PAVLOV’S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 – February 27, 1936) Famous Russian physiologist. Classical conditioning - a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate, stimuli.
Tofully understand Pavlov‟s (1927) theory of classical conditioning we need to understand two types of stimuli and two types of responses: Unconditioned Unconditioned Stimulus response (UCS) (UCR) Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus Response (CS) (CR)
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)A stimulus that automatically produces a response withoutany prior learning.(Food was the UCS in Pavlov‟s esperiment)Unconditioned Response (UCR)An unlearned response that is automatically elicited by theUCS. (the dog‟s salivation in response to food was the UCR)Conditioned Stimulus (CS)A previously neutral stimulus (NS) that eventually elicitsa conditioned response after being associated with the UCS.Conditioned Response(CR)
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN THE REAL WORLD In reality, people do not respond exactly like Pavlov‟s dogs. There are, however, numerous real-world applications for classical conditioning.:e.g. In Training Animals: Training a cat to come to it‟s food when it hears it‟s food bowl being tapped. In Advertising: Walking past the Mc Donnalds golden arches and feeling hungry because you associate the golden arches sign with the food they serve in the Mc Donnalds restaurant.
1. ACQUISITION : FORMING NEW RESPONSES. Pavlov : acquisition of a conditioned response depends on the time factor that linked between two events. Kamin (1965) : discovered that conditioning is most likely to occur when the conditioned stimulus (CS) begins about a half-second before the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and stops at the same time as UCS.
Not every linking of CS and USC will produce acquisition of classical conditioning.Only stimuli that are, - SPECIAL - NOVEL - INTENSE
2.EXTINCTION : WEAKENING CONDITIONEDRESPONSES a conditioned response (salivation) will disappear over time when the conditioned stimulus (bell) is no longer presented. The response is the result of gradual weakening and vanishing of a conditioned response. As an example, after conditioning, the bell continues to ring at certain intermission without any meat powder given, and the rate of salivation would gradually reduce and finally stop after a period of time.
3. SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY : RESURRECTINGRESPONSES. The reappearance of salivation which was extinct after a long period of non appearance of the bell. Pavlov‟s observation :EXTINGUISHED REST RETEST
4. STIMULUS GENERALIZATION. refers to the conditioned response of an organism that applies not only to the real, original conditioned stimulus, but also to other stimuli that are alike. after conditioning, there are possibilities for Pavlov‟s dog to respond to different kind of bell sound in different situation. stimulus generalization occurs when an individual is able to respond the same way to any other stimuli that are similar with the original stimuli.
5. STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION. an individual will not respond the same way as the original stimuli when they met with a new stimuli that are similar. The lesser similarities of the new stimuli is to the original conditioned stimuli, the greater is the chance for stimulus discrimination to occur. As an example, the sound of the gong compared with the bell. On the other hand, if the new stimulus were quite similar with the original conditioned stimulus, then stimulus generalization would take place.
6. HIGHER-ORDER CONDITIONING. It refers to a new conditioned response which is built on the foundation of learned response. It is a conditioned response which functions as an unconditioned stimulus. As an example, in Pavlov‟s experiment, he links the conditioned stimulus (sound of the bell) with red light.
During conditioning. CS : RED LIGHT CR : SALIVATION CS : BELL SOUND
After conditioning. CS : RED CR : LIGHT SALIVATION
IMPLICATIONS OF PAVLOV‟S CONDITIONING THEORY IN TEACHING LEARNING
Before Conditioning Science Teacher (UCS) Unconditioned response teaching in the class for the (pupil‟s attention) towards first time. the teaching activities only. During Conditioning Pupils pay attention to Teacher (CS) teaching in an teacher‟s teaching (CR). interesting manner. After Conditioning Pupils pay attention to Teacher‟s presence (CS). teacher‟s teaching (CR)
Before Conditioning “book” verbally expressed by pupils (UCS ------------------------------------------------------------>UCR)
During Conditioning Book (CS) CR “book” verbally expressed by the -- UCS --> students
After Conditioning Pupils expressed “book” -------------> verbally Book
HIGHER-ORDER CONDITIONING Process of higher-order conditioning.(a) Before Learning y m c x (conditioned stimulus)
(b) During Learning y m y = mx + c c x(NEW CONDITIONED STIMULUS + CONDITIONEDSTIMULUS)
(c) After Learning Teacher have to associate practical experience with the learning task. Guide pupils to apply skill to make accurate generalization by using various related examples.
Guide pupils to use skill to make discrimination such as determine the different specific characteristics of parallelogram and rhombus. Use secondary reinforcement to sustain conditioned response to avoid process of extinction. Guide pupils to restore their memory by allowing sufficient resting time until all existing interferences in learning have been removed.
J. B. WATSON (1878-1958) An American psychologist. The first person to use the term „behaviourism‟ to study human behaviour. Research - influenced by Pavlov‟s Classical Conditioning Theory. Famous research – related to children‟s emotion
EMOTION LEARNING: STIMULUSGENERALIZATION People inherit three kinds of basic emotions: Fear Anger Love Human emotion can be learned through the process called conditioning.
THE EXPERIMENT Together with colleague, Rosalie Rayner (1920), they used a nine-month old baby, named Little Albert and a white tame mouse to conduct the experiment.
1. A white mouse was brought to Little Albert whom he showed interest to play with.1. As soon as the white mouse was shown to Albert the second time, a loud, startling sound was emitted all of a sudden from the back.1. Immediately, Albert‟s reaction was panic and frightened.2. After conditioned response was established, Little Albert began to show fear of the white mouse itself.
IMPLICATIONS OF WATSON‟S LEARNING THEORY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING1. All types of behaviour can be learned through conditioning process. Positive behaviour can be taught by using suitable stimulus.2. Pupils ought to relate the relationship between all responses systematically in order to master the skill of solving problems.
3. More exercises should be carried out after learning in order to strengthen what has been learned in the memory4. Teacher should use suitable stimulus during the teaching process to motivate pupils in learning, and at the same time, avoid using stimulus which will produce negative effect.