Ch04 Software System and Application Software

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  • Ch04 Software System and Application Software

    1. 1. • When selecting an operating system, you must consider the current and future requirements for application software to meet the needs of the organization. In addition, your choice of a particular operating system must be consistent with your choice of hardware. • Identify and briefly describe the functions of the two basic kinds of software • Outline the role of the operating system and identify the features of several popular operating systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 2
    2. 2. • Do not develop proprietary application software unless doing so will meet a compelling business need that can provide a competitive advantage • Discuss how application software can support personal, workgroup, and enterprise business objectives • Identify three basic approaches to developing application software and discuss the pros and cons of each Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 3
    3. 3. • Choose a programming language whose functional characteristics are appropriate for the task at hand, taking into consideration the skills and experience of the programming staff • Outline the overall evolution of programming languages and clearly differentiate among the five generations of programming languages Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 4
    4. 4. • The software industry continues to undergo constant change; users need to be aware of recent trends and issues to be effective in their business and personal life • Identify several key issues and trends that have an impact on organizations and individuals Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 5
    5. 5. An Overview of Software • Computer programs: sequences of instructions for the computer • Documentation: describes program functions to help user operate computer system • Systems software: set of programs that coordinates the activities of hardware and programs • Application software: programs that help users solve particular problems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 6
    6. 6. Table 4.1: Classifying Software by Type and Sphere of Influence Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 7
    7. 7. Systems Software: Operating Systems • Operating system (OS): a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs • Kernel: ties all of the components of the OS together and regulates other programs; controls the most critical processes Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 8
    8. 8. Operating Systems (continued) • Activities performed by the operating system: • Perform common computer hardware functions • Provide a user interface and input/output management • Provide a degree of hardware independence • Manage system memory Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 9
    9. 9. Operating Systems (continued) • Activities performed by the operating system: • Manage processing tasks • Provide networking capability • Control access to system resources • Manage files Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 10
    10. 10. Figure 4.2: Operating system as interface between application software and hardware Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 11
    11. 11. Operating Systems (continued) • Common hardware functions • Get input from the keyboard or some other input device • Retrieve data from disks • Store data on disks • Display information on a monitor or printer Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 12
    12. 12. Operating Systems (continued) • User interface and input/output management • User interface: allows individuals to access and command the computer system • Command-based user interface: requires that text commands be given to the computer to perform basic activities • Graphical user interface (GUI): uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send commands to computer system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 13
    13. 13. Operating Systems (continued) • Application program interface (API): allows applications to make use of the operating system • Memory management: control how memory is accessed and maximize available memory and storage Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 14
    14. 14. Figure 4.3: Application Program Interface Links Application Software to the Operating System Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 15
    15. 15. Operating Systems (continued) • Processing tasks • Multitasking: capability allowing more than one program to run at the same time • Time-sharing: allows more than one person to use a computer system at the same time • Scalability: ability of the computer to handle an increasing number of concurrent users smoothly • Networking capability: features and capabilities of the OS that aid users in connecting to a computer network Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 16
    16. 16. Operating Systems (continued) • Access to system resources • Protection against unauthorized access • Logins and passwords • File management: ensures that files in secondary storage are available when needed and that they are protected from access by unauthorized users Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 17
    17. 17. Table 4.3: Popular Operating Systems Cross All Three Spheres of Influence Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 18
    18. 18. Current Operating Systems • Microsoft PC operating systems • Apple computer operating systems • Linux Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 19
    19. 19. Workgroup Operating Systems • Windows Server • UNIX • NetWare • RedHat Linux • Mac OS X Server Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 20
    20. 20. Enterprise Operating Systems • z/OS • MPE/iX and HP-UX • Linux Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 21
    21. 21. Operating Systems for Small Computers and Special-Purpose Devices • Palm OS • Windows Embedded • Windows Mobile Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 22
    22. 22. Utility Programs • Utility programs are used to: • Merge and sort sets of data • Keep track of computer jobs being run • Compress data files before they are stored or transmitted over a network • Perform other important tasks Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 23
    23. 23. Utility Programs (continued) • Hardware utilities • Virus-detection and virus-recovery utilities • File-compression utilities • Spam and pop-up blocker utilities Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 24
    24. 24. Utility Programs (continued) • Network and Internet utilities • Server and mainframe utilities • Other utilities Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 25
    25. 25. Table 4.4: Examples of Utility Programs Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 26
    26. 26. Application Software • Primary function is to apply the power of the computer to give individuals, workgroups, and the entire enterprise the ability to solve problems and perform specific tasks • Application programs interact with systems software; systems software then directs the computer hardware to perform the necessary tasks Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 27
    27. 27. Types and Functions of Application Software • Proprietary software: a one-of-a-kind program for a specific application, usually developed and owned by a single company • Off-the-shelf software: existing software programs that are purchased Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 28
    28. 28. Table 4.5: A Comparison of Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 29
    29. 29. Table 4.5: A Comparison of Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 30
    30. 30. Personal Application Software • Serve the needs of an individual user • Include personal productivity software, which enable users to improve their personal effectiveness Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 31
    31. 31. Table 4.6: Examples of Personal Productivity Software Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 32
    32. 32. Table 4.6: Examples of Personal Productivity Software (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 33
    33. 33. Workgroup Application Software • Workgroup application software: designed to support teamwork, whether people are in the same location or dispersed around the world • Groupware: software that helps groups of people work together more efficiently and effectively Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 34
    34. 34. Table 4.8: Ernst & Young’s “Three Cs” Rule for Groupware Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 35
    35. 35. Enterprise Application Software • Software that benefits an entire organization • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software: a set of integrated programs that manage a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 36
    36. 36. Table 4.9: Examples of Enterprise Application Software Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 37
    37. 37. Programming Languages • Programming languages: sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules for constructing statements • Allow humans to communicate instructions to be executed by a computer • Different languages have different characteristics • Syntax: a set of rules associated with a programming language Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 38
    38. 38. Table 4.11: The Evolution of Programming Languages Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 39
    39. 39. First Generation • Machine language • Required use of binary symbols (0s and 1s) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 40
    40. 40. Second Generation • Assembly languages • Use symbols rather than binary digits • Assemblers: programs that translate assembly languages into machine code Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 41
    41. 41. Third Generation • Greater use of symbolic code • Examples: BASIC, COBOL, C, and FORTRAN • Compiler: a software program that converts the programmer’s source code into the machine-language instructions consisting of binary digits Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 42
    42. 42. Figure 4.18: How a Compiler Works Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 43
    43. 43. Fourth Generation • 4GLs: fourth-generation languages • Easier to use, and more English-like, than third generation languages • Programs tell the CPU the desired results, not how to get them • Examples: SQL, SAS Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 44
    44. 44. Languages Beyond the Fourth Generation • Artificial intelligence, visual, and object-oriented languages • Easier for nonprogrammers to use • Programming languages used to create artificial intelligence or expert systems applications are called fifth-generation languages (5GLs) • Visual languages use a graphical or visual interface for program development • Object-oriented programming languages are based on objects (data and the actions that can be performed on it) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 45
    45. 45. Software Issues and Trends • Software bugs: defects in a computer program that keep it from performing in the manner intended • Copyrights and licenses • Open-source software: software that is freely available to anyone in a form that can be easily modified Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 46
    46. 46. Software Issues and Trends (continued) • Shareware and freeware: software that is very inexpensive or free, but whose source code cannot be modified • Multiorganizational software development • Software upgrades • Global software support Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 47
    47. 47. Summary • Computer programs: sequences of instructions for the computer • Systems software: coordinates the activities of hardware and programs • Applications software: helps users solve particular problems • Operating system (OS): a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 48
    48. 48. Summary (continued) • Graphical user interface (GUI): a user interface that uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send commands to the computer system • Time-sharing allows more than one person to use a computer system at the same time • Proprietary software: a one-of-a-kind program designed for a specific application, usually developed and owned by a single company • Off-the-shelf software: existing software program that is purchased Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 49
    49. 49. Summary (continued) • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software: manages a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization • Programming languages allow humans to communicate instructions to be executed by a computer • Programming languages can be classified as first generation, second generation, third generation, fourth generation, and languages beyond the fourth generation Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 50

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