Ch01 An introduction to Information System
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Ch01 An introduction to Information System

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Slide Presentasi Chapter 1 Principles of Information Systems

Slide Presentasi Chapter 1 Principles of Information Systems

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  • 1. • The value of information is directly linked to how it helps decision makers achieve the organization’s goals • Discuss why it is important to study and understand information systems • Distinguish data from information and describe the characteristics used to evaluate the quality of data Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 2
  • 2. • Models, computers, and information systems are constantly making it possible for organizations to improve the way they conduct business • Name the components of an information system and describe several system characteristics • Identify the basic types of models and explain how they are used Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 3
  • 3. • Knowing the potential impact of information systems and having the ability to put this knowledge to work can result in a successful personal career, organizations that reach their goals, and a society with a higher quality of life • List the components of a computer-based information system • Identify the basic types of business information systems and discuss who uses them, how they are used, and what kinds of benefits they deliver Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 4
  • 4. • System users, business managers, and information systems professionals must work together to build a successful information system • Identify the major steps of the systems development process and state the goal of each Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 5
  • 5. • Information systems must be applied thoughtfully and carefully so that society, business, and industry can reap their enormous benefits • Describe some of the threats to security and privacy that information systems and the Internet can pose • Discuss the expanding role and benefits of information systems in business and industry Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 6
  • 6. Introduction • Information system (IS) • A set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, and disseminate data and information and provide feedback to meet an objective • Examples: ATMs, airline reservation systems, course reservation systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 7
  • 7. Information Concepts: Data Versus Information • Data: raw facts • Information: collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the facts themselves Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 8
  • 8. Table 1.1: Types of Data Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 9
  • 9. Figure 1.1: Defining and Organizing Relationships Among Data Creates Information Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 10
  • 10. Figure 1.2: The Process of Transforming Data into Information Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 11
  • 11. Table 1.2: Characteristics of Valuable Data Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 12
  • 12. Table 1.2: Characteristics of Valuable Data (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 13
  • 13. System and Modeling Concepts • System: a set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals • Components of a system • Input • Processing • Output • Feedback Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 14
  • 14. Figure 1.3: Components of a System Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 15
  • 15. System Components and Concepts • System boundary: defines the system and distinguishes it from everything else (i.e., the environment) • Configuration: the way system elements are organized or arranged • Systems can be classified as simple or complex, open or closed, stable or dynamic, adaptive or nonadaptive, and permanent or temporary Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 16
  • 16. Table 1.3: Systems Classifications and Their Primary Characteristics Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 17
  • 17. System Performance and Standards • Efficiency: a measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed • Effectiveness: extent to which system attains its goals • System performance standard: a specific objective of a system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 18
  • 18. System Variables and Parameters • System variable: quantity or item controlled by the decision maker • System parameter: value or quantity that cannot be controlled (e.g., the cost of a raw material) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 19
  • 19. Modeling a System • Model: an abstraction that is used to represent reality • Four major types of models: narrative (based on words); physical (tangible); schematic (graphic representation); mathematical (arithmetic representation) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 20
  • 20. Figure 1.6: Four Types of Models Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 21
  • 21. Figure 1.7: The Components of an Information System Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 22
  • 22. Input, Processing, Output, Feedback • Input: activity of gathering and capturing raw data • Processing: converting or transforming data into useful outputs • Output: production of useful information, usually in form of documents and reports • Feedback: output used to make changes to input or processing activities Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 23
  • 23. Computer-Based Information Systems • Computer-based information system (CBIS) • A single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information • Examples: a company’s payroll systems, order entry system, and inventory control systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 24
  • 24. Figure 1.8: The Components of a Computer-Based Information System Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 25
  • 25. Business Information Systems • Most common types of information systems used in business organizations include: • Electronic and mobile commerce systems • Transaction processing systems • Management information systems • Decision support systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 26
  • 26. Electronic and Mobile Commerce • E-commerce: any business transaction executed electronically between parties • Parties involved include companies (B2B); companies and consumers (B2C); consumers and other consumers (C2C); businesses and the public sector; consumers and the public sector Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 27
  • 27. Transaction Processing Systems and Enterprise Resource Planning • Transaction: any business-related exchange, such as payments to employees, sales to customers, and payments to suppliers • Transaction processing system (TPS): an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 28
  • 28. Figure 1.11: A Payroll Transaction Processing System The inputs (numbers of employee hours worked and pay rates) go through a transformation process to produce outputs (paychecks) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 29
  • 29. Enterprise Resource Planning • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system: set of integrated programs that can manage a company’s entire set of business operations • ERP systems often coordinate planning, inventory control, production, and ordering Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 30
  • 30. Information and Decision Support Systems • Management information system (MIS): an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that provides routine information to managers and decision makers • Primary focus of an MIS is on operational efficiency Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 31
  • 31. Figure 1.12: Functional Management Information Systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 32
  • 32. Management Information Systems • MIS outputs • Scheduled reports • Demand reports • Exception reports Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 33
  • 33. Decision Support Systems • Decision support system (DSS): an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making • Focus of a DSS is on decision-making effectiveness Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 34
  • 34. Figure 1.13: Essential DSS Elements Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 35
  • 35. Specialized Business Information Systems • Artificial intelligence (AI) systems • Virtual reality systems • Expert systems • Other special-purpose business information systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 36
  • 36. Figure 1.14: The Major Elements of Artificial Intelligence Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 37
  • 37. Systems Development • Systems development: the activity of creating or modifying existing business systems • Systems investigation: gaining a clear understanding of the problem to be solved or opportunity to be addressed • Systems analysis: defines the problems and opportunities of the existing system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 38
  • 38. Figure 1.17: An Overview of Systems Development Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 39
  • 39. Systems Development (continued) • Systems design: determines how new system will work to meet business needs defined during systems analysis • Systems implementation: creating or acquiring the various system components defined in design step, assembling them, and putting new system into operation • Systems maintenance and review: check and modify system so that it continues to meet changing business needs Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 40
  • 40. Information Systems in Society, Business, and Industry • Information systems must be implemented thoughtfully and carefully • Information systems face a variety of threats from unethical people Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 41
  • 41. Figure 1.18: Attacks on Businesses and Other Organizations in One Year Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 42
  • 42. Figure 1.19: The Cost and Cause of Computer Attacks Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 43
  • 43. Computer and Information Systems Literacy • Computer literacy: knowledge of computer systems and equipment and the ways they function • Information systems literacy: knowledge of how data and information are used Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 44
  • 44. Information Systems in the Functional Areas of Business • Finance and accounting (e.g., forecast revenues and business activity; analyze investments; perform audits) • Sales and marketing (e.g., product analysis; promotion analysis; price analysis) • Manufacturing (e.g., process orders; develop schedules; control inventory) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 45
  • 45. Information Systems in Industry • Airline industry (e.g., Internet auction sites) • Investment firms (e.g., analyze stocks and bonds) • Banks (e.g., online check payment) • Transportation industry (e.g., schedule trucks and trains) • Publishing companies (e.g., analyze markets) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 46
  • 46. Information Systems in Industry (continued) • Healthcare organizations (e.g., track patient records) • Retail companies (e.g., process customer orders) • Power management and utility companies (e.g., monitor and control power generation and usage) • Professional services (e.g., provide information on products and services to its consultants) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 47
  • 47. Summary • Data: raw facts • Information: collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves • System: a set of elements that interact to accomplish a goal • Components of a system: input, processing, output, and feedback • A model is an abstraction that is used to represent reality Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 48
  • 48. Summary (continued) • Computer-based information system (CBIS): a single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information • Transaction processing system (TPS): an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 49
  • 49. Summary (continued) • Management information system (MIS): an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to provide routine information to managers and decision makers • Decision support system (DSS): an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making • Systems development: the activity of creating or modifying existing business systems Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 50