INTRODUCTION cont..• Traffic management is define as how to use the existing roads and infrastructures to maximize the effectiveness of the use to reduce the crowding of traffic• Traffic management can be in long term and also in short term (according the situation)• It is therefore an essential element in increasing the efficiency and safety of transport networks and operations
OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT1) To reduce the number of accidents2) To ensure the smoothness of traffic movement3) To improve the movement of goods and humans4) To balance the modal split5) To minimize the clash between vehicles and the pedestrian6) To control and manage the car park
OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT cont..
TECHNIQUE OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT1) Physical management of road system2) Instruct form and traffic regulation management3) Management of information to road users4) Management of payment for traffic facilities
CAR PARK CONTROL• Highly charged for park to reduce the number of vehicles to enter the urban area• The volume of traffic in urban area can be reduce• The balance between the request to park the car and the ability of provision car park must be created
RAMP METERING• Ramp metering is designed to control the rate of traffic entering a freeway. The objective is to maintain a predetermined level of service on the freeway by adjusting the on-ramp traffic volume with a traffic signal. Typical waiting times at ramp metering signals are between 5 to 6 seconds per vehicle.
- Ramp meter light rotate every few seconds, with one lane displaying Green and the other displaying red
• Ramp meters are turned on before rush hour begins, and operate at different times of day depending on traffic patterns. Every few seconds, a cycle from red to green allows one vehicle at a time to merge onto the freeway. On two-lane ramps, the left and right lanes have alternating lights, so the left lane goes while the right is stopped, and vice versa.
BENEFITS OF RAMP METER• Reduce congestion on freeway• Maintain more steady traffic flow• Allow more cars to use freeway• Allow merging vehicle to enter freeway traffic more smoothly• Smoother and safer freeway entries.• Minimized sudden weaving and braking.• More consistent traffic flows.• Improved freeway speeds.• Decreased travel times.• Reduced rear end accidents.
How They WorkThe meters work and look similar to traffic signals. Drivers mustconsider and obey them as they would other traffic signals.Specifically:• A red light means stop, a green light means go.• A typical meter cycle is two seconds of green and two to ten seconds of red. The wait on the ramp is usually about one minute.• Flashing yellow lights located near the ramp entrance alert motorists that the meter is on and that they should be prepared to stop.
Signs and pavement markings indicate where to stop and how to proceed. Depending on the location, ramp meters will have one or two lanes. Two lane ramps will use a staggered release where the left releases the vehicle first and then as its signal turns red, the right signal turns green. Most ramp meters permit one vehicle to proceed per green light, but some high traffic ramps will allow two vehicles to pass per green light. Signs before and at the signal will indicate the number of cars permitted per green light.
Instructions & Regulations Forms Management Traffic Traffic Control Turning movement barriers one-way street Limiting vehicle speed Tidal flow method (Tidal) Road Marking
Traffic Control• Control using a traffic light at the intersection.• Limiting the use of the road to certain vehicle types (according to weight criteria, the speed and size of the vehicle).• Limiting and controlling parking.• Temporary regulations (due to festivals, sports and other)• Regulation without strict enforcement will not achieve effective traffic management.
Turning movement barriers• Right and left turn movements can affect the smooth ride and is one of the causes of accidents.• Turning to the right block. The driver can move way to the right to do either movement round P, G or Q.• Prevent rotate left - implemented on a street with a lot of pedestrians.
one-way street• Can improve traffic flow round the city especially when the road network in the area has a network of roads and cut parallel to each other at right angles.• Technique can increase the capacity of one-way streets every road in the road network and reduce the range of the change in flow at the intersection.• By converting two-way route to a one-way path, conflict point substantially reduced.
Limiting vehicle speed• Reduced the number of accidents and their gravity when the vehicle speed is reduced.• The type of speed limits:• Reasonable speed limit - according to the road conditions cuacadan.• Ultimate speed limit - set the highest and lowest speed limit allowed (rate 85 percentage)• The recommended speed limit - recommend the appropriate speed limit to the driver (not used) on the curve.
Tidal flow method (Tidal)• Kebanyakan bandar-bandar mengalami satu keadaan lazim ‘ ’ pada setipa hari kerja dengan meningkatkan penggunaan kenderaan persendirian yang membuat perjalanan pergi dan balik dari tempat kerja.• Ini akan mewujudkan penggunaan terkurung under utilization untuk sesetengah kelebaran jalan raya dan penggunaan terlebih over utilization untuk sesetengah orang lain yang mewujudkan kesesakan tanpa penggunaan sepenuhnya kelebaran jalan raya,
• Biasanya rizab penengah mesti dibuka bagi pelaksanaan operasi pasang surut dan dalam masa yang sama lampu isyarat dipersimpangan perlu diselaraskan mengikut keutamaan lalu lintas.• Contohnya jika jalan raya mempunyai 3 lorong, lorong yang tengah boleh digunakan sebagai lorong pasang surut pada waktu pagi dan petang bagi aliran masuk dan keluar Bandar. Sistem ini akan berfungsi dengan baik jika lalu lintas yang jelas dan mencukupi, kadang kala pencahayaan diperlukan dan maklumat diberikan kepada pengguna jalan raya.
Road Marking• Traffic marking is an object or device whether fixed or movable, or lines or marks on the road.• This notation is used to provide information, tions, requirements, restrictions or prohibitions on road users.• It includes street signs, traffic signals, road surface markings, road studs and so on.• The detailed description can be referred to:• Technical Instructions (street) 2A/85 - standard traffic signs• Instruction techniques (path) 2B/85 - traffic signs application• Instruction techniques (path) 2C/85 - temporary work signs and control Zones• Instruction techniques (path) 2B/85 - road working and delineation
Road user information and technology Traffic direction sign Control traffic route High occupant vehicles campaingn program (HOV)
Traffic direction sign By definition, it includes roadside signs, traffic signs, road marking, road studs bounce back and other indicators on the upper side down the roadway.a. In the form of traffic marking and also the road surfaceb. Traffic travel directions easy to understand, clear and provided at the appropriate time and distancec. Guide signs for pedestrians, parking, cyclists, can help smooth and user safety.d. Using the map as a guide, especially to visitors and tourists.
cont...e. Important information about public transport services will help rebalance the modal split.f. Information technology state of the art to provide the information users need quickly.g. Signs must be designed for the expected traffic conditions and to be used in the way of speed.h. That so the driver is not distracted from the task of driving, the sign should contain important and its information and its importance can clearly be seen at a glance.
Control traffic route Control using a traffic light crossroad. Restrict the use of certain types of vehicles on the road according to the criteria weight, speed and size. Limiting and controlling parking. Temporary regulations (festivals, sports etc.) ** Regulation without strict enforcement will not achieve effective traffic management.
High occupant vehicles campaingn program (HOV) Incentives to use public transport or car share can be increased through increasing the incentives for motorists. The car with many passenger on the road should get priority so that they can save time and money, particularly during peak periods. Passenger vehicles will be personally liable to the penalty that they would find it too long to get to any destination. To achieve this objective, a special lane for the cars with many passenger have to be provided:a. Co-Flow Laneb. Contrary lane flowc. Lane Can Change Direction (Tidal Flow)
cont... Co-flow Lane:a. Dedicated lane available for vehicles with many passengers on all the time or part time.b. Co-flow lanes allow vehicles moving in the same direction with the vehicles in other lanes. Contrary Lane Flow:a. The vehicles with many passengers allowed in a direction opposite to the direction of the other lanes.b. To run this technique, attention must be given in the planning, design and publicity.
cont...c. To implement this technique, must be made by physical separation such as islands or road marking. Lane Can Change Direction (Tidal Flow):a. This is usually provided in the middle lane highway.b. In the morning peak, whose direction is opposite in the afternoon.
High occupant vehicles campaingn program (HOV) Factors that should be considered in planning for special lanes are:1. The ability to enforce lane alley to abuse by private vehicles could be reduced.2. Location and position of the lane must be strategic so the cars with many passenger will use the lane.3. Effect of special lanes for private vehicles that do not have many passengers.
cont...4. Expenses and profits caused by the use of vehicles that have a lot of passengers.5. Demand for organizing programs use vehicles for many passenger.6. Create programs that assist and promote the sharing of vehicle.
126.96.36.199.1 SHARING OF TRANSPORTATION• Use car sharing system is intended to increase the number of passengers per vehicle as well as reduce the number of vehicles per kilometer• Support from the community shows the system is able to reduce traffic congestion• This system was first used in the U.S. to save on fuel consumption during the tenaha crisis in 1973-1974.• Because of its effectiveness and well received, it was also used in other countries i. Car pooling/ tumpang• Is a group of vehicles using the vehicle in turn to make the trip from origin to destination nearby.• Usually without involving payment
CONT…. ii. Lift giving / penberian tumpang• Passengers are offered to make a deal with the use of private vehicles without payment. iii. Car sharing / pakatan• Based/similar to ‘Lift givng’ but since its frequency, passengers contribute payments for the operation and maintenance for the vehicles.• However, the amount is not set. iv. Van pooling / penumpang• The use of vans, mini buses owned or leased by a group of workers (who have it as a personal vehicle or sometimes secured by the employer) to make a deal.
CONT… v. Subscription bus / langganan• A team of workers renting a bus with or without the help of an employer to travel to work or to the office (buses, factories, goverment bus).• The system reduces the use of public transportion during peak hours so that the need for additional non-economic transportation can be reduced.• It is suitable if the public transportion system is inefficient.• In addition, a parking space can be reduced. Employers did not have to face the problem of workers trasportation.• To attract more people to share a car or van and to make these programs more effective, the following should be done:
CONT…i. Special lanes for vehicles / passengers lot (bus, van, or car that have more than 2 passengers )ii. Giving priority parkingiii. Flexible working hoursiv. Promotion and advertisingv. Service availability to collect passengers at the place of origin and destination that will allow individuals to share a car or van to go somewhere. This ensures that user of shared transportation will increase.
The Priority of Public Transportation• The strategies used in giving priority to public transport, including – Create a new public transport services. – Improve existing services – Create a trip by private car more difficult.• Public transport services – Its means operates buses along the new road – Construction of an underground rail system or open in the city.
• Improve public transport services -Factors affecting the level of service that a persons decision whether to take public transport or pedestrians, or even drive a car and whether to shop in the city or at the local store is like the following: -frequency of service -Traffic congestion and the distance between stopping places -travel speed -Comfort when in the vehicle -Comfort in the place to stop or station• Between public transport is the most widely used buses. Many bus priority measures to be implemented now are:
i. Bus lanes follow the flow.• Lane is reserved for buses traveling towards the same with other trafficii. Retrograde flow bus lane.• Is a one-way lanes reserved for buses to move in either direction "wrong" to prevent the junction or to service roadiii. Bus lane• specific and priority entrance to the road in the city.iv. Bus-only roads• An existing road and converted to the use of bus- only use.v. Bus routes.• Is a separate path design and built for buses only.
vi. Bus access the pedestrian area• buses use this road to pick up passengers right in the downtown area, is likely to avoid congestion in the inner ring roadvii. Bus tracking options at traffic lights• maybe proceed when flow decreasing bus or street width is not enough to accommodate a bus laneviii. Basic traffic other management method• Include the traffic rules that give priority to the bus when the bus leaves the station, the prohibition of parking place near bus stops and bus routes in general and also includes an exemption from the prohibition obstructs other vehicle turning movements at intersections
Traffic Constraints Method objectives:i. Control the amount of private carii. To discourage vehicles entering the centre cityiii. To balance the modal split Traffic Constraints Requirements:i. Alternative modes of transportation in the form - System and efficient operation of public transport - Short route or alternative routesi. Control and enforcementii. Education and information systems
iv. Method parking fees• Tickets are charged at hourly windscreen and drivers can pay to park or cottage attended• Using coupons that are purchased and the time and date information will be indicated on the coupon for a period of parking. The validity period for each coupon there is a 1-hour and a day• Pay at the entrance or exit a car• Using special permit purchased for 1 month• Fee does not apply - (free)• Parking illegal - unofficial payments to attended
Road Recognition System• The fee for the use of the long road• The area is often charged the busy city center and zone• The latest technology needed to apply this system• Car travel should be followed carefully• Often in every way in and out of the area for a charge to be coupled device detector to verify the identity of each complete car. Every car needs to be installed a device that can communicate with sensors above. The data obtained will then be the turn off and payment for the period of a car is in the area is will be charged each month• For example: Road tax.
• In this method, the charge is based on the number of vehicles entering an area identified• There are electronic loops buried within the limits and on every vehicle in pairs of electronic devices• When the vehicle is passing loops buried in the road surface, the identification is made and the signal sent to the control center• Computer will calculate the total path is made and the party will send the bill to the vehicle users
License Additional Area• This method has been practiced in Singapore• This method requires that any vehicle that have passengers less than 4 people who purchase or license and posting it in the car mirror before entering the zone during peak is identify• Controller or the police will control at every entrance area and will sue cars without license that have passengers or less than 4 people• The purpose of this rule is to promote travel by car that are not needed during peak hours• In addition this method also encourages car sharing
• Motorists are required to show a special license when entering The site specific. The aim is to limit the number of vehicles entering an area identified to reduce disruption and traffic congestion for example inmate designated areas given special passes to enter the area he inhabits and the vehicle does not have a pass and not allowed to enter
Maintenance of vehiscle location• Vehicle users will be charged a fee for every traffic convenience that already provided.• The other way through the parking lot. The users would be charged when they are parking.• However, not all user traffic facilities will put the vehicle especially those that have a private car park.• therefore, not all traffic users can be charged via this method.• Charge a fee for parking is charged at a higher rate to restrict motorists entering the city , in this way the traffic volume in urban areas can be reduced. Even so, a balance must be established between demand and capacity to provide parking in the city parking
Parking Management• Parking management - ensuring the types of transportation modes that will be used either to drive your own car to the city center or take public transportation or carpool.• For example, the provision of car parking on the outskirts of the city to park private vehicles so that they can catch public transport to the city center to reduce traffic congestion in the city center• Private vehicles will be using public transport. LRT example provided in the event they have the facilities to park and also convenient public transport services.
Parking Management• Examples of the maintenance train is in location: Restricting parking on street Permit for the occupants of a residential area Metered parking Priority parking to users who share kerete. This step can be enforced by issuing special premit shared car or van
Parking managementRecognised In Things Must Enforce Parking Management are:i. Public vehicle users a. Public transport users will increase unless effective public transport services exist. b. Before to reduce the amount of car parking in the urban areas, private vehicles shall be given an alternative that allows them to enjoy the effects of the reduction of parking. c. For example, an effective public transport system and comfort must be provided to the users so that they can go to the city center without using their own vehicles.
Parking managementii. Implications for the reduction in location vehicles a. Implications for the reduction of parking varies depending on the main purpose of the car driver. b. For example, the companys employees or employees of government offices that do not provide easy parking and cheap mode of transport had to switch to public transport or they will share the car. c. Urged employers to encourage employees to use the company van or bus factory by providing certain facilities and incentives, such as free airfare and van / bus air conditioner factory. d. But for the end-end eateries or restaurants, the high price of parking or the number of places that are less cars will cause their customers to find somewhere else to eat. e. Finally the restaurant would lose when the other restaurants would have the advantage.
Parking Managementiii. The Inn a. The property must provide adequate parking. b. Kingdom needs to give pass on the applicant to establish the location of the residence if the train sufficiently supplied. c. Residents who live in the area to pay for parking premit this way the number of cars will be restricted to residents only residential area.
Awards siege• Through this method of payment will be placed in an area between the first zone to differ.• Point evaluation will use a charge every time the last vehicle from one zone to another.• In this method the charge was imposed on the vehicle when entering the border zone controlled areas.• It differs from the method of additional licenses in areas controlled vehicles and do not need to pay any charge.• Vehicles entering the area are charged.• Receivables payment can be made with electronic equipment.