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Ch07 The Internet, Intranets and Extranets
 

Ch07 The Internet, Intranets and Extranets

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Slide Presentasi Chapter 7 Principles of Information Systems

Slide Presentasi Chapter 7 Principles of Information Systems

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Ch07 The Internet, Intranets and Extranets Ch07 The Internet, Intranets and Extranets Presentation Transcript

  • • The Internet is like many other technologies—it provides a wide range of services, some of which are effective and practical for use today, others are still evolving, and still others will fade away from lack of use • Briefly describe how the Internet works, including alternatives for connecting to it and the role of Internet service providers Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 2
  • • Originally developed as a document-management system, the World Wide Web is a menu-based system that is easy to use for personal and business applications • Describe the World Wide Web and the way it works • Explain the use of Web browsers, search engines, and other Web tools • Identify and briefly describe the applications associated with the Internet and the Web Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 3
  • • Because the Internet and the World Wide Web are becoming more universally used and accepted for business use, management, service and speed, privacy, and security issues must continually be addressed and resolved • Identify who is using the Web to conduct business and discuss some of the pros and cons of Web shopping • Outline a process for creating Web content • Describe Java and discuss its potential impact on the software world Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 4
  • • Define the terms intranet and extranet and discuss how organizations are using them • Identify several issues associated with the use of networks Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 5
  • Use and Functioning of the Internet • Internet: a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information • ARPANET • Ancestor of the Internet • A project started by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 1969 Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 6
  • Use and Functioning of the Internet (continued) • Internet Protocol (IP): communication standard enabling traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed • Research for a faster Internet: Internet2 (I2); Next Generation Internet (NGI); Abilene • Wireless Internet Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 7
  • How the Internet Works • The Internet transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another • If the receiving computer is on a network to which the first computer is directly connected, it can send the message directly • If the receiving computer is not on a network to which the sending computer is connected, the sending computer relays the message to another computer that can forward it Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 8
  • Figure 7.1: Routing Messages over the Internet Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 9
  • How the Internet Works (continued) • Data is passed in chunks called packets • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): widely used transport layer protocol that is used in combination with Internet Protocol (IP) by most Internet applications • Uniform Resource Locator (URL): an assigned address on the Internet for each computer Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 10
  • Accessing the Internet • Connect via LAN server • Connect via Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)/Point-toPoint Protocol (PPP) • Connect via an online service • Other ways to connect (e.g., wireless application protocol, or WAP) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 11
  • Figure 7.3: Several Ways to Access the Internet Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 12
  • Internet Service Providers • Internet service provider (ISP): any company that provides individuals or organizations with Internet access • Most charge a monthly fee • Many ISPs and online services offer broadband Internet access through digital subscriber lines (DSLs), cable, or satellite transmission Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 13
  • The World Wide Web • World Wide Web: AKA the Web, WWW, or W3 • A menu-based system that uses the client/server model • Organizes Internet resources throughout the world into a series of menu pages, or screens, that appear on your computer • Hypermedia: tools that connect the data on Web pages, allowing users to access topics in whatever order they wish Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 14
  • The World Wide Web (continued) • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the standard page description language for Web pages • HTML tags: inform browsers how to format text on a Web page, and whether images, sound, and other elements should be inserted • Extensible Markup Language (XML): markup language for Web documents containing structured information, including words, pictures, and other elements Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 15
  • Figure 7.4: Sample Hypertext Markup Language Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 16
  • Web Browsers • Web browser: software that creates a unique, hypermediabased menu on a computer screen, providing a graphical interface to the Web • The menu consists of graphics, titles, and text with hypertext links Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 17
  • Search Engines • Search engine: a Web search tool • Examples of search engines: Yahoo.com; Google.com • Most search engines are free • Searches can use words such as AND and OR to refine the search • Meta-search engine: submits keywords to several individual search engines and returns the results from all search engines queried Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 18
  • Table 7.5: Popular Search Engines Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 19
  • Web Programming Languages • Java • Object-oriented programming language from Sun Microsystems based on C++ • Allows small programs (applets) to be embedded within an HTML document Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 20
  • Web Programming Languages (continued) • Other programming languages used to develop Web sites: • JavaScript • VBScript • ActiveX • Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 21
  • Business Uses of the Web • E-mail • Linking buyers and sellers • Tool for marketing, sales, and customer support • Push technology: automatic transmission of information over the Internet rather than making users search for it with their browsers Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 22
  • Developing Web Content • Computer must be linked to a Web server • Need Web browser program • Add links to home page • Advertise • Tools: word processor, HTML editor, HTML template, text editor Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 23
  • Web Services • Web services: standards and tools that streamline and simplify communication among Web sites for business and personal purposes • XML is used within a Web page to describe and transfer data between Web service applications Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 24
  • Web Services (continued) • Besides XML, other components are used in Web service applications: • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) • WSDL (Web Services Description Language) • UDDI (Universal Discovery Description and Integration) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 25
  • Internet and Web Applications • E-mail and instant messaging • Instant messaging: a method that allows two or more individuals to communicate online using the Internet • Internet cell phones and handheld computers • Career information and job searching Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 26
  • Internet and Web Applications (continued) • Telnet and FTP • Telnet: a terminal emulation protocol that enables users to log on to other computers on the Internet to gain access to public files • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): a protocol that describes a file transfer process between a host and a remote computer and allows users to copy files from one computer to another Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 27
  • Internet and Web Applications (continued) • Web log (blog): a Web site that people can create and use to write about their observations, experiences, and feelings on a wide range of topics • Usenet and newsgroups • Usenet: a system closely allied with the Internet that uses email to provide a centralized news service; a protocol that describes how groups of messages can be stored on and sent between computers • Newsgroups: online discussion groups that focus on specific topics Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 28
  • Internet and Web Applications (continued) • Chat room: a facility that enables two or more people to engage in interactive “conversations” over the Internet • Internet phone and videoconferencing services • Content streaming: a method for transferring multimedia files over the Internet so that the data stream of voice and pictures plays more or less continuously without a break, or very few of them; enables users to browse large files in real time • Shopping on the Web Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 29
  • Figure 7.7: How Voice Over IP Works Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 30
  • Internet and Web Applications (continued) • Web auctions • Music, radio, and video on the Internet • Office on the Web • Internet sites in three dimensions • Free software and services Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 31
  • Table 7.6: Summary of Internet and Web Applications Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 32
  • Table 7.6: Summary of Internet and Web Applications (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 33
  • Intranets and Extranets • Intranet • Internal corporate network built using Internet and World Wide Web standards and products • Slashes the need for paper • Provides employees with an easy and intuitive approach to access information that was previously difficult to obtain Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 34
  • Intranets and Extranets (continued) • Extranet: a network based on Web technologies that links selected resources of a company’s intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners • Virtual private network (VPN): a secure connection between two points across the Internet • Tunneling: the process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the Internet Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 35
  • Table 7.11: Summary of Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Users Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 36
  • Figure 7.8: Virtual Private Network Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 37
  • Net Issues • Management issues: preventing attacks • Service and speed issues • Web server computers can be overwhelmed by the amount of “hits” (requests for pages) • Routers can become bottlenecks Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 38
  • Figure 7.9: Typical Sources of Internet Attacks Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 39
  • Net Issues (continued) • Privacy • Spyware: hidden files and information trackers that install themselves secretly when you visit some Internet sites • Cookie: a text file that an Internet company can place on the hard disk of a computer system • Fraud • Phishing Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 40
  • Net Issues (continued) • Security with encryption and firewalls • Cryptography: converting a message into a secret code and changing the encoded message back to regular text • Digital signature: encryption technique used to verify the identity of a message sender for processing online financial transactions • Firewall: a device that sits between an internal network and the Internet, limiting access into and out of a network based on access policies • Unauthorized sites Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 41
  • Figure 7.10: Cryptography process Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 42
  • Summary • The Internet is a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information • Internet Protocol (IP) is a communication standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed • Internet data is passed in chunks called packets • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a widely used transport layer protocol that is used in combination with IP by most Internet applications Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 43
  • Summary (continued) • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is an assigned address on the Internet for each computer • Ways of accessing the Internet include via a LAN server, Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)/Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), and an online service • The World Wide Web is a menu-based system that organizes Internet resources into a series of menu pages, or screens, that appear on your computer • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard page description language for Web pages Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 44
  • Summary (continued) • A Web browser is software that creates a unique, hypermedia-based menu on a computer screen, providing a graphical interface to the Web • A search engine is a Web search tool • An intranet is an internal corporate network built using Internet and World Wide Web standards • An extranet is a network based on Web technologies that links selected resources of a company’s intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 45