0
• Effective communications are essential to organizational
success

• Define the terms communications and telecommunicatio...
• An unmistakable trend of communications technology is
that more people are able to send and receive all forms of
informa...
• Identify the benefits associated with a telecommunications
network
• Define the term network topology and identify five
...
An Overview Of Communications
Systems
• Communications: the transmission of a signal by way of
a medium from a sender to a...
Figure 6.2: Communications and
Telecommunications

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

6
An Overview Of Communications
Systems (continued)
• Communications can be synchronous or asynchronous
• Synchronous commun...
Telecommunications
• Telecommunications: electronic transmission of signals
for communications, via telephone, radio, tele...
Figure 6.3: Elements of a
Telecommunications System

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

9
Communications Channels: Basic
Communications Channel
Characteristics
• Communication channels can be classified as simple...
Channel Bandwidth and InformationCarrying Capacity
• Bandwidth: the range of frequencies that an electronic
signal occupie...
Types of Media
• Guided transmission media: communications signals are
guided along a solid medium
• Wireless media: commu...
Table 6.1: Transmission Media Types

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

13
Table 6.1: Transmission Media Types
(continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

14
Modems
• A typical telephone line can only accommodate an analog
signal (a continuous, curving signal)
• A computer genera...
Figure 6.8: How a Modem Works

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

16
Multiplexers
• Multiplexers: devices that allow several
telecommunications signals to be transmitted over a
single communi...
Figure 6.9: Use of a Multiplexer to
Consolidate Data Communications onto
a Single Communications Link

Principles of Infor...
Front-End Processors
• Front-end processors: special-purpose computers that
manage communications to and from a computer s...
Figure 6.10: Front-End Processor

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

20
Carriers and Services
• Local exchange carrier (LEC): a public telephone
company in the United States that provides servic...
Switched and Dedicated Lines
• Switched line: a communications line that uses switching
equipment to allow one transmissio...
Voice and Data Convergence
• Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP): the basic transport
of voice in the form of a data packe...
WATS
• Wide-area telephone service (WATS): a fixed-rate
long-distance telecommunications service for heavy users
of voice ...
ISDN
• Integrated services digital network (ISDN): a set of
standards for integrating voice and data communications
onto a...
Figure 6.12: ISDN Network Switching

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

26
T-Carrier System
• Introduced in the 1960s to support digitized voice
transmission
• Uses four wires and provides duplex c...
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
• Digital subscriber line (DSL): a telecommunications
technology that delivers high-bandwidt...
Wireless Mobile

Table 6.3: Some Wireless Data Communications Options

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition
...
Networks
• Computer network: the communications media, devices,
and software needed to connect two or more computer
system...
Network Types
• Personal area network (PAN)
• Local area network (LAN)
• Metropolitan area network (MAN)
• Wide area netwo...
Network Topology
• Network topology: logical model that describes how
networks are structured or configured

Principles of...
Figure 6.15: The Basic Network
Topologies

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

33
Terminal-to-Host, File Server, and
Client/Server Systems
• Classifications based on how computers on the network
connect a...
Figure 6.18: Client/Server Connection

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

35
Interconnecting Networks:
Communications Protocols
• Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
• Transmission Control Proto...
Communications Protocols (continued)
• Frame Relay
• Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
• FireWire

Principles of Informatio...
Wireless Communications Protocols
• Bluetooth
• IEEE 802.11b (Wi-Fi)
• IEEE 802.11g
• IEEE 802.16 (WiMax)
• IEEE 802.20 (M...
Wireless Communications Protocols
(continued)
• 1G
• 2G
• 2.5G
• 3G
• Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System (MMDS)

...
Network Switching Devices
• Private branch exchange (PBX): an on-premise
switching system owned or leased by a private ent...
Network Switching Devices (continued)
• Router: a device or software in a computer that
determines the next network point ...
Network Basics: Basic Processing
Strategies
• Centralized processing: all processing occurs in a single
location or facili...
Communications Software
• Network operating system (NOS): systems software
that controls the computer systems and devices ...
Telecommunications Applications
• Linking personal computers to mainframes and networks
• Voice mail
• Electronic software...
Telecommunications Applications
(continued)
• Call centers
• Telecommuting
• Videoconferencing
• Electronic data interchan...
Telecommunications Applications
(continued)
• Public network services
• Electronic funds transfer (EFT)
• Distance learnin...
Summary
• Communications: the transmission of a signal by way of
a medium from a sender to a receiver
• In telecommunicati...
Summary (continued)
• A computer network consists of the communications
media, devices, and software needed to connect two...
Summary (continued)
• Communications protocols include the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model, Transmission Control
...
Ch06 Telecommunication and Networks
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Transcript of "Ch06 Telecommunication and Networks"

  1. 1. • Effective communications are essential to organizational success • Define the terms communications and telecommunications and describe the components of a telecommunications system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 2
  2. 2. • An unmistakable trend of communications technology is that more people are able to send and receive all forms of information over greater distances at a faster rate • Identify broad categories of communications media and discuss the basic characteristics of specific media types • Describe how a modem works • Explain the types of telecommunications carriers today and the services they provide Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 3
  3. 3. • Identify the benefits associated with a telecommunications network • Define the term network topology and identify five alternatives • Discuss the different communications protocols and devices used for telecommunications • Name three distributed processing alternatives and discuss their basic features • List some telecommunications applications that organizations are benefiting from today Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 4
  4. 4. An Overview Of Communications Systems • Communications: the transmission of a signal by way of a medium from a sender to a receiver • Signal contains a message composed of data and information • In telecommunications, sender transmits a signal through a transmission medium such as a cable Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 5
  5. 5. Figure 6.2: Communications and Telecommunications Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 6
  6. 6. An Overview Of Communications Systems (continued) • Communications can be synchronous or asynchronous • Synchronous communications: the receiver gets the message instantaneously • Asynchronous communications: the receiver gets the message some period of time after it is sent Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 7
  7. 7. Telecommunications • Telecommunications: electronic transmission of signals for communications, via telephone, radio, television, etc. • Data communications: subset of telecommunications that refers to the electronic collection, processing, and distribution of data, typically between computer system hardware devices • Telecommunications medium: anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 8
  8. 8. Figure 6.3: Elements of a Telecommunications System Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 9
  9. 9. Communications Channels: Basic Communications Channel Characteristics • Communication channels can be classified as simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex • Simplex channel: can transmit data in only one direction • Half-duplex channel: can transmit data in either direction, but not simultaneously • Full-duplex channel: permits data transmission in both directions at the same time Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 10
  10. 10. Channel Bandwidth and InformationCarrying Capacity • Bandwidth: the range of frequencies that an electronic signal occupies on a given transmission medium • Shannon’s fundamental law of information theory: states that the information-carrying capacity of a channel is directly proportional to its bandwidth • Broadband: telecommunications in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 11
  11. 11. Types of Media • Guided transmission media: communications signals are guided along a solid medium • Wireless media: communications signals are sent over airwaves Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 12
  12. 12. Table 6.1: Transmission Media Types Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 13
  13. 13. Table 6.1: Transmission Media Types (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 14
  14. 14. Modems • A typical telephone line can only accommodate an analog signal (a continuous, curving signal) • A computer generates a digital signal representing bits • Modem: a device that translates data from digital to analog and analog to digital Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 15
  15. 15. Figure 6.8: How a Modem Works Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 16
  16. 16. Multiplexers • Multiplexers: devices that allow several telecommunications signals to be transmitted over a single communications medium at the same time Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 17
  17. 17. Figure 6.9: Use of a Multiplexer to Consolidate Data Communications onto a Single Communications Link Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 18
  18. 18. Front-End Processors • Front-end processors: special-purpose computers that manage communications to and from a computer system • Connect a midrange or mainframe computer to hundreds or thousands of communications lines Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 19
  19. 19. Figure 6.10: Front-End Processor Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 20
  20. 20. Carriers and Services • Local exchange carrier (LEC): a public telephone company in the United States that provides service to homes and businesses within its defined geographical area • Competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC): a company that is allowed to compete with the LECs, such as a wireless, satellite, or cable service provider • Long-distance carrier: a traditional long-distance phone provider, such as AT&T, Sprint, or MCI Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 21
  21. 21. Switched and Dedicated Lines • Switched line: a communications line that uses switching equipment to allow one transmission device to be connected to other transmission devices • Dedicated line: a communications line that provides a constant connection between two points; also called a leased line Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 22
  22. 22. Voice and Data Convergence • Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP): the basic transport of voice in the form of a data packet using the Internet protocol • IP telephony is the technology for transmitting voice communications over a network using an open standardsbased Internet protocol • Voice and data convergence: the integration of voice and data applications in a common environment Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 23
  23. 23. WATS • Wide-area telephone service (WATS): a fixed-rate long-distance telecommunications service for heavy users of voice services • IN-WATS service • OUT-WATS service Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 24
  24. 24. ISDN • Integrated services digital network (ISDN): a set of standards for integrating voice and data communications onto a single line via digital transmission over copper wire or other media • ISDN requires special adapters at both ends of the transmission line • ISDN Basic Rate Interface • ISDN Primary Rate Interface Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 25
  25. 25. Figure 6.12: ISDN Network Switching Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 26
  26. 26. T-Carrier System • Introduced in the 1960s to support digitized voice transmission • Uses four wires and provides duplex capability • T-1 carrier is capable of carrying 1.544 Mbps over copper wire; commonly used in U.S., Japan, and Canada • T-3 line is capable of transmitting data at a rate of 44.736 Mbps Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 27
  27. 27. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) • Digital subscriber line (DSL): a telecommunications technology that delivers high-bandwidth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone wires • Provides a transmission rate of 512 Kbps to 1.544 Mbps from the central office to the subscriber • Provides a transmission rate of about 128 Kbps from the subscriber to the central office • Can carry both data and voice signals Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 28
  28. 28. Wireless Mobile Table 6.3: Some Wireless Data Communications Options Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 29
  29. 29. Networks • Computer network: the communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems and/or devices • Network nodes: the computers and devices on the networks Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 30
  30. 30. Network Types • Personal area network (PAN) • Local area network (LAN) • Metropolitan area network (MAN) • Wide area network (WAN) • International network Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 31
  31. 31. Network Topology • Network topology: logical model that describes how networks are structured or configured Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 32
  32. 32. Figure 6.15: The Basic Network Topologies Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 33
  33. 33. Terminal-to-Host, File Server, and Client/Server Systems • Classifications based on how computers on the network connect and interoperate • Terminal-to-host: application and database reside on one host computer, and the user interacts with application and data using a “dumb” terminal • File server: the application and database reside on one host computer (file server) • Client/server: multiple computer platforms are dedicated to special functions such as database management, printing, communications, and program execution Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 34
  34. 34. Figure 6.18: Client/Server Connection Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 35
  35. 35. Interconnecting Networks: Communications Protocols • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) • Systems Network Architecture (SNA) • IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 36
  36. 36. Communications Protocols (continued) • Frame Relay • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) • FireWire Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 37
  37. 37. Wireless Communications Protocols • Bluetooth • IEEE 802.11b (Wi-Fi) • IEEE 802.11g • IEEE 802.16 (WiMax) • IEEE 802.20 (MBWA) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 38
  38. 38. Wireless Communications Protocols (continued) • 1G • 2G • 2.5G • 3G • Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System (MMDS) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 39
  39. 39. Network Switching Devices • Private branch exchange (PBX): an on-premise switching system owned or leased by a private enterprise that interconnects its telephones and provides access to the public telephone system • Bridge: a device used to connect two or more networks that use the same communications protocol • Switch: a telecommunications device that routes incoming data from any one of many ports to a specific output port that will take the data toward its intended destination Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 40
  40. 40. Network Switching Devices (continued) • Router: a device or software in a computer that determines the next network point to which a data packet should be forwarded toward its destination • Hub: a place of convergence where data arrives from one or more directions and is forwarded out in one or more other directions • Gateway: a network point that acts as an entrance to another network Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 41
  41. 41. Network Basics: Basic Processing Strategies • Centralized processing: all processing occurs in a single location or facility • Decentralized processing: processing devices are placed at various remote locations • Distributed processing: computers are placed at remote locations but connected to each other via a network Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 42
  42. 42. Communications Software • Network operating system (NOS): systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows them to communicate with each other • Network-management software: enables a manager on a networked desktop to monitor the use of individual computers and shared hardware, scan for viruses, and ensure compliance with software licenses Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 43
  43. 43. Telecommunications Applications • Linking personal computers to mainframes and networks • Voice mail • Electronic software distribution • Electronic document distribution Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 44
  44. 44. Telecommunications Applications (continued) • Call centers • Telecommuting • Videoconferencing • Electronic data interchange (EDI) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 45
  45. 45. Telecommunications Applications (continued) • Public network services • Electronic funds transfer (EFT) • Distance learning • Specialized systems and services Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 46
  46. 46. Summary • Communications: the transmission of a signal by way of a medium from a sender to a receiver • In telecommunications, the sender transmits a signal through a transmission medium such as a cable • Transmission media types: twisted-pair wire cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, microwave, cellular, and infrared • Telecommunications carriers can be divided into local exchange carriers, competitive local exchange carriers, and long-distance carriers Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 47
  47. 47. Summary (continued) • A computer network consists of the communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems and/or devices • Network types: personal area network (PAN), local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network (MAN), wide area network (WAN), and international network • Network topologies: ring, bus, hierarchical, star, and hybrid • Options for how computers on a network connect: terminal-to-host, file server, and client/server Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 48
  48. 48. Summary (continued) • Communications protocols include the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet), etc. • Network switching devices: private branch exchange (PBX), bridge, switch, router, hub, and gateway • Examples of telecommunications applications are voice mail, electronic software distribution, telecommuting, videoconferencing, electronic funds transfer, and distance learning Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 49
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