s large and well-developedprobiotic foods segment.Market Of Probiotics
Summary Intestinal Microflora , Formation History Probiotics definition and strains currently used Key properties of probiotics Established effects of probiotics & Mechanism Advantages of Probiotics Effects of Probiotics in Livestocks Prebiotics, Synbiotics , Health benefits of Synbiotics Market Of Probiotics