Ch11 Specialized Business Information Systems

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  • Ch11 Specialized Business Information Systems

    1. 1. • Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems • Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems • List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics • Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 2
    2. 2. • Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully • List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems • Identify at least three factors to consider in evaluating the development of an expert system • Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system • Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 3
    3. 3. • Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information, visualize processes, and express ideas creatively • Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 4
    4. 4. • Specialized systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals • Discuss examples of specialized systems for organizational and individual use Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 5
    5. 5. An Overview of Artificial Intelligence • Artificial intelligence (AI): the ability of computers to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain • Artificial intelligence systems: people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligence Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 6
    6. 6. The Nature of Intelligence • Learn from experiences and apply knowledge acquired from experience • Handle complex situations • Solve problems when important information is missing • Determine what is important • React quickly and correctly to a new situation Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 7
    7. 7. The Nature of Intelligence (continued) • Understand visual images • Process and manipulate symbols • Be creative and imaginative • Use heuristics Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 8
    8. 8. Table 11.1: A Comparison of Natural and Artificial Intelligence Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 9
    9. 9. Figure 11.1: A Conceptual Model of Artificial Intelligence Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 10
    10. 10. Expert Systems • Hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert • Used in many business applications Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 11
    11. 11. Robotics • Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are tedious or hazardous for humans • Robots are essential components of today’s automated manufacturing and military systems • Future robots will find wider applications in banks, restaurants, homes, doctor offices, and hazardous working environments Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 12
    12. 12. Vision Systems • The hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures • Used by the U.S. Justice Department to perform fingerprint analysis • Can be used in identifying people based on facial features • Can be used in conjunction with robots to give these machines “sight” Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 13
    13. 13. Natural Language Processing • Processing that allows the computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language, such as English • Three levels of voice recognition • Command: recognition of dozens to hundreds of words • Discrete: recognition of dictated speech with pauses between words • Continuous: recognition of natural speech Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 14
    14. 14. Learning Systems • A combination of software and hardware that allows the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives • Learning systems software requires feedback on the results of actions or decisions • Feedback is used to alter what the system will do in the future Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 15
    15. 15. Neural Networks • A computer system that can simulate the functioning of a human brain • The ability to retrieve information even if some of the neural nodes fail • Fast modification of stored data as a result of new information • The ability to discover relationships and trends in large databases • The ability to solve complex problems for which all the information is not present Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 16
    16. 16. Other Artificial Intelligence Applications • Genetic algorithm: an approach to solving large, complex problems in which a number of related operations or models change and evolve until the best one emerges • Intelligent agent: programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 17
    17. 17. An Overview of Expert Systems: Characteristics and Limitations of an Expert System • Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions • Can display “intelligent” behavior • Can draw conclusions from complex relationships • Can provide portable knowledge • Can deal with uncertainty Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 18
    18. 18. Characteristics and Limitations of an Expert System (continued) • Not widely used or tested • Difficult to use • Limited to relatively narrow problems • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge • Possibility of error Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 19
    19. 19. Characteristics and Limitations of an Expert System (continued) • Cannot refine its own knowledge • Difficult to maintain • May have high development costs • Raise legal and ethical concerns Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 20
    20. 20. When to Use Expert Systems • Provide a high potential payoff or significantly reduce downside risk • Capture and preserve irreplaceable human expertise • Solve a problem that is not easily solved using traditional programming techniques • Develop a system more consistent than human experts Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 21
    21. 21. When to Use Expert Systems (continued) • Provide expertise needed at a number of locations at the same time or in a hostile environment that is dangerous to human health • Provide expertise that is expensive or rare • Develop a solution faster than human experts can • Provide expertise needed for training and development to share the wisdom and experience of human experts with a large number of people Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 22
    22. 22. Figure 11.2: Components of an Expert System Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 23
    23. 23. The Knowledge Base • Stores all relevant information, data, rules, cases, and relationships used by the expert system • Assembling human experts • Use of fuzzy logic • Use of rules • Use of cases Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 24
    24. 24. The Inference Engine • Inference engine: part of the expert system that seeks information and relationships from the knowledge base and provides answers, predictions, and suggestions the way a human expert would • Backward chaining • Forward chaining • Comparison of backward and forward chaining Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 25
    25. 25. The Explanation Facility • Allows a user or decision maker to understand how the expert system arrived at certain conclusions or results • For example: it allows a doctor to find out the logic or rationale of the diagnosis made by a medical expert system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 26
    26. 26. The Knowledge Acquisition Facility • Provides convenient and efficient means of capturing and storing all the components of the knowledge base • Acts as an interface between experts and the knowledge base Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 27
    27. 27. The User Interface • Specialized user interface software is employed for designing, creating, updating, and using expert systems • The main purpose of the user interface is to make the development and use of an expert system easier for users and decision makers Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 28
    28. 28. Figure 11.6: Steps in the Expert System Development Process Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 29
    29. 29. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems • Domain expert: individual or group who has the expertise or knowledge one is trying to capture in the expert system • Knowledge engineer: an individual who has training or experience in the design, development, implementation, and maintenance of an expert system • Knowledge user: individual or group who uses and benefits from the expert system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 30
    30. 30. Figure 11.7: Participants in Expert Systems Development and Use Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 31
    31. 31. Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques • Traditional programming languages • Special programming languages • Expert system shells: collection of software packages and tools used to design, develop, implement, and maintain expert systems • Off-the-shelf expert system shells Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 32
    32. 32. Figure 11.8: Software for expert systems development has evolved greatly since 1980 Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 33
    33. 33. Expert Systems Development Alternatives • In-house development: develop from scratch • In-house development: develop from a shell • Off-the-shelf purchase: use existing packages Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 34
    34. 34. Figure 11.9: Some Expert System Development Alternatives and Their Relative Cost and Time Values Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 35
    35. 35. Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence • Credit granting and loan analysis • Stock picking • Catching cheats and terrorists • Budgeting • Games Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 36
    36. 36. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence (continued) • Information management and retrieval • AI and expert systems embedded in products • Plant layout and manufacturing • Hospitals and medical facilities Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 37
    37. 37. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence (continued) • Help desks and assistance • Employee performance evaluation • Virus detection • Repair and maintenance Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 38
    38. 38. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence (continued) • Shipping • Marketing • Warehouse optimization Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 39
    39. 39. Virtual Reality • Virtual reality system: enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment • Immersive virtual reality: user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 40
    40. 40. Interface Devices • Head-mounted display (HMD) • Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) • CAVE • Haptic interface Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 41
    41. 41. Interface Devices (continued) The BOOM, a head-coupled display device. Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 42
    42. 42. Interface Devices (continued) Viewing the Detroit Midfield Terminal in an immersive CAVE system. Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 43
    43. 43. Forms of Virtual Reality • Immersive virtual reality • Mouse-controlled navigation through a three-dimensional environment on a graphics monitor • Stereo projection systems • Stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 44
    44. 44. Virtual Reality Applications • Medicine • Education and training • Real estate marketing and tourism • Entertainment Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 45
    45. 45. Other Specialized Systems • Segway • A microchip that might be able to help quadriplegics perform tasks they could not perform otherwise • Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 46
    46. 46. Other Specialized Systems (continued) • “Smart containers” for ships, railroads, and trucks • Game theory • Informatics Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 47
    47. 47. Summary • Artificial intelligence (AI): ability of computers to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain • Artificial intelligence systems consist of people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligence • Expert system: computer system that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 48
    48. 48. Summary (continued) • Robotics: mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are tedious or hazardous for humans • Vision systems: computer system that permits computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures • Natural language processing: allows the computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language, such as English Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 49
    49. 49. Summary (continued) • Learning system: computer system that allows the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives • Neural network: computer system that can simulate the functioning of a human brain • Virtual reality system enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 50

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