Switchyard Park Master Plan | Inventory Phase
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Switchyard Park Master Plan | Inventory Phase

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As the initial step in the master plan process, the Switchyard Park Master Plan team conducted a thorough inventory of the site, its surroundings and those factors that might influence its ...

As the initial step in the master plan process, the Switchyard Park Master Plan team conducted a thorough inventory of the site, its surroundings and those factors that might influence its development.

The purpose of the inventory phase was two-fold. First, it is essential to understand the physical, environmental, ecological, social, economic and development influences of the site in order to develop a concept for the park that will function efficiently and effectively at each stage of its development and use.

Equally important is the need to understand in detail the cultural characteristics, history and significance of the site. Discovering these distinctive qualities of place and celebrating them through imaginative design will result in a community park that is unique to Bloomington.

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Switchyard Park Master Plan | Inventory Phase Switchyard Park Master Plan | Inventory Phase Presentation Transcript

  • Indiana BryanUniversity Park Campus Bloomington South Highschool DOWNTOWNBLOOMINGTON Clear Creek Clear Creek SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA Indiana University Bloomington Hospital Country Club RCA Community Park SWITCHYARD PARK MASTERSWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN PLAN INVENTORY PHASE N 40 20 0 10 0 0 0www.switchyardpark.org www.facebook.com/switchyardpark
  • I N TRODUC TI O N Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Design Team....................................1 Master Planning Process................2 INVENTORY MAPS Study Area........................................8 Tree Inventory.................................27 | Site Photography..............................9 Stream Inventory...........................28 Site Photography............................10 USGS Soil Survey...........................29 Ta b l e Site Photography............................11 USGS Soil Survey Information......30 Figure Ground Study......................12 Environmental Assessment ..........31 Nearby Parks..................................13 Environmental Impacts.................32 Neighborhood Associations...........14 Previous Studies............................33 Historic Districts & Properties.......15 Land Use Themes..........................35 Utilities............................................16 Trade Area Demographics.............36 Sidewalks & Bike Routes...............17 Trade Area 1...................................37 of Thoroughfare Plan.........................18 Trade Area 2...................................38 Transit Routes................................19 Trade Area 3...................................39 Water Bodies & Flood Plain ..........20 Economic Development Areas......40 Conten ts Topographic Model........................21 Existing Land Use Plans................42 Natural Resources.........................22 Growth Policies Plan......................43 Natural Resources.........................23 Zoning............................................44 Habitat Inventory...........................25 Pending Projects............................45 Invasive Species........................... 26 CASE STUDIES Südgelände Nature-Park...............46 Discovery Park...............................46 Circus Square Park........................47 Robert Beutter Park......................47 Common Elements of Success .....486 APPENDIX A | Growth Policy Districts ..........50 A | Growth Policy Districts ..........51 B | Zoning Districts.....................52 B | Zoning Districts.....................55 C | Environmental Studies.........56 C | Environmental Studies.........57 D | Growth Policy Districts.........58SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12
  • I N TRODUC TI O N PREPARED FOR: CITY OF BLOOMINGTON | Desi gn PROJECT TEAM: R U N D E L L ERNSTBERGER RUNDELL ERNSTERGER ASSOCIATES PROJECT LEAD, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE & URBAN DESIGN ASSOCIATES URBAN DESIGN + LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE | www.reasite.com Tea m Butler Fairman and Seufert Civil & Structural Engineering, Hyrdralics & Utilities Eden Collaborative Redevelopment Planning & Implementation Green Street Market Feasiblity & Development Financing Bledsoe Riggert Guerrettaz Survey & Utility Coordination Bruce Carter Associates Environmental Remediation Eco Logic Ecological Analysis & RestorationSWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 1
  • MASTER PLANNING PROCESS Phase One: The Inventory Process • Bicycle & Pedestrian Transportation Plan I N TRODUC TI O N As the initial step in the master plan process, the Switch- • MPO Long Range Transportation Plan yard Park Master Plan team conducted a thorough inven- • 2003 Switchyard/CSX Corridor Master PlanDESIGN PROCESS tory of the site, its surroundings and those factors that • Peak Oil Task Force & Environmental CommissionThe process involved in the creation of the Master Plan includes four phases of work to be conducted over might influence its development. • Redefining Prosperity: Energy Descent and Commu- nity Resiliencethe course of eleven months with many opportunities for community involvement and participation. The purpose of the inventory phase was two-fold. First, • Comprehensive Green Space Plan it is essential to understand the physical, environmental, • Environmental AssessmentsPHASES OF MASTER PLANNING PROCESS ecological, social, economic and development influences • Phase I and II Environmental Site Assessments PHASE ONE | Inventory and Assessment of Existing Conditions | October 2011- January 2012 of the site in order to develop a concept for the park that • B-Line Trail Remediation Completion Report will function efficiently and effectively at each stage of its • Switchyard Phytoremediation Study development and use. • Switchyard Ecological Risk Assessment PHASE TWO | Analysis of Opportunities and Constraints | January - April 2012 Equally important is the need to understand in detail the Stake holder Groups cultural characteristics, history and significance of the site. • City of Bloomington Discovering these distinctive qualities of place and cel- • Utilities Department (CBU) PHASE THREE | Design Charrette for Workshop | May - June 2012 ebrating them through imaginative design will result in a • Utility Providers (Duke Energy and Vectren) community park that is unique to Bloomington. • Transit • Parks and Recreation | PHASE FOUR | Preliminary and Final Master Plan | June - September 2012 During the four-month inventory phase of the master plan, • Planning the project team conducted study area assessments, re- • Schools viewed past studies and current regulations and plans, • Housing Ma s ter and conducted initial interviews with stakeholders. These • Neighborhood Development Included: • Public Works • Economic Development Study Area Assessments • Indiana Department of Environmental Management • Historical • Indiana Department of Natural Resources • Land Use and Zoning • Indiana Brownfield Program • Economic Development Areas • CSX/Arcadis • TIF, CRED, BEAD, Character and Enterprise Zones • Adjacent Business and Housing The information gathered during the inventory phase will Pl a nni n g • Nearby Parks and Greenways enable the team to make informed design decisions as the • Neighborhood Associations master plan moves forward. The project team will explore • Local Interest Areas these inventory findings further in the Analysis Phase of • Utilities the project in order to identify the opportunities and con- • Traffic Patterns straints to park development. This next phase will include • Vehicular, Pedestrian, Transit additional opportunities for stakeholder input as well as • Site Conditions public input. • Soils • Floodway/Hydrology • Topography P r o c e s s • Tree/Invasive Species Inventory • Habitat Existing Studies/Reports/Plans • City of Bloomington • Parks & Recreation Community Interest Survey • Growth Policies Plan • Unified Development Ordinance (Zoning Code) • McDoel Gardens Neighborhood Plan • Broadview Neighborhood Plan • South Rogers Streetscape Identity Study SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 2
  • Monon Railroad - The Hoosier Line H I S TORI CAL The railroad line associated with the McDoel Switchyard was owned by a series of companies including, initially, the New Albany and Salem Railroad Line. The original company was organized in 1847 by James Brook. Construction of the initial track north from New Albany followed an existing dirt road, and incorporated some of the road’s layout and grades. As a result, the railroad line was built for low speed operation. Over time the line was acquired by other companies, eventually becoming the Monon Railroad and later the CSX Railroad. The railroad line operated almost entirely in Indiana, linking major communities such as New Albany, Bloomington, Lafayette, Indianapolis, and Chicago, as well as numerous smaller communities and six Indiana universities/colleges. The name “Monon” derived from a stream near Bradford Indiana. Potawatomi Indians named the stream “Monong” which means “to carry or swift running.” It is the most familiar name associated with RESE ARCH the railroad line. The rail line transported students to Indiana University in Bloomington, Wabash College in Crawfordsville, DePauw University in Greencastle and Purdue University in Lafayette. Colors for the locomotives and passenger trains were Red & White on Grey for Indiana University, and Gold on Black for Purdue University. However, some accounts attribute the color scheme not to I.U. and Purdue, but to Wabash College and DePauw University, respectively. Those colors were used until the Monon merged with the L & N Railroad. McDoel Switchyard McDoel Yard was one of the largest facilities on the railroad line, second only to the shops in Lafayette, Indiana. Trains working locally out of McDoel trav- eled to Bedford, French Lick, Orleans, Gosport, Ellettsville and to Wallace Junc- | tion to pickup or deliver freight. At its peak, McDoel yards could hold 700 rail cars which served the businesses and industries in Bloomington and other towns along the line. Cars in the yard were sorted and placed in long haul Intr o du c ti o n freight trains and were delivered to Lafayette, Chicago, Indianapolis, Michigan City or Louisville and other destinations. The 105-foot diameter McDoel roundhouse had 17 bays, and a central turntable. It was tunneled with drains. Today the concrete pad that remains has several collapsed drains that may follow the pattern of those found in the 1913 and 1927 Sanborn maps. The roundhouse was surrounded by mechanics shops and a lumberyard, which no longer exist. The neighborhood surrounding the McDoel Switchyard included a mix of residential and commercial business, including the Showers Brothers Company. For many years, the railroad was a major employer in the neighborhood, until the mid-1940’s when the automobile brought about greater mobility.SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 3
  • 1850 1900 1950 2000 H I S TORI CAL1847 The New Albany and Salem Railroad, precursor to 1910 McDoel retires in 1909 and the following year the 1956 The railroad nickname “The Monon Route” leads to 2000 CSX Railroad begins to phase out its operationsthe Monon Railroad, is organized. switchyard is named in his honor. Yard capacity reaches an official corporate name change to the Monon Line 702 cars when a new roundhouse, turntable and water and 2001 City of Bloomington begins discussions to acquire1853 The NA&S line reaches Bloomington. coal stations are built. 1961 New warehouse is constructed. segments of abandoned rail corridor and the switchyard.1854 The line inks the Ohio River (to the Great Lakes. 1919 The Showers Brothers Company builds a new kitchen 1967 The last passenger run occurs. 2005 City of Bloomington purchases 3.1 mile of abandoned cabinet factory on the former Dodds farm west of Rogers. rail corridor from Adams Street to Country Club Dr.1859 The railroad line is reorganized as the Louisville, New 1971 The Monon merges with the L & N Railroad.Albany, and Chicago Railroad. 1923 A new turntable is added to the switchyard. 2008 Ground-breaking for B-Line trail 1976 Dismantling of the switchyard begins.1892 A ten stall roundhouse is built at the switchyard, cre- 2009 City of Bloomington purchases five switchyard par- RESE ARCHating a south central Indiana regional hub. cels totaling 27.7 acres.1897 The line becomes The Chicago, Indianapolis and Lou- 2011 B-Line Trail construction completed.isville Railroad1899 Controlling interest in the railroad is obtained by J.P.Morgan. W. H. McDoel is named president. | Ti meli n eNothing remains of the accessory structures,and shops,visible Showers Building, date unknown. Courtesy the Dick Bowen/Tom McDoel roundhouse turntable, 1971. Courtesy Gary Dolzall. The B-Line Trail crosses through the park site.in this early photograph from the Wiles Drug Collection. Rankin CollectionSwitchyard roundhouse, date unknown. Courtesy Steve Dolzall. McDoel workers at office, circa 1927. Courtesy Tanice Hinson. McDoel Yard office, 1960’s. Courtesy Lloyd J. Kimble B-Line Trailhead at north end of park. SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 4
  • H I S TORI CALRoundtable, 1971. Courtesy Gary W. Dolzall McDoel Yard, date unknown. Courtesy of Tom Rankin RESE ARCHPostcard featuring McDoel Switchyard. Courtesy MRTHS McDoel Yard, date unknown. Courtesy of Ron Marquardt |Sources:The following sources were used to obtain the historical Ima ge sinformation and photographs found herein.Monon Railroad Historical-Technical Society, Inc.http://www.monon.orgBygone Placeshttp://www.monon.monon.org/Wanatah Historical Societyhttp://www.wanatah.org/railroad.php Switchyard office, circa 1917. Courtesy John StigallRick’s Monon Railroad Sitehttp://mononrr.com/ SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 5
  • H I S TORI CAL SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA RESE ARCH1949 Aerial | Aer i al P ho to g r a phs SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA1967 Aerial SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 6
  • H I S TORI CAL SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA RESE ARCH1975 Aerial | Aer i al P ho to g r a phs SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA1998 Aerial SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 7
  • I N V ENT O RY Indiana Bryan Multi-Family Park Residential Multi-FamilyUniversity Residential Campus Bloomington South High School Single Family Residential | Commercial Stu dy DOWNTOWN Clear Creek CommercialBLOOMINGTON Switchyard Park Clear Creek (58 Acres) SWITCHYARD PARK Ar ea STUDY AREA Commercial (308 Acres) Single Family Bloomington Indiana Residential Country University Club Hospital Single FamilySingle Family Residential Residential Cook Pharmica Industrial Multi-Family RCA Community Residential Park N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 8
  • I N V ENT O RY |Park Site/Downtown are Linked by B-Line Switchyard Trailhead from Bridge B-Line Bridge at Grimes Lane Si te Ph otogr a phyView North of Trailhead and Bridge View South of Switchyard Park from Bridge View SW To Adjacent Commercial BuildingClear Creek Runs Along East Edge of Park Informal Trail Adjacent to Clear Creek Park has Several Bridge Remnants SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 9
  • I N V ENT O RY |Remnants of Track Adjacent to Creek View West Across Park Culverts at Clear Creek Si te Ph otogr a phy Building Remnant/View Across Park Commercial Building Along B-LineEast Edge of Park Near Clear CreekSecond Rail bed at West Edge of Park B-Line at Southern End of Park View North from Southern End of Park SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 10
  • I N V ENT O RY |CSX Site at SE Edge of Park View from Park Towards Country Club Dr. Clear Creek/Park Site from Country Club Dr. Si te Ph otogr a phyRetail Area at Country Club Dr./Walnut St. Rogers Street Transit Stop and Housing Residential Housing Typical West of ParkView East Across Park from Hillside Drive Walnut Street Commercial Area Bloomington Transit Facility on Grimes Lane SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 11
  • I N V ENT O RY | F i gu r e SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA G r ou nd Stu dy Industrial N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 12
  • I N V ENT O RY Bryan Park (33 Acres) Frank Southern Ice Rink | The Waldron, Hill and Buskirk Park - Third Street Park (3.50 Acres) SWITCHYARD Nea r by PARK STUDY Seminary Park (1.2 Acres) (58 Acres Total) AREA Switchyard Park B-Line Corridor (18 Acres) (28 Acres) Pa r ks Rail Corridor (12 Acres) Building and Trades Broadview Park (3.15 Acres) Park (.75 Acres) RCA Community Rose Hill Park Cemetery (47.6 Acres) N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 13
  • I N V ENT O RY Elm Heights Barclay Gardens Timber Ridge Pinestone Sunny Bryan Slopes Park | Nei gh b or h ood SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA McDoel Broadview Gardens Asso c i a ti o n s BroadviewProspect Evergreen Hill Village Autumn View R Rockport Hills West Pointe Southern Pines N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 14
  • I N V ENT O RY Old Crescent District Elm Heights Legg House East South Second Dunn Street House Laundry Company Building Andrew Wylie House | Bryan Park Monon Coca-Cola Building Hi s tor i c Railroad Seminary Park SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREAWestside Historical District Di s tr i cts McDoel Prospect HillSteele Dunn & West Side P r o pe r ti e s N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 15
  • I N V ENT O RY | Uti l i ti es SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREALEGEND SUMMARY Sanitary Utility service to the study area is provided by the City of Bloomington Utilities, Vectren, and Duke Energy. Each has adequate infrastructure to support Water existing conditions and there appears to be sufficient capacity for further development. Storm • The City of Bloomington Utilities has water and sanitary sewer mains paralleling the east and west limits of the switchyard. Hydrants • Duke Energy has overhead lines surrounding the switchyard with several Data crossing the switchyard at Hillside Drive and south of the warehouse across from the Rogers Street substation. Duke indicted that the lines that cross the Gas switchyard can be relocated underground. As we would anticipate, there would be a charge for Duke to perform that work. Electric • Vectren also has natural gas distributed surrounding the switchyard. N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 16
  • I N V ENT O RY | Si dewa l ks SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA & Bi ke Ro u te sLEGEND SUMMARY The Bloomington Bike, Pedestrian and Bike Lane Routes Greenways Plan is broken into high, medium, and low priority projects. The Trails and Paths high priority planned projects that are within the vicinity of the Switchyard Proposed Bike Lane Routes are “B-line Trail: Central City,” “Walnut Street Bike Lanes,” “Rogers Street Proposed Bike Lane Routes Side-path.” The Plan also includes the near-by medium and low priority Sidewalks projects “Black Lumber Path” and “Rogers Street Sidepath.” N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 17
  • I N V ENT O RY | Th or ou gh fa r e SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA Pl a nLEGEND SUMMARY The map shows the existing and anticipated roadway thoroughfares within the City. Primary Collector The map designates each roadway as a specific functional classification (e.g. arterial, collector and local street). Primary Arterial Roadways serve two functions: facilitating through traffic movement and providing land access. The functional classification indicates the primary function of a Proposed Secondary Arterial particular roadway. The primary function of higher classified roadways (arterials) is to facilitate through traffic movement while the primary function of lower classified Secondary Arterial roadways (local streets) is to provide land access. The feasibility of a proposed Hillside Drive extension through the Switchyard Park site Secondary Collector is under review and will be analyzed as part of the Park Master Plan. N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 18
  • I N V ENT O RY | Tr a nsi t SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY Transit Facility AREA Rou tes N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 19
  • I N V ENT O RY Estimated | Flood Zone 2010 Flood Boundary Estimated Flood Zone Wa ter Clear Creek SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA Bodi es Indiana Watershed Map 2010 Flood Boundary Estimated Flood Zone & Fl o o d Lower East Fork - White River P l a i n N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 20
  • I N V ENT O RY SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA | Topogr a ph i cLEGEND EGEND 667 - 693’ 745 - 771’ 822 - 850’ 693 - 719’ 771 - 796’ 719 - 745’ 796 - 822’ Elevation Model N 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 40 20 0 10 0 0 0 Model s SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREALEGEND EGEND 0 - 22.5° 112.5 - 157.5° 247.5 - 292.5° 22.5 - 67.5° 157.5 - 202.5° 292.5 - 337.5° 67.5 - 112.5° 202.5 - 247.5° 337.5 - 360° Aspect Model N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 21
  • NATURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY OVERVIEW Another section of Forested Floodplain is located on more shallow topsoil, and deeper subsoil. Water con- I N V ENT O RYA site assessment was performed to determine the the western side of the B-line Trail, running the en- ditions are the same.state of the natural resources at the Switchyard Prop- tire length of the property with a large section driftingerty. In order to do this, an ecological inventory was out of the property boundary on the southwest end Habitat: Forested Riparianconducted for both the intact and disturbed plant toward the Broadview Neighborhood. Wetland Habi- The forested areas within one hundred feet of Clearcommunities. This ecological inventory included a tats are located throughout the property with the two Creek are fairly mature and have a higher percent-habitat assessment, an invasive species inventory, a most significant of these habitats being located in the age of native canopy trees than most areas within thetree inventory and stream erosion evaluation. The in- southwestern corner and in the northeast spur which switchyard. These trees are playing an important rolevasive species inventory was conducted for the entire goes to Rogers Street directly south of the large ware- in the health of the Clear Creek stream by stabilizingproperty to catalog on site threats posed to the natu- house. Scrub Shrubs and Trees Habitats are scat- stream banks, and providing shade, both of which im-ral systems. The tree inventory maps all canopy trees tered throughout and Disturbed Open dominates the prove water quality. These trees are also providingover 6 inches in diameter. A stream erosion map was central areas of the property. Specifics for each site habitat for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Char-created to show the varying levels of streambank ero- are described below. acteristic overstory trees are Catalpa, Silver Maple,sion along the Clear Creek stream. The information Beech, Sycamore, Hackberry, Tulip and Red Maple.gathered during the ecological assessment will aid in Habitat: Forested Floodplain One major threat to the health of the native canopy |understanding both the constraints and the opportu- There are small fragments of floodplain forest through- trees is the proliferation of invasive vines, especiallynities inherent with this property. out the Switchyard property which are not in the Clear Japanese Honeysuckle, Oriental Bittersweet, Purple Forested Floodplain Creek corridor. The largest forested floodplain parcel Wintercreeper and Asian Clematis.The land has been highly disturbed, and has experi- is located towards the southwest part of the property Na tu r a lenced much invasive weed pressure, due to the rail and is west of the park boundary in the Broadview The understory shrub layer is dominated by invasiveindustry and flooding. The greater than a century long neighborhood area. This area has some of the health- shrubs such as Bush Honeysuckle, Privet,and Mult-pattern of disturbance at the Switchyard property has iest forest community on the entire property. The for- filora Rose. The herbaceous understory consists ofcreated an Eden like environment for invasive plants. est overall is again maple-hackberry-sycamore as with several aster and goldenrod species, Indian Tobacco,The invasive plant inventory identified over 25 spe- the riparian areas. Other species such as Sassafras, Boneset, and a variety or grasses and sedges. Black-cies of invasive plants growing in the various habi- Black Walnut, Wild Cherry, and Shagbark Hickory are berry thickets are also present in areas of open can-tats. These invasives range from small herbaceous also found. Invasive plant pressure is somewhat less opy.plants like Garlic Mustard and Spotted Knapweed to here, when compared with the riparian forested ar-a large 60 feet tall Tree of Heaven. There are inva- eas. Both Udorthents loam and Haymond silt loam soils Resou r ce ssive trees, shrubs, groundcovers, broadleaved herbs, are identified on the soil maps. Udorthents have beengrasses and vines present. On either side of the gravel trail running north to greatly altered by man and are associated with park- south and parallel to the B-line Trail are ditches, the ing lots, shopping centers, and subdivisions. TheyThere is a healthy stand of native riparian trees run- one on the west is long and narrow, while the area are found in upland disturbed areas and flood plains.ning most of the length of Clear Creek through the between the old trail and the B-line is a low lying wide The water capacity is “moderate and permeability isSwitchyard property. In one area, the canopy trees had swale with more consistent moisture. Sensitive fern moderate or moderately slow. Surface runoff is slowbeen cleared from the banks of Clear Creek, resulting and Christmas fern are established in one area, with to rapid. Organic matter content of the surface layerin a major invasion of Japanese Knotweed which led Blackberry, Black Raspberry and woodland sedges is low. “Haymond silt loam has high water capacity Forested Riparianto major streambank failure. This shows the impor- and grasses (including Silky Rye) grow consistently with moderate permeability. Surface runoff is slowtance of conserving the healthy stand of trees in the through the area. There is one patch of sumac grow- and “organic matter content of the surface layer isriparian corridor. There are also high quality native ing on the very northern end. moderate.”canopy trees located in the floodplain forest and alongthe old railway towards the west end of the property. This habitat is characterized by two soil types, Crid- Habitat: WetlandThere is a fairly high quality floodplain forest towards er-Urbanland Complex, 2-6 percent slopes and Crid- Several wetland habitats are located throughout thethe southwest part of the property with mature trees er-Urban land complex, 6 to 12 percent slopes. The site, and vary from open marsh-like wetlands to for-and low levels of invasive plant pressure. Crider-Urbanland Complex, 2-6 percent slopes “con- ested riparian wetlands. The wetlands would be clas- sists of gently sloping, deep, well drained Crider soil sified as low to medium quality with all areas experi-HABITAT INVENTORY and areas of Urban land… The Crider soil in this unit encing considerable invasive plant pressure. Due toFive habitats were determined to comprise the area has high available water capacicty, and permeability adequate hydrology and the presence of hydrophyticwithin the Switchyards: Forested Floodplain, Forested if moderate. Surface runoff from is medium. The vegetation it is believed that the wetlands do haveRiparian, Wetland, Scrub Shrubs and Trees, and Dis- organic content of the surface layer is low…” Crider- high potential for restoration-enhancement, but wouldturbed Open. The Forested Riparian follows the banks Urban land complex, 6 to 12 percent slopes soil has need a long term strategy for invasive plant control.of Clear Creek with the Forested Floodplain border- similar characteristics as Crider-Urbanland Complex,ing this habitat on the southern half of Clear Creek. 2-6 percent slopes, but has greater slopes, slightly Herbaceous species of interest found in the northern Wetland SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 22
  • most wetland habitat include Blue Flag Iris, Swamp associated with parking lots, shopping centers, and inhibit any other seeds from germinating. The change I N V ENT O RYAster, Dark Green Bulrush, Swamp Milkweed, Wool- subdivisions. The water capacity is “moderate and in forest structure that invasive plants cause, can ef-grass, and Soft Stem Bulrush. Red Maple, Green permeability is moderate or moderately slow. Surface fectively eliminate habitat for many plants and ani-Ash, Silver Maple and Cottonwood are the main trees runoff is slow to rapid. Organic matter content of the mals. Most invasive plants are also highly adaptable,found in these wetland habitats. surface layer is low.” which is a cause for great concern with the changing climate.This habitat is characterized by Haymond silt loam INVASIVE SPECIES INVENTORYsoils. “The available water capacity of this Haymond The combination of disturbance and heavy weed pres- The inventory was conducted in late fall through earlysoil is very high, and permeability is moderate. Sur- sure resulting from years of railway activity has cre- winter, and we suspect a few herbaceous species mayface runoff from cultivated areas is slow. The organ- ated a haven for invasive plants. The transportation have been dormant. Eco Logic will walk the propertyic matter content if the surface layer is moderate.” of seeds and roots on rail cars have brought invasive during the growing season of 2012, and will updateThese soils are usually very level, deep, well drained, plants from far and wide. the invasive plant inventory if any new species arebut are flood prone due to clay content. Thus, these found to be present.areas are not suited for building or development. The inventory finds over 25 species of invasive plants on site, some of which are just starting to become TREE INVENTORY |Habitat: Scrub Shrubs and Trees established in our area. It was no surprise to find • The tree inventory logged all trees in the Switch-There are areas on the northern end and central sec- very common invasive plants such as Bush Honey- yard property over 6 inches in diameter at breast Scrub Shrubs and Treestion of the property that are Scrub Tree and Shrub suckle, Japanese Honeysuckle and Multiflora Rose height.Habitat. As in the Disturbed Open, non-native spe- all of which have been well established in the Bloom- • Outside of park property, but within the study area Na tu r a lcies dominate including invasive bush honeysuckle, ington area for decades. However, the discovery of only large specimen trees were inventoried.Japanese honeysuckle, and Multiflora Rose. Pampas Grass, Miscanthus Grass and Asian Clema- • total of 1321 trees were inventoried and ranged tis were of more interest, because they are new in- in size from 6” DBH to a 62” CottonwoodFew native understory woody plants have been noted vaders. Sites with industrial disturbance such as the • A total of 22 species of native canopy trees wereso far, only Flowering Dogwood and Gray Dogwood. Switchyard are usually the first points of invasion for identified in the inventory.Gray Goldenrod, Aster species, Broomsedge, and new species. Both because the transportation net- • The trees were divided into the following catego-sedges are the main herbaceous native species. work brings in new plants, and the site is disturbed ries by size class. enough to allow them to establish without competi- • 6-10 “ DBH – 316 total treesThe Scrub Shrubs and Trees Habitats have Udorth- tion from native species. • 11-15 “ DBH - 512 total trees Resou r ce sents, loamy soil. Udorthents have been greatly al- • 16 -22” DBH - 382 total treestered by man and are associated with parking lots, What is an invasive species? • 23- 32” DBH – 96 total treesshopping centers, and subdivisions. The water ca- The official federal definition of an invasive species is, • 33” + DBH – 15 total treespacity is “moderate and permeability is moderate or “an alien species whose introduction does or is likely • The following data fields were captured for eachmoderately slow. Surface runoff is slow to rapid. Or- to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to tree on the inventory-ganic matter content of the surface layer is low.” human health.” • Common Name and Scientific Name • Diameter at Breast HeightHabitat: Disturbed Open • Invading alien species in the United States • Single Stem or Multi Stem Disturbed OpenThis is the predominant habitat of the project area and cause major environmental damages and losses • Quality Ranking (high, medium or low)shows the legacy of industrial activity. This habitat adding up to almost $120 billion per year. • Vines – Noting trees which are threatened withis characterized by non-native weedy species such as • here are approximately 50,000 foreign species invasive vinesTall Fescue, Johnson Grass, Queen Anne’s Lace, Spot- and the number is increasing. • The canopy trees were predominately found in ei-ted knapweed, Teasel, Mullein and Chicory. Native • About 42% of the species on the Threatened or ther the Riparian forest or Floodplain forest habitats.herbaceous species include Wild Ryes, Broomsedge, Endangered species lists are at risk primarily be- • In areas where canopy trees were removed fromPotentilla, Primrose, a few sedges, white Heath As- cause of alien-invasive species. the banks of Clear Creek, invasive plants pressure ister, and a patch of Indian hemp on the southern end. high. These areas of clearing are directly correlatedMuch of the scrub type growth that occurs sporadi- Negative Effects on Ecosystems: with massive stream bank failure.cally throughout the open areas are invasive species Exotic invasive plants can dominate urban forests and • The very limited quantity of hard mast producingsuch as Siberian Elm, Bush Honeysuckle and Multi- wetlands. Invasive plants alter ecosystem structure trees such as Oak and Hickory, should be addressedflora Rose. A few smaller caliper trees are scattered and function by changing soil chemistry, which can in future restoration planning to increase wildlife hab-lightly throughout including Sycamore, Eastern Red suppress or even extirpate most native competitors itat.Cedar, and Black Walnut. by preventing recruitment. Evidence has shown that invasive plants can alter soil ph, and slow nutrient cy-Udorthents, loamy soil classifies this entire area. cling. Some invasive plants are allelopathic; i.e. theyUdorthents have been greatly altered by man and are SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 23
  • STREAM EROSION INVENTORY The area surrounding the switchyard is dominated by impervious pave- I N V ENT O RY ment, such as rooftops and parking lots, and turf grass, which leads to a greater volume of runoff, velocity and sediment load. The removal of trees from the riparian area has facilitated the invasion of exotic veg- etation. This has dramatically increased stream bank erosion, and sig- nificantly decreased the ability of the riparian area to filter pollutants. The remaining riparian areas are experiencing pressure from invasive species, which will eventually degrade this important habitat so that it will no longer regulate water flow and temperature. Disturbance of the stream corridor and channelization have significantly decreased the quality of the water in clear creek, and the quality of habitat it provides. Protection of existing riparian areas and wetlands, and restoration plan- ning to address loss of habitat is key to the development of an effective stormwater management program and a healthy stream corridor. | Erosion: Low Na tu r a l Resou r ce s Manmade Structure Erosion: Medium Stable Streambank Erosion: HighSWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 24
  • I N V ENT O RY | Habit at Inventor y 25 0 1/27/12 20 0 10 50 5 5 5 0 N SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN
  • I N V ENT O RY | Inva si ve Speci es 26 0 1/27/12 20 0 10 50 5 5 5 0 N SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN
  • I N V ENT O RY | Tree Inventor y 27 0 1/27/12 20 0 10 50 5 5 5 0 N SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN
  • I N V ENT O RY | Stream Inventor y 28 0 1/27/12 20 0 10 50 5 5 5 0 N SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN
  • CtB CrC I N V ENT O RY BdB Hd CtB CrC CrB HtB CtCCtB CtC CrB CtB CtB CtC CrB CaD Ua CtB CtC CtB Ua CtB CtC | HtB CrC USGS Hd HtB Hd Ua SWITCHYARD Ua Ua PARK STUDY CtC Hd CtC CtC CtB AREA CrC Soi l CtB Indiana Physiographical Map CtC Hd CtB Wa CtB Su r vey Hd CtC CtC CtB CrB CtC CtB CtB Wa Ud CtC CaD CtB Norman Upland CtB Ua CrC CrB Wa CtC CrB CrC CrC CrC CaD Cb CrD Ud CaD CrB CaD CrB CrD CaD Ud CrC CaD BdB N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 29
  • BdB—Bedford silt loam Cb—Caneyville-Hagerstown silt loam, CoF—Corydon Variant-Caneyville Variant CrB—Crider silt loam CrD—Crider silt loam I N V ENT O RY2 to 6 percent slopes karst complex 2 to 6 percent slopes 12 to 18 percent slopesLandform: Hills Landform: Hillslopes 25 to 70 Landform: Hills Landform: HillsLandform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (two-dimensional): Shoulder, percent slopes Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit, Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope,Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve backslope Landform: Hills shoulder shoulderDown-slope shape: Convex Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slopeAcross-slope shape: Linear Down-slope shape: Convex Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Down-slope shape: ConvexParent material: Loess over clayey residuum Across-slope shape: Linear Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: LinearProperties and qualities Parent material: Clayey residuum over limestone Across-slope shape: Linear Parent material: Loess over clayey residuum Parent material: Loess over clayey residuumSlope: 2 to 6 percent Properties and qualities Parent material: Clayey residuum over limestone Properties and qualities Properties and qualitiesDepth to restrictive feature: 20 to 38 inches to Slope: 6 to 18 percent Properties and qualities Slope: 2 to 6 percent Slope: 12 to 18 percentfragipan Depth to restrictive feature: 20 to 40 inches to Slope: 25 to 70 percent Depth to restrictive feature: 60 to 120 inches to lithic Depth to restrictive feature: 60 to 120 inches toDrainage class: Moderately well drained lithic bedrock Depth to restrictive feature: 10 to 20 inches to bedrock lithic bedrockCapacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water Drainage class: Well drained lithic bedrock Drainage class: Well drained Drainage class: Well drained(Ksat): Low to Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water Drainage class: Well drained Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit watermoderately high (0.01 to 0.20 in/hr) (Ksat): Moderately high (0.20 to 0.60 in/hr) Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water (Ksat): Moderately high to high (0.60 to 2.00 in/hr) (Ksat): Moderately high to high (0.60 to 2.00 in/hr)Depth to water table: About 18 to 30 inches Depth to water table: More than 80 inches Depth to water table: More than 80 inches | Depth to water table: More than 80 inches (Ksat): Moderately low to high (0.06 to 2.00 in/hr)Frequency of flooding: None Frequency of flooding: None Depth to water table: More than 80 inches Frequency of flooding: None Frequency of flooding: NoneFrequency of ponding: None Frequency of ponding: None Frequency of flooding: None Frequency of ponding: None Frequency of ponding: NoneAvailable water capacity: Low (about 4.6 inches) Calcium carbonate, maximum content: 5 percent Frequency of ponding: None Available water capacity: High (about 9.3 inches) Available water capacity: High (about 9.3 inches) USGSTypical profile Available water capacity: Low (about 4.7 inches) Calcium carbonate, maximum content: 5 percent 0 to 7 inches: Silt loam Interpretive groups0 to 9 inches: Silt loam Interpretive groups Available water capacity: Very low (about 2.3 7 to 36 inches: Silty clay loam Typical profile9 to 24 inches: Silty clay loam Typical profile inches) 36 to 80 inches: Clay 0 to 7 inches: Silt loam24 to 51 inches: Silty clay loam 0 to 6 inches: Silt loam Typical profile Data 7 to 36 inches: Silty clay loam51 to 80 inches: Clay 6 to 10 inches: Silty clay loam 0 to 8 inches: Flaggy silt loam 36 to 80 inches: ClayData Source Information 10 to 36 inches: Clay 8 to 12 inches: Flaggy silty clay loam CrC—Crider silt loam Data Source Inform 36 to 60 inches: Unweathered bedrock 12 to 16 inches: Extremely flaggy silty clay loam 6 to 12 percent slopes Soi lCaD—Caneyville silt loam 16 to 20 inches: Unweathered bedrock Landform: Hills CtB—Crider-Urban land complex12 to 18 percent slopes Description of Hagerstown Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope, 2 to 6 percent slopesLandform: Sinkholes Setting Description of Caneyville Variant shoulder Landform: HillsLandform position (two-dimensional): Shoulder, Landform: Hillslopes Setting Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit,backslope Landform position (two-dimensional): Shoulder, Landform: Hills Down-slope shape: Convex shoulderLandform position (three-dimensional): Side slope backslope Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Su r vey Across-slope shape: LinearDown-slope shape: Convex Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Parent material: Loess over clayey residuum Down-slope shape: ConvexAcross-slope shape: Linear Down-slope shape: Convex Down-slope shape: Convex Properties and qualities Across-slope shape: LinearParent material: Clayey residuum over limestone Across-slope shape: Linear Map Unit Description: Corydon Variant-Caneyville Slope: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Loess over clayey residuumProperties and qualities Map Unit Description: Caneyville-Hagerstown silt Variant complex, 25 to 70 Depth to restrictive feature: 60 to 120 inches to lithic Properties and qualitiesSlope: 12 to 18 percent loam, karst–Monroe County, percent slopes–Across-slope shape: Linear bedrock Slope: 2 to 6 percentDepth to restrictive feature: 20 to 40 inches to Parent material: Loess over clayey residuum Parent material: Clayey-skeletal residuum over Drainage class: Well drained Depth to restrictive feature: 60 to 120 inches tolithic bedrock weathered from limestone Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water lithic bedrockDrainage class: Well drained limestone over limestone Properties and qualities (Ksat): Moderately high to high (0.60 to 2.00 in/hr) Drainage class: Well drainedCapacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water Properties and qualities Slope: 25 to 50 percent Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water In fo r m a ti o n Depth to water table: More than 80 inches(Ksat): Moderately high (0.20 to 0.60 in/hr) Slope: 2 to 12 percent Depth to restrictive feature: 20 to 40 inches to Frequency of flooding: None (Ksat): Moderately high to high (0.60 to 2.00 in/hr)Depth to water table: More than 80 inches Depth to restrictive feature: 40 to 60 inches to lithic bedrock Frequency of ponding: None Depth to water table: More than 80 inchesFrequency of flooding: None lithic bedrock Drainage class: Well drained Available water capacity: High (about 9.3 inches) Frequency of flooding: NoneFrequency of ponding: None Drainage class: Well drained Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water Typical profile Frequency of ponding: NoneCalcium carbonate, maximum content: 5 percent Capacity of the most limiting layer to transmit water (Ksat): Moderately low to moderately high (0.06 to 0 to 7 inches: Silt loam Available water capacity: High (about 9.3 inches)Available water capacity: Low (about 4.7 inches) (Ksat): Moderately high to high (0.20 to 2.00 in/hr) 0.60 in/hr) 7 to 36 inches: Silty clay loam Typical profileTypical profile Depth to water table: More than 80 inches Depth to water table: More than 80 inches 36 to 80 inches: Clay 0 to 7 inches: Silt loam0 to 6 inches: Silt loam Frequency of flooding: None Frequency of flooding: None Data Source Information 7 to 36 inches: Silty clay loam6 to 10 inches: Silty clay loam Frequency of ponding: None Frequency of ponding: None 36 to 80 inches: Clay10 to 36 inches: Clay Available water capacity: Moderate (about 6.4 Calcium carbonate, maximum content: 5 percent36 to 60 inches: Unweathered bedrock inches) Available water capacity: Low (about 3.7 inches) Description of Urban Land Typical profile Typical profile Setting 0 to 5 inches: Silt loam 0 to 3 inches: Channery silt loam Landform: Hills 5 to 16 inches: Silty clay loam 3 to 13 inches: Channery silt loam Interpretive groups 16 to 44 inches: Clay 13 to 22 inches: Silty clay Land capability (nonirrigated): 8 44 to 60 inches: Unweathered bedrock 22 to 30 inches: Very flaggy clay Map Unit Description: Crider-Urban land complex, 2 30 to 31 inches: Unweathered bedrock to 6 percent slopes SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 30
  • Environmental Assessment I N V ENT O RY The City of Bloomington has extensively investigated the environmental condi- tion of the switchyard property and the former CSX rail corridor. Since 2001, more than a dozen investigations and studies have been completed on the site to determine the type and extent of environmental conditions that may be pres- ent. These investigations included the collection of soil and groundwater from well over 100 locations. In addition, there have been phytoremediation and bioremediation pilot studies by IU Bloomington researchers and an ecological risk assessment. Each of these studies and reports has been reviewed by the project team in order to gain a thorough understanding of the environmental condition of the switchyard site. As well, the project team is working with the Indiana Depart- ment of Environmental Management and Indiana Brownfield Program staff to determine their requirements for remediation activities, and how anticipated | new standards from IDEM may impact the remediation options for the park. These new standards will most likely include specific requirements for a range of recreational end uses such as paved trails, athletic fields, children’s play ar- Envi r onment a l eas, and picnic areas. Given the findings of past studies, environmental remediation will be necessary at the Switchyard Park site, and may impact some design decisions for the park. However, the extent and type of contamination at the Switchyard is generally the same as that found along the CSX rail corridor, which was successfully remedi- ated as part of the B-Line Trail project. The predominant contamination in the switchyard property is 1-6 feet of Coal, Ash and Cinder fill. Using the extensive information on the site, the project team is working to de- termine appropriate environmental remediation measures, and will use this to inform future land use and design decisions for the park. The process of evalu- ating the investigation results, comparing them to the new standards, and inte- grating them with remedial options is on-going. As s e s s m e n tSWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 31
  • I N V ENT O RY | Envi r onment a l SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA CLEAR CREEK - IDEM LISTED IMPAIRED STREAMLEGEND Impa c ts Underground Storage Tank (UST) Brownfields Site RCRA File Exists Onsite Voluntary Remediation Project Site Water Wells Other - Includes Spills, Potential Brownfields/ Contaminated Properties Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trichloroethene (TCE) in Groundwater Petroleum Impacted Area CA&C FILL Coal, Ash & Cinder Fill Areas N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 32
  • Synopsis of Previous Studies and Plans I N V ENT O RY(community-wide studies and plans which may impact development and design of the Switchyard Park Master Plan):City of Bloomington Parks and Recreation MPO 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan Redefining Prosperity: Energy Descent and Commu- Bloomington Bike and Pedestrian TransportationCommunity Interest and Opinion Survey Bloomington/Monroe County MPO nity Resilience and Greenways System PlanCompleted: 2011 Completed 2010 Completed: 2009 City of Bloomington Completed: 2008A random sample of 708 households conducted to assess com- The MPO plan identifies and prioritizes transportation improve- The Bloomington Peak Oil Task Force was charged with assess-munity attitudes about and preferences for parks and recreation. ment projects needed for the next 25 years to maintain and im- ing Bloomington’s vulnerability to a decline in cheap oil and devel- A strategic plan for the City of Bloomington outlining the future bi- prove the transportation facilities of the Bloomington area. oping researched and prudent strategies by which Bloomington cycle and pedestrian transportation needs. These include trails,Need for Parks and Recreation Facilities might be made more resilient in the face of peak oil. sidewalks and bike lanes. The plan also provides design guide-At least 50% of respondent households indicated they have a need Committed Projects lines for future bicycle and pedestrian facilities.for the following parks and recreation facilities: walking and bik- The transportation plan takes into consideration improvement proj- The Task Force examined the following community systems: munic-ing trails (74%), small neighborhood parks (61%), large community ects that have already been programmed for Fiscal Years 2006 ipal services, transportation, land use, housing, sustenance, and Planned Projectsparks (59%), and greenspace and natural areas (53%). through 2008 (aka committed projects). The majority of these the economic context. Mitigation recommendations were made The strategic plan for bike and pedestrian trial is broken into projects are located outside of the functional study area of the for each of these community systems. Those recommendations | high, medium, and low priority projects. The high priority plannedMost Important Facilities McDoel Switchyard Park. The exception is the Country Club Drive relevant to the Switchyard Park Master Plan include the following: projects that are within the vicinity of the McDoel Switchyard areBased on the sum of their top four choices, the facilities that re- and Rogers Street intersection which is planned to have left-turn “B-line Trail: Central City,” “Walnut Street Bike Lanes,” “Rogersspondents indicated were most important to their households in- lanes added. Municipal Services Street Side-path.” The Plan also includes the near-by medium Pr evi ou scluded: walking and biking trails (55%) and small neighborhood •Explore hybrid energy (hydroelectric-solar) generation to comple- and low priority projects “Black Lumber Path” and “Rogers Streetparks (31%). Youth football fields (1%) were least selected as im- Year 2030 Traffic Forecasting ment existing power at the water treatment plant. Sidepath.”portant to respondents. The MPO maintains a Travel Demand Forecast Model for the pur- •Encourage more rainwater capture by residents and the City poses of forecasting future traffic volumes. The model is developed •Develop a community compost program.Need for Recreation Programs and Activities by projecting future travel patterns between the residential and •Establish waste reduction goalsRespondents selected the following recreation programs or activi- non-residential areas of the MPO, designated as traffic analysis •Explore alternatives to asphalt.ties as those for which they had the greatest need: Farmers’ Mar- zones (TAZ). Collected traffic data, housing and employment data, •Seek assistance with park maintenance from volunteers, neigh-ket (71%), community events, concerts, movies, etc. (52%) and existing roadway network configurations, and committed transpor- borhood associations, etc.adult fitness, health and wellness programs (39%). tation projects are all data inputs for the model. Bring daily necessities closer to where people liveMost Important Recreation Programs and Activities The MPO forecasting model shows that Grimes Lane from Rog- •Increase connectivity & the number of planned “lengthy corri- Stu di esBased on the sum of their top four choices, the recreation programs ers St to Henderson St is anticipated to experience traffic conges- dors” for bicyclists.and activities that are most important to respondent households tion in year 2030 based on the existing roadway configurations •Work toward a regional Comprehensive Land Use and Transpor-are: Farmers’ Market (62%) and community events, concerts, mov- and committed projects. The plan does not outline a solution for tation Plan involving the City of Bloomington, Monroe County,ies, etc. (39%). The least selected recreation program and activity mitigating the congestion along Grimes Lane nor does it list an and Indiana University that fosters bicycle, pedestrian, and tran-was “youth health and wellness programs” (3%). improvement project in the recommended Capital Improvement sit-friendly changes in land use. Program (see below). Discussions with the City DPW indicate thatPotential Switchyard Spaces and Programs a Hillside Drive extension may help alleviate the future congestion Land UseAt least 35% of respondents indicated their household would use along Grimes Lane. The feasibility of a proposed Hillside Drive ex- •Through zoning and other land management tools, encouragethe following potential spaces or programs at the Switchyard: per- tension through the Switchyard Park site is under review. the redistribution of land to bring about denser living arrange-formance space (44%), area for special events/festivals (42%), ments, and a closer integration of residential and commercialplayground (39%), nature preserve (38%), and shelter buildings Long Range Transportation Capital Improvement Program activity, to reduce the amount of intra-city transportation.(37%). Football fields (4%) were selected by the fewest number of The plan recommends short term (2009-2019) and long term •Target public transit routes to help shape neighborhood devel-respondents. (2020-2030) projects to meet future transportation needs and the opment. estimated future funding sources. The CSX Corridor Trail (Phase III)Switchyard Spaces Respondents Would Use Most Often from Adams St to Country Club Dr is listed as a short term project HousingBased on the sum of their top four choices, respondents indicated for the City which is within the functional study area of the McDoel •Explore the possibility of local power generation from renewablethey would use most often use the following spaces at the Switch- Switchyard Park. This project has since been constructed and is sources.yard: performance space (30%), playground (30%), nature pre- better known as the “B-Line Trail”.serve (28%), and area for special events/festivals (26%). Sustenance •Plant edible landscapes on public property.Benefits Most Important to Respondent Household Members. •Organize City-led horticultural services to include the collection,Based on the sum of their top three choices, the benefits that processing, and distribution of organic waste.respondents indicated are most important to household mem- •Dedicate public land to intensive gardening and farming.bers are: improving physical health and fitness (70%) and making •Work toward a year-round regional farmers’ market.Bloomington a more desirable place to live (47%). Promoting tour- •Create a local, publicly-controlled seedbank.ism to the City (4%) is the benefit least selected by respondents as •Encourage water conservation through outreach and incentives.important to their households. •Create community composting sites. SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 33
  • Synopsis of Previous Studies and Plans I N V ENT O RY(studies and plans for areas related to the study site which may impact development and design of the Switchyard Park Master Plan):McDoel Switchyard/CSX Rail Corridor Master Plan South Rogers Street Identity Study Broadview Neighborhood Plan McDoel Gardens Neighborhood PlanCompleted: 2003 Completed: 2009 Completed: 2003 Completed: 2002The study area for the 2003 Master Plan stretched from Country The purpose of the South Rogers Street identity study was to pro- The Broadview Neighborhood Plan created a vision and plan for The McDoel Gardens Neighborhood Plan created a vision and ac-Club Road on the south end to Adams Street on the north, includ- vide a comprehensive plan that explored potential strategies to the Broadview neighborhood that focused on several goals includ- tion plan for the neighborhood which focused on five key areas:ing the McDoel Switchyard site and the CSX Railroad Corridor. improve the look and feel of Rogers Street. The study area extends ing: from Hillside Drive to the south, north to Kirkwood Avenue. The Preserve HomesPortions of the study area were divided into ‘Character Districts’ study was envisioned as an opportunity to create a plan that will GOAL 1: TO IMPROVE PUBLIC SERVICES THAT WILL CREATE A Ensure single-family residential remains the predominant use forwith planning recommendations developed for each. Recommen- take advantage of funding that is available through the Housing SAFER ENVIRONMENT FOR ALL AGES AND ABILITIES our neighborhood and retain it as a conservation district. Maintaindations for the McDoel Switchyard Character District include: and Neighborhood Development Department (HAND). The plan •Objective A: Enhance alternative modes of transportation choic- a diversity of affordable homes: owner occupied and rental, while created will serve as a road map for how these future public and es with improved access and safety. preserving scale and compatibility throughout the neighborhood.•Create a trail profile consisting of a single, 12 foot wide asphalt private investments can be utilized. As part of this study, an imple- •Objective B: Continually strive to improve storm water drainage pathway with 2 foot crushed stone shoulders. mentation strategy was created. These strategies were created to and other public facilities in the neighborhood. Find a Balance with Nature |•Restore portions of the Clear Creek floodplain where practical. allow the construction of big or small projects as funds are avail- Develop natural spaces and structures that knit our community•Retain and enhance the majority of the existing riparian wood- able. GOAL 2: TO PROMOTE THE REUSE OF BROADVIEW ELEMENTA- together. Enhance opportunities for the natural community and lands south of the former roundhouse. RY SCHOOL the built environment to work in harmony. Examples include the Pr evi ou s•Utilize the former roundhouse remnants to aid the interpretation The end product of the South Rogers Street Identity Study is a •Objective A: Broadview Neighborhood Association (BNA) to inves- West Branch of Clear Creek and CSX switchyard, which could pro- of the Switchyard function. document that can be used as a guide for each development proj- tigate and identify desirable opportunities to reuse the school vide green spaces for neighborhood parks and pedestrian/bicycle•Assign priority to the development of a natural, passive park with ect. The document can be referenced to understand the desired before it closes. paths. a restored ecology, and facilities tending toward more casual look and feel in distinct areas, proposed improvements, details of •Objective B: Recognize the important role that the BES functions recreational uses. proposed elements and costs estimates for each. as a neighborhood focal point and community center. Establish and Maintain Relationships with Stakeholders•Identify and set aside areas which are practical for the develop- •Objective C: Regularly identify programs and/or services that ment of substantial recreational and institutional facilities in the Goals established for the project are the following: can utilize the BES to better serve Broadview residents. Foster Economic Sustainability long term future. These might include art centers, an amphithe- •Separate neighborhoods need to be clearly identified as part of •Objective D: Retain the BES playground as a neighborhood park. Promote a balanced mix of residential and commercial activities. ater, or community center. the overall project in order to maintain their individuality. Attract innovative businesses to and encourage reinvestment and•Encourage adjacent properties and structures to be reused and/ •From the safety aspect, the project should address accessibility GOAL 3: TO STRENGTHEN THE BROADVIEW NEIGHBORHOOD AS- entrepreneurship in the neighborhood that will provide employ- or reconfigured in ways that address the trail and provide trail and pedestrian movement as there are currently major issues SOCIATION ment opportunities and produce living-wage salaries for residents Stu di es users with direct access to shops, restaurants, and similar uses. with this. •Objective A: Increase attendance/participation at BNA meetings. as well as the community at large. Ensure that new adjacent uses complement the trail. •Project materials should be reminiscent of Bloomington. •Objective B: Develop a seasonal Broadview newsletter.•Evaluate the potential of providing trailhead facilities at Grimes •Provide outdoor spaces for people to interact and gather. •Objective C: Increase leadership skills of residents in Broadview. Enhance Interconnectivity Lane, Country Club Road, and the Walnut Street frontage. •Address intersections in order to enhance pedestrian and bi- •Objective D: Develop a neighborhood directory (services, inter- Establish up-to-date utility infrastructure, i.e., modern streets with•Create connecting pathways to the neighborhoods on the west cycle movement and safety. ests, resident contact information, neighborhood watch, etc.). curbing, sidewalks and lighting as well as good, bicycle and pedes- side of the Switchyard as well as to Walnut Street and the public •Include public art in the design. trian friendly, physical and transit connections within the neighbor- schools to the east. •Respect the historic nature of the homes and businesses along GOAL 4: TO ENCOURAGE PRIDE IN HOMEOWNERSHIP hood and to other parts of the Bloomington community.•Further evaluate vehicular access for the park. The most promis- the corridor. •Objective A: Preserve and maintain affordable single-family ing access point, at this time, appears to be the point at which •Use color and materials to create excitement and interest. homes through home ownership. the Indiana Railroad line crosses Rogers Street. •Objective B: Annually identify and prioritize abandoned and/or•Seek opportunities to incorporate public art at strategic loca- neglected properties requiring the most immediate attention. tions along the Rail Corridor and within the Switchyard.•Confirm the ability to create trail underpasses for crossings with GOAL 5: TO IMPROVE OUR PUBLIC IMAGE the proposed Hillside Drive connection as well as the improved •Objective A: Continuously improve the general public’s percep- Country Club Road corridor. tion of the Broadview Neighborhood.•Explore the feasibility of extending the Morton Street corridor •Objective B: Improve the aesthetics of the Broadview Neighbor- south to Hillside Drive and beyond. hood (through enhanced landscaping).•Evaluate the age and condition of utility pipes during trail con- struction and upgrade as needed. GOAL 6: TO ENCOURAGE NEW AND EXISTING SMALL BUSINESS•Utilize bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques to •Objective A: Identify opportunities within the neighborhood, treat environmentally contaminated areas within the Switchyard which will attract a variety of locally owned small businesses. where existing contamination will be buried beneath clean fill.•Establish a property acquisition process to evaluate means for GOAL 7: TO EDUCATE BROADVIEW RESIDENTS ABOUT AVAIL- buying property or development rights for the properties imme- ABLE SERVICES diately adjacent to Clear Creek. •Objective A: Develop working relationships with the public sec-•Submit a corrected regulatory floodplain model to the State and tor and local service providers to identify the unique needs of to FEMA for clarifying the true extent of floodway limits. the neighborhood and types of services available to Broadview residents. SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 34
  • I N V ENT O RY | L a nd Use Th emesSWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 35
  • Thematic Land Use Categories Corresponding Trade Areas I N V ENT O RY Introduction and Summary Since a stated goal of the Switchyard Park is to not only create a grand park space in the City of Bloomington, but also spur real estate development on properties that are near While the idea of the Switchyard property as a potential “grand park” for the City of and adjacent, these existing land use themes are helpful organizing tools to analyze Bloomington has been discussed for many years (and some formal planning has occurred to markets for redevelopment investment. Because of the Switchyard’s linear orientation and that end), from a current land use perspective it is, at this time, an old railroad switching yard large size, it becomes apparent that a specialized approach to analyze trade areas and site. Because of this site legacy, existing land uses generally fall into one of three categories derive marketplace conditions is required. As the planning for the park itself evolves, this or themes: organization could then have ramifications about park development priorities and allocation • RAIL-LEGACY INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL: Properties that address the Switchyard of resources, i.e. “where might money be prioritized in certain sections of the park to match because they are legacy properties that formally utilized the functions of the rail system where there is investment potential for transformative real estate development?” (The Thomson Warehouses, Grimes Lane Commercial Properties, etc.) Three Trade Areas/Markets • SOUTH WALNUT STREET COMMERCIAL: Auto-dependant commercial development that is focused on the South Walnut Corridor and has limited “address” or relationship to the • TRADE AREA #1 | Switchyard. Relatively strong existing land use context/conditions at the north end of the park area • RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOODS: Residential Neighborhoods that were and are buffered (i.e. proximity to downtown Bloomington, the B-Line Trail and established neighborhoods) Tr a de from the Switchyard by vegetation, terrain or physical barriers (fencing, roadways, etc.) will likely create a logical trade area to assess. An analysis of the, 1, 3, and 5-mile trade (Primarily the Broadview Neighborhood Area, yet also the McDoel Gardens Neighborhood areas (centered on the north end of the Switchyard and Grimes Lane) will assist to and Bryan Park Neighborhood) project real estate demand with a technique (concentric circles) that will be familiar to potential investors and suitable for this type of area. • TRADE AREA #2 Ar ea The South Walnut Street retail corridor is a secondary impact area that will be analyzed with a different technique that is more suitable for its retail and auto-oriented conditions. Since retail capacity is directly related to consumer spending and automobile access via roadways, this trade area will be analyzed using 5, 10, and 15-minute drive times from the corner of South Walnut Street and Country Club Drive. Demog r a phi c s • TRADE AREA #3 - RESIDENTIAL Finally, to a large extent, residential market dynamics are dependent on larger regional trends, therefore net housing demand will be projected for the City of Bloomington using ESRI population and household growth projections. This overall demand can be “allocated” to local residential areas, including the Broadview Neighborhood and other adjacent areas that the planning process might deem suitable for residential land uses.SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 36
  • TRADE AREA #1 MEASURED AS 1-, 3-, and 5-mile DISTANCES FROM GRIMES I N V ENT O RY Relatively strong existing land use context/conditions at the north end of the park area (i.e. proximity to downtown Bloomington, the B-Line Trail and established neighborhoods) will likely create a logical trade area to assess. An analysis of the, 1, 3, and 5-mile trade areas (centered on the north end of the Switchyard and Grimes Lane) will assist to project real estate demand with a technique (concentric circles) that will be familiar to potential investors and suitable for this type of area. | Tr a de Ar ea 1SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 37
  • TRADE AREA #2 MEASURED AS 5-, 10-, and 15-minute DRIVE TIMES I N V ENT O RY FROM COUNTRY CLUB & SOUTH WALNUT 5-MINUTE DRIVE TIME RESULTS BELOW ONLY The South Walnut Street retail corridor is a secondary impact area that will be analyzed with a different technique that is more suitable for its retail and auto-oriented conditions. Since retail capacity is directly related to consumer spending and automobile access via roadways, this trade area will be analyzed using 5, 10, and 15-minute drive times from the corner of South Walnut Street and Country Club Drive. | Tr a de Ar ea 2SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 38
  • TRADE AREA #3 - RESIDENTIAL CITY OF BLOOMINGTON CORPORATE LIMITS I N V ENT O RY Finally, to a large extent, residential market dynamics are dependent on larger regional trends, therefore net housing demand will be projected for the City of Bloomington using ESRI population and household growth projections. This overall demand can be “allocated” to local residential areas, including the Broadview Neighborhood and other adjacent areas that the planning process might deem suitable for residential land uses. | Tr a de Ar ea 3SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 39
  • Bloomington Urban Enterprise Zone (BUEZ) I N V ENT O RY The Bloomington Urban Enterprise Association (BUEA) operates the Enterprise Zone to contribute to economic development efforts in Bloomington’s urban core. Indiana offers state tax benefits for Zone businesses, investors and residents. Pursuant to Indiana Code, Enterprise businesses and investors who claim Zone-related tax benefits must remit a small portion of Zone their savings to the BUEA, which in turn operates a variety of programs and services to further economic development within the Zone: • Enterprise Zone Investment Deduction (EZID): The EZID is a 79 percent, 10-year deduction on the increased property taxes resulting from the increased property value within the following a qualified investment. SWITCHYARD • Investment Cost Credit: An individual purchasing an ownership interest in a Zone business PARK STUDY may be eligible to receive a tax credit of up to 30 percent of the purchase price. AREA • Loan Interest Credit: A taxpayer may take a credit of 5 percent of the interest income received from a qualified loan made to a Zone business or resident. The loan must apply to purposes directly related to the business or increase the assessed value of real property in the Zone. | Enterprise Enterprise Zone Zone Economi c Enterprise Zones N 40 20 0 10 0 0 0 Thomson/Walnut/Winslow Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District Devel op m e n t Bloomington currently has six TIF districts, which have all been established, or expanded, within the last ten years. Established in 1992 and amended in 1993, 2001 and 2002, the Thomson/Walnut/Winslow Tax Increment Financing district is the merger of threeDowntown Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District separate TIF districts within and around the Switchyard. The TIF district designation permits Thomson-Walnut Tax the City of Bloomington to finance the redevelopment of blighted areas and support theExpanded Downtown Tax Increment economic development of rapidly developing areas. Property tax revenues collected on Increment FinancingFinancing (TIF) District the incremental increased assessed valuation of property in the area to be redeveloped or (TIF) District developed is deployed in the district to further economic development. Funds can be used SWITCHYARD for the acquisition of property for purposes of redevelopment or to finance infrastructure PARK STUDY improvements to stimulate private sector investment and job creation. AREA Expanded A r e a s Adams Crossing Thomson Tax Increment Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Financing (TIF) District District Adams Crossing Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District TIF Districts N 40 20 0 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 40
  • Thomson Community Revitalization Enhancement District (CRED) I N V ENT O RY One of two Community Revitalization Enhancement Districts designated in Bloomington, the Thomson CRED allows the City of Bloomington to capture increased sales and income tax dollars generated by new business investment within the area and to use the funds for economic development purposes within the District. By using these incremental revenues, the City undertakes projects such as the creation of new infrastructure, beautification of the Bloomington Art & Entertainment District (BEAD) area or to reimburse capital investments made by businesses developing within the CRED. SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY Bloomington Arts and Entertainment AREA District (BEAD) The Bloomington Entertainment and Arts District seeks to bring the business and creative | sectors together to advance commerce and culture, build community and spur economic Downtown Community development. Revitalization Enhancement District (CRED) Economi c Thomson Community Revitalization Enhancement District (CRED) BEAD & CRED Districts N 40 20 0 10 0 0 0 Bloomington Downtown Character Zone The Downtown Character Zone is intended to guide both new development and Devel op m e n t redevelopment activities as follows: • Ensure that new development is compatible in mass and scale with historic structures in the Downtown Core Character Area; • Draw upon the design traditions exhibited by historic commercial buildings by providing individual, detailed storefront modules that are visually interesting to pedestrians; • Promote infill and redevelopment of sites using residential densities and building heights that are higher in comparison to other Character Areas within the Downtown.DowntownCharacter SWITCHYARD Zone PARK STUDY AREA A r e a s Character Zones N 40 20 0 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 41
  • Listing of City of Bloomington Adopted Plans (which mention or would affect development and land use in the Switchyard Park Master Plan Area): I N V ENT O RY PLANNING DEPARTMENT PEAK OIL TASK FORCE and ENVIRONMENTAL COMMISSION • City of Bloomington, 2002 Growth Policies Plan (Bloomington’s Comprehensive Plan) • 2009 Redefining Prosperity Report of the Peak Oil Task Force • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/49.pdf • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/6239.pdf • Switchyard specifically referenced on Pages 66 and 67 as a “Critical Sub-area” • Adopted Document of the City of Bloomington as a statement about future priorities • NOTE: The City is currently planning an update to this 2002 Growth Policies Plan. regarding environmental and financial use of resources in light of a future with It is anticipated that the Switchyard Park Master Plan will assist in crafting further diminished automobile use as energy costs rise and supplies are reduced. Wide detailed subarea planning for this update. Anticipated completion of this update is ranging implications for land use around the Switchyard from desired types of 2013-2014. transportation access to building energy usage to environmental habitat. • City of Bloomington Unified Development Ordinance (UDO) (Bloomington’s Zoning Code) • 2003 Towards a Comprehensive Greenspace Plan | • https://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/5795.pdf • https://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/112.pdf • Comprehensive Zoning Code Document that highlights standards for all properties • Greenspace Plan for the City of Bloomington that highlights opportunities for Exi s ti ng that would surround the Switchyard Park area. Specific reference to the City Zoning greenspace development. Map is required to determine UDO applicability to a specific parcel of property. Specifically, floodplain regulations are very relevant to the Switchyard Area. The • 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory City Zoning Map can be downloaded at: http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/ application/pdf/1319.pdf • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/5047.pdf • Report of the City of Bloomington Environmental Commission highlighting areas of potential opportunity to reduce energy and improve overall environmental conditions. • City of Bloomington McDoel Neighborhood Plan - 2002 Key recommendations in areas of transportation planning, energy efficiency and • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/55.pdf building design and legislation. • Adopted Neighborhood Plan of the City of Bloomington that offers guidance about L a nd issues relevant to land use, circulation, pedestrian accommodations and housing. TRANSPORTATION PLANNING • City of Bloomington Broadview Neighborhood Plan - 2003 • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/54.pdf • City of Bloomington Platinum Bicycle Task Force Use • Adopted Neighborhood Plan of the City of Bloomington that offers guidance about • Desire to reach platinum level (national rating by League of American Bicyclists) by issues relevant to land use, circulation, pedestrian accommodations and housing. 2016. • Currently developing reports and key strategies • City of Bloomington South Rogers Streetscape Identity Study - 2009 P l a n s • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/4889.pdf • 2008 Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation & Greenways System Plan • City of Bloomington sponsored study of South Rogers Street streetscape and identity. • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/57.pdf Highlights potential land use and economic development opportunities in addition to • Currently under potential modification with consultant team of Burgess and Nipple and potential infrastructure improvements. Alta Planning in 2012 and 2013. • MPO Long Range Transportation Plan 2005/06, update coming in 2012 • http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/63.pdf • The feasibility of a proposed Hillside Drive extension through the Switchyard Park site is under review as part of the new plan update. • Plan includes complete streets policy if a project is using federal funds thru MPO.SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 42
  • I N V ENT O RY Public Parks & UrbanSemi-Private Recreation Residential Community Public Activity Center Semi-Private Residential Urban Urban Core Residential Residential | Community Activity Center G r owth Parks & Parks & Community Activity Center Recreation SWITCHYARD Parks & Recreation Recreation Employment PARK STUDY Center AREA Urban Urban Residential Pol i ci es Residential Neighborhood Activity Center Neighborhood Residential Activity Center Parks & Core Employment Residential Recreation Center Public Core Semi-Private P l a n Public Semi-Private Parks & Recreation Employment Parks & Urban Center Residential Community Recreation Activity Center Community Urban Activity Center Residential N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN Refer to Appendix A for Growth Policy District descriptions. 1/27/12 43
  • Planned Unit I N V ENT O RY Development Residential Multi-Family Residential Planned Unit Residential Development Multi-Family High-Density Residential Multi-Family Institutional Commercial Residential Core Arterial Commercial Residential Commercial General Single Family General | Residential Single Planned Unit Family Development Zoni ng Commercial Arterial Commercial Commercial General Genera Downtown Planned Unit Development Commercial Arterial SWITCHYARD Institutional Institutional Industrial General PARK STUDY AREA Residential Residential Multi-Family Residential Multi-Family Single Family Commercial Limited Medical Residential Core Residential Residential Industrial Residential Institutional Core Multi-Family General High-DensityResidential Institutional Core Manufactured Home Park Commercial Limited Residential Single Family Residential Medical Institutional Single Family l Planned Unit Development Institutional Residential Commercial High-Density General Residential Multi-Family Planned Unit Development N 40 20 0 1 10 0 0 0 SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN Refer to Appendix B for Zoning District descriptions. 1/27/12 44
  • I N V ENT O RY | Pendi ng Pr ojectsSWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 2/8/12 45
  • Südgelände Nature-Park | Berlin, Germany Discovery Park | Houston, Texas CASE S TUDI ES Location & Context: Former switchyard in Berlin, Germany Location & Context: Downtown Houston (set between the convention center, downtown, and two major sports venues) Size: 18 Hectares Size: 12 acres Opened: 2000 Opened: April 2008 Cost: Initial Cost - $2.3 million - Annual Operations and Programming - $316,000 Cost: $125 million Designer: Oko - Con / Planland Working Group (planner) with ODIOUS (artist / walkway designer) Designer: Hargreaves Associates with PageSoutherlandPage (architect) and Lauren Griffith Associates (local landscape architect) Description: The Tempelhof switchyard, was a former switchyard and one of Berlin’s busiest railyway sites. It was gradually scaled down after the Second World War and was eventually abandoned. Description: This parks was built to change perception of downtown and seed revitalization of the surrounding urban district. Over thirty years without use, a species-rich natural oasis developed. Recently the site was It was a partnership between the City of Houston and private philanthropists. The park is operated by Discovery repurposed as an ecologically and historically protected arts and leisure space, known as Green Conservancy. The design had four goals - to create a world-class, urban park, to create an amenity for con- Nature-Park. Several buildings from the site’s previous life as a switchyard remain, including the ventions and tourism, to help reshape the east side of downtown Houston; and to involve Houstonians in the park’s “Brückenmeisterei“ (an administrative building) and a water tower. In the immediate vicinity is planning and design. The park is intended to be an active, urban space for all ages, to be a venue for small and the 4,000 m2 former locomotive hall, which has been repurposed into an avant-garde arts venue mid-sized arts organizations, and to be an exemplar of sustainable practices. with links between art, culture, education and sport, and a potential hostel. Visitors can also take part in a wide range of tours to find out about the site’s flora and fauna and habitat value. Elements of Success: There is intense programming, with over 800 public and private events a year, including farmers markets, art fairs, parades, free exercise classes, concerts, movies, and festivals, ice skating, and a model boat basin. More than As a result of their efforts and financing from the Allianz Environmental Foundation and the 150 nonprofit organizations and corporations license space in the park for public and private events. A north/south Berlin Government, Nature-Park was developed into an ecologically and historically protected arts street was converted to a park promenade and central activity spine. It links major sporting venues to the north and leisure space and is now maintained by the Grün Berlin Limited under the authority of the and south. There is unique, iconic architecture, including two restaurants, a park administration building, under- Administration of Nature Protection. Nature-Park is also regarded by city officials and residents ground parking for more than 600 vehicles, a bandstand, a small children’s performance space and shade struc- as a project that helps compensate for the environmental damage caused in the city center by tures of various sizes and configurations. Discovery Green has achieved LEED Gold certification. There are many the ongoing construction of new transportation facilities and buildings. interactive elements, 11 gardens, 4 water features, 2 hills, 2 restaurants, 2 outdoor catered-event areas, 2 outdoor market areas, a stage, 2 dog runs, 2 dog fountains, bocce ball courts, 2 outdoor library reading rooms with libraryElements of Success: Access to untouched nature that has overgrown an urban artifact with educational programming. services and Wi-Fi, a putting green, a playground, a jogging trail, and a shuffleboard court Preserving switchyard’s historical structures and tracks. Minimal intrusion, an appeal to avant- garde art, cultural, artistic, and theatrical performances. Economic Impact: The project has resulted in $8 of downtown construction for every $1 invested. There were over 1.7 million visi- tors in first two years. Since its announcement, over $530 million of development has been directly influenced by Economic Impact: There are 50,000+ visitors per year with ticket sales contributing to the yearly budget. the park, and another $640 million has been indirectly influenced. There has been a broader economic impact from “significant media attention... all with the theme that there is a socially sensitive, in-step with the times side of Houston that may not have been well perceived before.” An adjacent residential town has been completed, an Sources: www.gruen-berlin.de/parks-gardens/suedgelaende-nature-park/ office tower is under construction, and two additional hotels will occupy the remaining open blocs next to the park. Annual expenses come to $3.5 million, with an annual operating revenue of $1.5 million from facility rentals and sponsorships. Discovery Green Conservancy is responsible for on-going fundraising , management and attracting financial support. Sources: Project for Public Spaces Economic Impact Case Study, www.worldarchitecturenews.com SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 46
  • Circus Square Park | Bowling Green, Kentucky Robert C Beutter Park | Mishawaka, Indiana CASE S TUDI ES Location & Context: Bowling Green, Kentucky Location & Context: Mishawaka, IN, on the former Ball Band / Uniroyal site Size: 3.5 Acres Size: 7 acres Opened: June 2008 Opened: May, 2005 (Phase One), Fall, 2008 (Phase Two and Three) Cost: $2.2 Million Cost:D $3.8 Million (Phase One), $3.2 Million (Phase Two and Three) Designer: Rundell Ernstberger Associates, LLC Designer: Rundell Ernstberger Associates, LLC Description: Circus Square Park, located on a 3.5 acre block in downtown Bowling Green, Kentucky, was Description: Beutter Riverfront Park serves as the centerpiece of redevelopment at an abandoned downtown developed as a key downtown recreational activity hub outlined in the 2002 Bowling Green industrial site. The park’s highlight is a decorative race, a water feature which follows the route Revitalization Strategy. Designed as a central gathering space, the park integrates the construction of a historic canal once used by industries. The race features a series of weirs, custom bridges, of a multipurpose civic park with the adaptive reuse of historic structures in celebration of the sculpture elements, and ornamental walks. Additional amenities include artwork, gardens, an community’s heritage and its future. outdoor performance area and event lawn, and a promenade along the river. The park opened in the summer of 2008 and includes an interactive fountain, and a “Heritage The park was the first phase of a multi-phased riverfront improvement project that includes a Walk” which transverses the site from north to south. When fully developed, the Park will include pedestrian bridge and a North Shore Rivertrail System. a farmer’s market, an authentic “bowling green,” a performance plaza and green, civic gardens, and concessions in a historic Standard Oil service station. Elements of Success: An abandoned industrial site was trnsformed into a park, creating a mixed-use urban development that renews the city’s relationship to the river. The highly programmed space is used for summerElements of Success: The park serves as an entertainment venue and is home to a series of community events, festivals concerts and other community events throughout the year, typically attracting 500 to 800 people and summer concerts, as well as private and corporate events. The interactive fountain attracts for each. Local residents view the park as a community landmark, and it is featured in local tourism regular visitors. and business development efforts. Economic Impact: While Circus Square was under construction, the Bowling Green Area Chamber of Commerce opened Economic Impact: Local businesses support park events and view the park as an important factor in Mishawaka’s a new $4 million building just one block from the park site. In April, 2009, the $28 million Bowling economic health. In 2011, four new businesses remodeled existing buildings and relocated Green Ballpark, home of the Bowling Green Hot Rods, also opened a short distance from the park. downtown. Downtown residential development includes new townhomes along the river (14 The Southern Kentucky Performing Arts Center (SKyPAC) is the newest edition to downtown Bowling townhomes valued at +$300,000 and 11 more starting at $270,000)) Green. Scheduled to open March 10, 2012, this facility will offer arts and education opportunities for South Central Kentucky. Featuring more than 69,000 square feet and a 1,600-seat theater, Sources: www.reasite.com/ the facility’s total construction costs are $28 million. Another planned downtown redevelopment project is a private investment mixed-use building across from Circus Square Park estimated at $25 million and featuring shops, restaurants, office space and condominiums. Sources: www.reasite.com/http://southcentralky.com/ SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 47
  • Common Elements of Success from Case Study Research CASE Design Spaces That Are Inviting to Use the Site’s History and Context Express and Include the Region’s All User and Age Groups In Contemporary Ways and to Inform Contemporary Designs Natural Character and Ecological Identity S TUDI ES Incorporate a Variety of Events and Activities Connect to and Redevelop the Park’s Surroundings to Encourage Year-Round Use to Be Consistent with The Park’s Themes Provide a World-Class Arts ExperienceSWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN 1/27/12 48
  • DOWNTOWN DISTRICT policies should guide such efforts. • Blank wall controls must be enacted to prevent residential areas, and when appropriately integrated utilize garages accessed by alleys to the rear of A P PENDI XIntent • Downtown streetscapes should be enhanced large stretches of walls without architectural with adjacent uses per adopted form district properties, while front yard parking be prohibited.Fostering a vibrant downtown area is crucial to the by identifying gateway corridors and developing features (such as windows, doors, or other requirements.principle of compact urban form. The Downtown streetscape improvement projects (i.e. the recently elements) along street frontages. • Explore opportunities to introduce nodes of URBAN RESIDENTIALarea is a mixed use, high intensity activity completed East Kirkwood Streetscape • Curb cuts along downtown streets are strongly appropriately designed, neighborhood scaled Intentcenter serving regional, community-wide, and project). discouraged. Rather, site access should be commercial uses within the core neighborhoods. Urban Residential areas include those parts ofneighborhood markets. Bloomington must strive • Utilities improvement projects, especially those primarily from sidewalks for pedestrians or alleys • Discourage the conversion of single family homes the city developed after the Core Residentialto improve downtown as a compact, walkable, and dealing with stormwater drainage facilities, must for vehicles. to apartments. areas were built-out. Some minor developmentarchitecturally distinctive area in the traditional be coordinated with streetscape improvement • Downtown greenspace should be improved by • Utilize targeted tax abatements and grant is still taking place in these areas. This categoryblock pattern that serves as the heart of projects to minimize impacts on encouraging plazas and common streetscape programs in specific neighborhoods to provide identifies existing residential areas, with densitiesBloomington while providing land use choices to downtown businesses and residents. themes, in coordination with new development and incentives for increased owner occupancy and generally ranging from 2 units per acre to 15 unitsaccommodate visitors, business, shoppers and • Transit facilities (i.e. benches, shelters, and redevelopment. affordable housing construction. per acre. Additionally, this category also includesresidents. pull-offs) must be integrated into the downtown • Develop revised parking requirements for the ading deficient utilities in core neighborhoods. some large underdeveloped parcels, known as new streetscape to facilitate efficient public transit Downtown Commercial zoning district in order urban growth areas as well as individual vacant ALand Use service. to provide appropriate levels of parking for high Urban Services lots and smaller acreages, known as neighborhoodA mix of office, commercial, civic, high-density • Appropriate areas must be identified within density residential development projects. Core Residential Areas have full accessibility to conservation areas. Urban Residential areas haveresidential and cultural land uses are downtown for the expansion and development of necessary urban services. Therefore, the main good access to roads, public water and sewer,recommended for the downtown. New residential, open space, including linear greenways as well as CORE RESIDENTIAL objective for these areas is to maintain adequate and other public services. When development |retail, and office growth must be redirected to the spaces similar to People’s Park. Intent levels of urban service and where possible to occurs in new urban growth areas, the goal shoulddowntown if Bloomington is to slow the sprawl • In new development or redevelopment projects, This category encompasses those neighborhoods improve the capacity and aesthetics of all urban be to encourage higher densities, ensure streetat the city’s edge. Several land-use policies are utilities should be placed underground and located surrounding Bloomington’s downtown and Indiana services. In some core neighborhood areas, existing connectivity, and protect existing residential Gr owthnecessary to achieve the active and engaging so as to minimize potential conflicts with trees and University. These areas are neighborhoods of utilities infrastructure is outdated and deficient, and fabric. For particularly large parcels such as thedowntown that is so important to other landscaping features. cottages and bungalows (some architecturally and must be upgraded, with assistance from the City, as Ramsey Farm (corner of Sare Road and Mooresthis community. historically distinctive) built at higher densities a component of infill development. Pike), zoning incentives to allow for a mixed-use• The Downtown area should be targeted for Site Design than more recent residential development. Core • Promote neighborhood enhancements of public development pattern should be established.increased residential density (100 units per acre) Consistent site planning is crucial to maintaining Residential areas are characterized by a grid- improvements such as sidewalks, streetlights, street Neighborhood conservation areas encompassand for intensified usage of vacant and under- the urban look and feel of the existing downtown like street system, alley access to garages, small trees and landscaping, and playgrounds and play neighborhoods with established and stableutilized buildings. as it is complemented by compatible future street setbacks, and a mixture of owner occupants areas. residential environments. The vast majority of• New surface parking areas and drive-through development. However, site planning standards and rental tenants. The unique character, urban • Opportunities to repair and upgrade underground these areas are fully developed or expected touses should be limited, if not forbidden, within the must ensure the integration of retail, office, form and land use pattern of the near-downtown utilities must be pursued in order to preserve the be developed in a relatively short timeframe. The institutional, and residential uses that are capacity of aging utilities in the urban core. Pol i cyDowntown area. residential areas must be protected and enhanced. fundamental goal for these areas is to encourage• Office space along the Courthouse Square block compatible in scale and design to existing • When major utilities projects are required, other the maintenance of residential desirability andfaces should be limited at the street level and structures. Parking must be dealt with in a manner Land Use urban amenities (sidewalks, landscaping, etc.) stability. Where new infill development is proposed,concentrated in upper stories of buildings, with to not discourage or harm the pedestrian nature The predominant land use for this category is should be upgraded simultaneously to reduce the it should be consistent and compatible withretail activities preferred along the ground level of the downtown while at the same time providing single family residential; however, redevelopment need for multiple construction processes. preexisting developments.of the Courthouse Square and Kirkwood Avenue sufficient parking to support the diverse land use has introduced several uncharacteristic uses • In new development or redevelopment projects,between Indiana Avenue and Rogers Street. mix of the downtown. such as surface automobile parking, apartments, utilities should be placed underground and located Land Use• The mix of retail goods and services must be • Downtown must continue to be developed at offices, retail space and institutional activities. so as to minimize potential conflicts with trees and Single family residential development is theexpanded and diversified at both the neighborhood a human scale, with pedestrian amenities such This district is designed primarily for higher density other landscaping features. primary land use activity for this category with Di s tr i c tsand community scales of activity, including such as street trees, sidewalks, and lighting. Existing single family residential use. The existing single • The City should reduce cost barriers for affordable some additional uses such as places of religioususes as groceries, drug stores, and specialty item amenities should be targeted for improvement family housing stock and development pattern housing providers by upgrading deficient utilities in assembly, schools, home occupations, andstores. where necessary. should be maintained with an emphasis on core neighborhoods. multifamily housing. For development in new urban• Multi-story parking garages should be • Design standards must be developed that limiting the conversion of dwellings to multi-family growth areas, the GPP recommends:constructed as an alternative to surface parking incorporate a broad spectrum of economic, or commercial uses, and on encouraging ongoing Site Design • Develop sites for predominantly residential uses;lots, allowing for more land to be developed as architectural, engineering, aesthetic, and historic maintenance and rehabilitation of single family The majority of core neighborhoods have been built however, incorporate mixed residential densities,mixed-use buildings. preservation considerations. For example, these structures. Multi-family (medium and high-density) out, so major changes will occur with redevelopment housing types, and nonresidential services where design standards would address such elements as residential and neighborhood-serving commercial and property turnover. Redevelopment and supported by adjacent land use.Urban Services building setback, height, roof orientation and blank uses may be appropriate for this district when rehabilitation of existing structures should respectDowntown Bloomington, as the developed core of wall control. compatibly designed and properly located to the unique characterthe City, has been provided with the full range of • New construction in the downtown should respect and compliment single family dwellings. and development pattern of the Core Residentialtypical urban services. It has access to all sewer conform to historic patterns of building mass, Neighborhood-serving commercial uses, and areas. Core Residential development shouldand water utilities, a developed roadway network, scale, and placement within a given site. possibly even office uses, may be most emphasize building and site compatibility withpublic open spaces, and transit services. However, • Buildings must be constructed to match appropriate at the edge of Core Residential areas existing densities, intensities, building types,if downtown is to continue to flourish, many of established setbacks from public streets, typically that front arterial street locations. landscaping and other site planningthese services must be enhanced or expanded. As along the edge of the public right-of-way. More specific land use policies include: features.downtown develops and redevelops, the City must • In order for higher residential densities to be • Allow multi-family redevelopment along • The Zoning Ordinance should include new sitetake advantage of opportunities to improve the developed downtown, increased building heights designated major streets, in transition areas planning standards that reflect existing patterns ofentire portfolio of public urban services to meet should be encouraged beyond the Courthouse between the downtown and existing single family development in core neighborhoods (Form Districts).growing demand. The following Square. • Residential parking should be encouraged to SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN A
  • Urban Services NEIGHBORHOOD ACTIVITY CENTER (NAC) utilities do not already exist. • All parking areas should also be heavily Community Activity Centers in order to provide an A P PENDI XUrban Residential Areas have full accessibility to all Intent • Public Transit as an urban service must be a landscaped in order to soften their impact on the incentive to develop or redevelop these locations.modern urban services. Thus, the main objectives The Neighborhood Activity Center (NAC) is a mixed key element in the location of the NAC, providing neighborhood. • Public Transit access should be a majorfor these areas are to maintain adequate levels of commercial node that serves as the central focus access to people outside the neighborhood without component of the urban services provided for anyservice and when possible improve the capacity of each neighborhood. The NAC must be designed the need for personal vehicles. All newly developed COMMUNITY ACTIVITY CENTER (CAC) Community Activity Center.and aesthetics of all urban services. Examples of so that it serves the neighborhood adequately NAC’s must be located within walking distance (5- Intent • Community Activity Centers should be connectednew infrastructure projects include the provision without attracting an influx of usage from 10 minutes) of a major public transit stop. The Community Activity Center is designed to provide to a future city-wide greenway system in order toof new sidewalk links, the construction of new bike surrounding areas. It must also be located so that • The roadways that a NAC is developed around community-serving commercial opportunities in the create adequate public recreation space as well aspaths, and the replacement of utility infrastructure. it is easily accessible by pedestrians, minimizing should be Collectors (Secondary or Primary) as context of a high density, mixed use development. an alternative means to access the development.In addition, participation in programs such as the automotive traffic throughout the neighborhood. designated on the City’s Master Thoroughfare Plan. The CAC must be designed to serve not only the • A Community Activity Center should be locatedCity’s Council of Neighborhood Improvements The Neighborhood Activity Center will provide • The development of an NAC should include pedestrian traffic from nearby neighborhoods, but at an intersection which is made up of designatedGrant Program can allow neighborhoods to small-scale retail and business services within coordination on the completion of an adequate also a community-wide group of users that may drive Collector or Arterial streets, in order to provideupgrade street lighting, signage, and landscaping. the context of neighborhoods while maintaining sidewalk network throughout the immediate a personal vehicle to the CAC. Parking will become automobile access without overwhelming the• In new development or redevelopment projects, compatibility within the existing fabric of neighborhood it serves, if no such network exists at more important in this area than the NAC, but pedestrian aspects of the development. Autilities should be placed underground and located development. It should be noted that while several the time of development. should still be kept to reasonable levels and skillfully • In new development or redevelopment projects,so as to minimize potential NACs have been identified on the land use map, • In new development or redevelopment projects, designed to avoid large open areas of asphalt. utilities should be placed underground and located more could be designated in the future as further utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potential conflicts with trees andSite Design study is done and appropriate locations have been so as to minimize potentia Land Use other landscaping features. |Urban Residential Areas contain a mixture identified. The Community Activity Center is a mixed commercialof densities, housing types (single family vs. Site Design node, larger in scale and higher in intensity than the Site Designmultifamily), and street networks (grid-based vs. Land Use Compatibility with surrounding established Neighborhood Activity Center. The CAC will Community Activity Centers will be integrated into Gr owthcurvilinear). The site design goals for development A NAC should contain a mix of neighborhood scale neighborhoods is one of the most important factors incorporate a balance of land uses to take advantage existing development, and CAC design should bein urban growth areas and neighborhood retail and office space, as well as services such in the development of a Neighborhood Activity of the proximity to goods and services. Rather than sensitive to the surrounding context. As with similarconservation areas are different. Site design goals as day care and higher density housing. Housing Center. Although it represents the smallest scale serving a single neighborhood, commercial uses land use districts defined in this plan, an increasedfor future development in new urban elements are ideally integrated with nonresidential of commercial land use, the NAC is a high-density in and surrounding the CAC will be developed so emphasis must be placed on urban design and thegrowth areas include: elements such that housing units are situated node of activity that will affect a neighborhood. The as to be accessible to multiple neighborhoods by creation of a distinctive design style in each area. A• Optimize street, bicycle, and pedestrian above commercial and office space. In some introduction of a commercial node into a primarily non-motorized means, without becoming a major formal streetscape will help to define a Communityconnectivity to adjacent neighborhoods as well as cases, a NAC can be located within the center residential area requires great sensitivity to the destination for the entire City and/or region. As the Activity Center as a distinct node of activity servingto commercial activity centers. of a Core Residential or Urban Residential area, design and scale of the existing structures, as well central commercial node of the surrounding area, a group of neighborhoods. The CAC should take• Ensure that each new neighborhood has a most probably through the redevelopment of an as responsiveness to the needs of the surrounding public gathering space is an ideal addition to the on the form of an urban center, with a pedestriandefined center or focal point. This center could residents. NAC’s must relate to surrounding focus and several floors of usable space, both Pol i cy existing nonresidential use (i.e. the K & S Country mix of uses. Residents will need outdoor spaceinclude such elements as a small pocket park, Market on East 2nd Street). In other cases, a NAC residential neighborhoods and not adversely to access, and public open space can provide a commercial and residential.formal square with landscaping, or a neighborhood will need to be located closer to the neighborhood affect the livability of these neighborhoods through valuable amenity to customers of the commercial • Buildings should be developed with minimalserving land use. edge in order to ensure greater compatibility and traffic, lighting, noise, litter or other impacts. The units. In accordance with their greater scale, street setbacks to increase pedestrian and transit• Ensure that new common open space is truly financial viability. careful combination of pedestrian facilities commercial uses in a Community Activity Center accessibility.usable and accessible. Provide linkages between • The main focus of the NAC should be commercial and structural features will help to define the will have more intense site development. Average • Parking should be located and designed with ansuch open space and other public spaces. uses at a scale that serves the immediate streetscape of the NAC. square footages of commercial spaces should be emphasis on minimizing pedestrian obstacles to• Provide for marginally higher development neighborhood, including such services as small • The height of new commercial structures in a greater than those of the Neighborhood Activity accessing businesses.densities while ensuring the preservation of food stores, video rental, or small cafes. NAC shall be limited to three stories in order to Center. • Street cuts should be limited as much as Di s tr i c tssensitive environmental features and taking into • Office uses and public/semi-public uses are minimize the impact of such uses on surrounding • The primary land use in the CAC should be possible to reduce interruptions of the streetscape.consideration infrastructure capacity as well as acceptable when built to generate minimal traffic residents. medium scaled commercial retail and service uses • Incentives should be created to encourage thethe relationship between the new development and attraction to the neighborhood. • Sidewalks, street trees, pedestrian-scale lighting • Residential units may also be developed as inclusion of second-story residential units in theadjacent existing neighborhoods. Site design goals • Residential uses should be limited to multifamily and other decorative features must be standard a component of the CAC, and would be most development of Community Activity Centers.for neighborhood conservation areas acknowledge development, ideally on floors above street level elements of the NAC streetscape. appropriate when uses are arrangedthat the majority of these neighborhoods have commercial uses. • Bus stops, bus pull-offs, or shelters shall be as a central node rather than along a corridor.been built out and that changes will probably occur • Commercial uses should be restricted to ensure incorporated to maximize transit trips to the NAC. • Provision of public spaces should be used as anwith redevelopment or rehabilitation. their neighborhood focus. • In order to define the center, buildings should be incentive to allow additional residential units orRedevelopment or rehabilitation of existing pushed to the front edge of the site, framing the commercial space to be developed as part of thestructures or development of single lots or small Urban Services four corners of the commercial node at the street planning approval process.parcels should respect the unique character and A Neighborhood Activity Center will be placed in a intersection.development pattern of the neighborhood. The developed neighborhood, where most urban • Any parking that is provided for a NAC should Urban Servicesdevelopment should emphasize building and site services be primarily serving any residential units that are Like Neighborhood Activity Centers, Communitycompatibility with existing densities, intensities, have been previously provided. This includes a part of the development rather than used as an Activity Centers should be located within or verybuilding types, landscaping and other site planning access to sewer, water, electricity, and gas lines attractor for commercial users. near to existing developed neighborhoods. Thisfeatures. that should • Parking should be located in the side or rear of is essential in reducing the need for extensions already be serving the existing neighborhood. This buildings, and can be made accessible from an of sewer, water, and road facilities. The City may type of development is intended as an alternative improved alley system in order to minimize street consider upgrading utilities in areas designated for to new commercial growth in areas where such cuts in front of buildings. SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN A
  • • In order to buffer pedestrians on busy corridors conglomerations of corporate headquarters and profile should be utilized. Building architectural compliment the existing character of their and west of the Park). A P PENDI Xas well as reduce off-street parking needs, on- industrial buildings will need a high level of service themes should be replicated throughout the surrounding land uses. Inparticular, the following site • In coordination with the City Parks Department,street parking and tree plots should be encouraged from utilities and roadways. Likewise, businesses Employment Center site. design guidelines should be incorporated into facility analyze the proximity of park facilities to existingin new developments and maintained on built must have access to new technologies such as development. and future residential development. Use thisroadways. fiber optic connections in order to be successful in PUBLIC/SEMI PRIVATE/INSTITUTIONAL • Uses in this category should provide measures analysis to establish possible Parks developing markets. The City must take a proactive Intent to mitigate undesirable operational impacts such Department priorities for future facilityEMPLOYMENT CENTER role in extending such services to high profile, high The intent of the Public/Semi-Public/Institutional as light and noise pollution, traffic congestion, and revelopment.Intent priority Employment Center sites as an incentive for area is to provide adequate land to support spillover parking. • Require new subdivisions and land developmentsThe Employment Center district should contain recruitment. compatible government, non-profit and social • Assisted care facilities should contain sufficient to set aside easily accessible and usable commona mix of office and industrial uses providing • The City must continue its policy of including service land use activities. These uses are room for parking expansion and recreational space open space.large-scale employment opportunities for the fiber optic conduit with roadway projects, as well as distributed community-wide, and special attention to ensure the possibility of future conversions to • Increase the amount of preserved land for parksBloomington community and the surrounding build upon the initial fiber optic ring that has been should be paid to how these uses interact with multi-family use. and open space in the southwest portion of the Cityregion. Bloomington must continue to stress installed in the community. adjacent properties, especially residential uses. where there are large portions of greenspace. Thisjob creation as the community grows, and the • Utilities must be judiciously extended to PARKS, RECREATIONAL OPEN SPACE may be done by requiring developments to Aprovision of well-planned employment centers important employment sites to remove a portion Land Use Intent dedicate land or use conservation easements forwill allow Bloomington to keep pace with the of the cost barrier to the development of new The Public/Semi-Public/Institutional designation Parks/Open Space areas should provide preservation.new economy. These centers must be carefully Employment Centers. encompasses properties controlled by public opportunities for both active and passive recreationdesigned to provide essential services such as • Employment Center developments must not and private institutions and developed for: 1) activities, as well as be accessible to people Urban Services |sewer, water, and fiber optic connections to the have an undue impact on existing local roadway schools (including Indiana University), 2) non-profit throughout the community. This requires a system of While most urban services are not necessary forinternet, as well networks, and should also have carefully planned facilities, 3) government facilities, and 4) hospitals, parks of various sizes at convenient the use of land as parks or open space, there areas aesthetic amenities like landscaping and internal roadway systems to create efficient flows medical parks, and assisted care facilities. In order locations. There should be large community parks several issues that must still be considered. Urban Gr owthbicycle/walking paths. These elements will work of traffic. to better address land use impacts that result from accessible on a community scale, as well as smaller services relating to accessibility of park spaces astogether to create high quality development sites • Coordination with Public Transit as well as institutional uses, the following strategies should neighborhood sized parks that are focused more well as on-site convenience facilities are importantwhere large-scale employers may locate their providing support for bicyclists and pedestrians will be utilized: on serving their immediate surroundings. The to the development of successful parks.facilities and offices. create a wider employee base as well as reduce • City Planning Department staff should meet intent of this land use category is to maintain and • All Parks/Open Space areas should be made the traffic impacts of an Employment regularly with institutional organizations such as expand the inventory of public/private open spaces accessible for public use through the provision ofLand Use Center. Indiana University, Monroe County Community and recreational opportunities for the citizens of sidewalk or greenway facilities.Employment Center land uses should focus on • In new development or redevelopment projects, School Corporation (MCCSC), Monroe County Bloomington. • Parks planning should coordinate closely withcorporate headquarters and industrial uses, utilities should be placed underground and located government, and Bloomington Hospital to existing and future transit routes so that peoplewhich will provide a stable employment base so as to minimize potential coordinate future facilities needs in advance of Land Use without access to cars can reach community-scale parks. Pol i cyfor the greater Bloomington community. The land acquisition/construction. The Parks/Open Space land use categoryconcept is similar to the traditional business or Site Design • Non-profit land uses should be located in every encompasses both public and private open • Because restroom facilities are typically providedindustrial park, but with the inclusion of supporting Compatibility for employment centers refers as sector of the community to provide a balanced spaces and recreational areas. On the public side, in larger parks, availability of City sewer and watercommercial uses and a higher degree of planning much to a consistent design theme throughout distribution of services. it includes all parks and recreational facilities services is important.for the entire development. The commercial uses the center as to its compatibility with surrounding • Bloomington Hospital and its ancillary medical owned and operated by the City of Bloomington.integrated within an employment center must be at land uses. With the exception of high-intensity, district are encouraged to expand without In the private realm, it includes floodways, areas Site Designa scale that serves the employment center but mixed-use sites in and around the downtown area, ncroachment into established residential designated in developments as large conservancy Traditionally, parks and open spaces have notdoes not generate significant additional business employment centers will require large tracts of neighborhoods such as McDoel Gardens and easements, and private golf courses. The City of had to struggle with issues of compatibility withfrom the community at large. land in order to be usefully developed. Many of Prospect Hill. Bloomington Parks Department has a master surrounding uses. The vast majority of community Di s tr i c ts Land use goals for Employment Centers include: the areas designated have not had significant development plan for its facilities which should be residents are very accepting of such facilities, and• Development phasing must emphasize the development in their vicinity at this time, so Urban Services recognized as a guiding force for future Parks/ would gladly live in close proximity to a park orcreation of the office and industrial base before the off-site impacts on surrounding uses will be No Public, Semi-Public, or Institutional use should Open Space development. Land use goals for future other open space. The key in developing such sitescommercial areas are developed to serve them. measured over time. A significant focus of these be allowed to locate at a site which does not Parks/ Open Space development include: is to maximize accessibility by creating them at• Employment Centers should be located in close developments must then be internal planning and already have adequate public services to support • Create a large neighborhood or even community- the proper scale in convenient locations relative toproximity or contain commercial and housing design. the use. In particular, it is critical that new schools scale park facility in the eastern portion of the neighborhoods.opportunities to minimize the traffic generated by • Recreational trails should be incorporated developed by MCCSC as well as new medical and Planning jurisdiction. A potential location for such • Park facilities should be designed to providetheir employee base. in order to provide open space as well as an assisted care facilities be easily accessible via a facility is the northeast corner of Smith Road and a mixture of both passive and active recreation• Locations with easy access to State Road alternative means of travel to work if all modes of transportation. Additionally, the City Moores Pike. experiences.37 should be emphasized in efforts to recruit connected to a city-wide system of trails. should emphasize the construction of greenways • Increase the size of the existing Southeast Park by • Common open space which is set aside as partEmployment Center site users. Development of • Common space serving the various areas of and sidewalks to ensure that existing and proposed requiring land dedication at the northwest corner of of new development should be easily accessibleemployment center sites shall be consistent the development should also be provided to allow MCCSC facilities are easily accessed by bicyclists the Ramsey Farm (Property located at the southwest to pedestrians and bicyclists, should feature bothwith the policies outlined in the State Road employees to eat meals or take a brief break. and pedestrians. corner of Moores Pike and Sare Road). passive and active amenities, and should be37 Corridor Plan, which is referenced in this • Landscaped, boulevard style entrances should • In new development or redevelopment projects, • Link existing and future City Parks with greenway centrally located within development areas.document. be incorporated to provide distinctive entry utilities should be placed underground and located trail facilities through the implementation of the • During the development review process, features and provide site users with a means to so as to minimize potential Alternative Transportation & Greenways System Plan. floodways and other environmentally constrainedUrban Services identify the development. • Expand the acreage of the Twin Lakes Park facility areas should be placed in conservancy easementsThe provision of urban services is essential to the • Where Employment Center sites have exposure Site Design through additional land dedication or conservation in order to protect these environmentallydevelopment of Employment Center sites. Large to multiple street frontages, a 360 degree building All uses in this category should respect and easements on the Brown and Ooley properties (north sensitive features. SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN A
  • Commercial downtown (CD)—District intent. primary/secondary, School, trade or business, shop, Business/professional office, Car wash*, building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right- crafts/hobby store, Assisted living facility, Auto A P PENDI XThe CD (commercial downtown) district is intended Shoe repair, Social service, Sporting goods sales, Cellular phone/pager services, Check cashing, of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the parts sales, Bank/credit union, Banquet hall,to be used as follows: Protect and enhance the Tailor/seamstress shop, Tanning salon, Tattoo/ Coin laundry, Community center, Computer sales, average of the front setbacks of the existing primary Bar/dance club, Barber/beauty shop, Bed andcentral business district, which contains many piercing parlor, Theater, indoor, Transportation Convenience store (with gas or alternative fuels), structures on the same block face, whichever is less. breakfast, Bicycle sales/repair, Billiard/arcadeunique and historic structures. Promote high terminal, Utility substation and transmission Convenience store (without gas), Copy center, Minimum side building setback: 7 feet. Minimum room, Bookstore, Bowling alley, Brewpub*,density development of mixed uses with storefront facility*, Veterinarian clinic, Video rental Country club, Day-care center, adult, Day-care rear building setback: 7 feet. Maximum impervious Business/professional office, Car wash*, Cellularretail, professional office, and residential dwelling center, child, Department store, Drive-through, surface coverage: 60% of the lot area. phone/pager services, Coin laundry, Communityuses. Promote a diversity of residential housing for Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Drugstore, Dry-cleaning service, Dwelling, single- center, Computer sales, Convenience store (withall income groups and ages. Development should Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. family (detached)*, Dwelling, upper floor units, Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square feet gas or alternative fuels)*, Convenience storeincorporate pedestrian-oriented design (scale and Equipment/party/event rental, indoor, Equipment per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: (without gas), Copy center, Day-care center,massing) and accommodate alternative means of 20.02.390 - Commercial downtown (CD)— rental, outdoor, Fitness center/gym, Fitness/ Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit = 1.5 adult, Day-care center, child, Drive-through*,transportation. Conditional uses. training studio, Florist, Furniture store, Garden units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two-bedroom Drugstore, Dry-cleaning service, Dwelling, single- Communication facility*, Historic adaptive reuse* shop, Gas station, Gift shop/boutique, Golf driving unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 of a unit; family (detached)*, Dwelling, upper floor units,Plan commission/board of zoning appeals Homeless shelter, Jail*, Juvenile detention range, outdoor, Government office, Government One-bedroom unit with less than 700 square feet = Equipment/party/event rental (indoor), Fitness Bguidance: The downtown is targeted for intensified facility*, Light manufacturing, Rehabilitation clinic operations (non-office), Grocery/supermarket, 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit with less than center/gym, Fitness/training studio, Florist,usage of vacant and under utilized buildings and Group care home for developmentally disabled*, 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit. Furniture store, Garden shop, Gas station*, Giftsites. Space on the first floor of downtown buildings Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/ shop/boutique, Government office, Governmentshould be commercial with residential uses on the Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. residential care home*, Hardware store, Health Minimum parking setback: operations (non-office), Grocery/supermarket, |second floor and above. Encourage proposals that spa, Home electronics/appliance sales, Hotel/ Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front Group care home for developmentally disabled*,further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable 20.02.400 - Commercial downtown (CD)— motel, Jewelry shop, Library, License branch, building wall. For through lots, this required setback Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/development design featuring conservation of Development standards. Liquor/tobacco sales, Lodge, Medical care clinic, shall only be located on the street with the highest residential care home*, Hardware store, Health Zoni ngopen space, mixed uses, pervious pavement Cross reference: See Chapter 20.03, Overlay immediate, Medical clinic, Miniature golf, Mini- thoroughfare plan classification. spa, Home electronics/appliance sales, Jewelrysurfaces, and reductions in energy and resource Districts for development standards applicable to warehouse facility, Mortuary, Museum, Music/ Side: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning shop, Library, License branch, Liquor/tobaccoconsumption. the site’s specific downtown design overlay. media sales, Musical instrument sales, Nursing/ districts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning sales, Lodge, Medical care clinic, immediate, convalescent home, Office supply sales, Oil change districts. Medical clinic, Mortuary, Museum, Music/20.02.380 - Commercial downtown (CD)— Maximum structure height: Primary structure: facility, Park, Parking garage/structure, Pawn shop, Rear: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning media sales, Musical instrument sales, Nursing/Permitted uses: Amusements, indoor, See Chapter 20.03, Downtown Design Overlays. Pet grooming, Pet store, Photographic studio, Place districts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning convalescent home, Office supply sales, Oil changeAntique sales, Apparel and shoe sales, Accessory structure: 25 feet. of worship, Plant nursery/greenhouse, Police, fire districts. facility, Park, Parking garage/structure, Pawn shop,Art gallery, Artist studio, Arts/crafts/hobby store, or rescue station, Radio/TV station, Recreation Pet grooming, Pet store, Photographic studio, PlaceAssisted living facility, Bank/credit union, Bar/ Commercial arterial (CA)—District intent. center, Research center, Restaurant, Restaurant, Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 50 of worship, Plant nursery/greenhouse, Police, fire Di s tr i ctsdance club, Barber/beauty shop, Bed and The CA (commercial arterial) district is intended limited service, Retail, low-intensity, Retail, outdoor, feet. Accessory structure: 30 feet or rescue station, Recreation center, Restaurant,breakfast, Bicycle sales/repair, Billiard/arcade to be used as follows: Identify locations for higher Rooming house, School, preschool, School, Restaurant, limited service, Retail, low intensity,room, Bookstore, Brewpub, Business/professional intensity commercial developments along major primary/secondary, School, trade or business, Commercial general (CG)—District intent. Rooming house, School, preschool, School,office, Cellular phone/pager services, Coin laundry, thoroughfares. Ensure that new developments Sexually oriented business, Shoe repair, Skating The CG (commercial general) district is intended primary/secondary, School, trade or business,Community center, Computer sales, Convenience and redevelopment opportunities incorporate rink, Social service, Sporting goods sales, Tailor/ to be used as follows: Provide areas within the Shoe repair, Skating rink, Social service, Sportingstore (with gas or alternative fuels)*, Convenience a balanced mix of retail, office and multifamily seamstress shop, Tanning salon, Tattoo/piercing city where medium scale commercial services can goods sales, Tailor/seamstress shop, Tanningstore (without gas), Copy center, Day-care center, residential uses. parlor, Theater, indoor, Transportation terminal, be located without creating detrimental impacts salon, Tattoo/piercing parlor, Transportationadult, Day-care center, child, Department store Utility substation and transmission facility*, Vehicle to surrounding uses. Promote the development terminal, Utility substation and transmissionDrugstore, Dry-cleaning service, Dwelling, Plan commission/board of zoning appeals accessory installation, Vehicle repair*, Vehicle of medium-scaled urban projects with a mix facility*, Vehicle accessory installation,multifamily*, Dwelling, single-family (detached)*, guidance: Site plan design of retail centers should sales/rental, Veterinarian clinic, Video rental of storefront retail, professional office, and/or Veterinarian clinic, Video rentalEquipment/party/event rental (indoor), Fitness ensure access to all modes of transportation. residential dwelling units creating a synergy betweencenter/gym, Fitness/training studio, Florist, Redevelopment and expansion of commercial Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to uses where stand-alone uses have traditionally Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer toFurniture store, Garden shop, Gift shop/boutique, uses should incorporate improvements to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. dominated. Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards.Government office, Government operations (non- access management, signage, and landscaping.office), Grocery/supermarket, Group care home for Encourage proposals that further the growth 20.02.350 - Commercial arterial (CA)— Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: 20.02.310 - Commercial general (CG)—developmentally disabled*, Group care home for policies plan goal of sustainable development Conditional uses. Site plan design should incorporate residential and Conditional uses.mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, design featuring conservation of open space, Amusements, outdoor, Communication facility*, commercial uses utilizing shared parking in order to Historic adaptive reuse*, Homeless shelter,Hardware store, Health spa, Home electronics/ mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and Crematory, Historic adaptive reuse*, Homeless ease the transition to residential districts. Street cuts Rehabilitation clinicappliance sales, Hotel/motel, Jewelry shop, reductions in energy and resource consumption. shelter, Impound vehicle storage, Kennel*, should be minimized in order to enhance streetscapeLibrary, License branch, Liquor/tobacco sales, Manufactured home sales, Rehabilitation clinic, and improve access management. Encourage Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer toLodge, Medical care clinic, immediate, Medical 20.02.340 - Commercial arterial (CA)—Permitted Theater, drive-in proposals that further the growth policies plan Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards.clinic, Museum, Music/media sales, Musical uses: Amusements, indoor, Antique sales, Apparel goal of sustainable development design featuringinstrument sales, Office supply sales, Park, and shoe sales, Art gallery, Atist studio, Arts/ Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious 20.02.320 - Commercial general (CG)—Parking garage/structure, Pawn shop, Pet crafts/hobby store, Assisted living facility, Auto Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and Development standards.grooming, Pet store, Photographic studio, Place of body shop*, Auto parts sales, Bank/credit union, resource consumption. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 21,780 squareworship, Police, fire or rescue station, Post office, Banquet hall, Bar/dance club, Barber/beauty shop, 20.02.360 - Commercial arterial (CA)— feet.Radio/TV station, Recreation center, Research Bed and breakfast, Bicycle sales/repair, Billiard/ Development standards. 20.02.300 - Commercial general (CG)—Permittedcenter*, Restaurant, Restaurant, limited service, arcade room, Boat sales, Bookstore, Bowling alley, Minimum lot area for subdivision: 32,670 square uses: Amusements, indoor, Antique sales, Apparel Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 squareRetail, low intensity, School, preschool, School, Brewpub, Building supply store, Building trade feet. Minimum lot width: 130 feet. Minimum front and shoe sales, Art gallery, Artist studio, Arts/ feet per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN B
  • Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit 20.02.260 - Commercial limited (CL)—Permitted lot area. production/processing, Gravel/sand/cement college, Utility substation and transmission facility* A P PENDI X= 1.5 units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two- uses: Antique sales, Apparel and shoe sales, Art production, Heavy manufacturing, Historic adaptivebedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = gallery, Artist studio, Arts/crafts/hobby store, Minimum parking setback: reuse*, Juvenile detention facility*, Kennel*, Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than Barber/beauty shop, Bed and breakfast, Bicycle Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front Salvage/scrap yard Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards.700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or sales/repair, Bookstore, Brewpub*, Business/ building wall.studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 professional office, Coin laundry, Community Side: 7 feet. Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to 20.02.510 - Institutional (IN)—Conditional uses.of a unit. Minimum lot width: 85 feet. Maximum center, Computer sales, Convenience store (without Rear: 7 feet. Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. Crematory, Day-care center, adult*, Day-careimpervious surface coverage: 60% of the lot area. gas), Copy center, Day care center, adult, Day care Maximum area of any individual commercial center, child*, Historic adaptive reuse*, Homeless center, child, Drugstore, Dry-cleaning service, tenant: 5,000 square feet gross floor area. 20.02.440 - Industrial general (IG)—Development shelter jail*, Jail*, Juvenile detention facility*,Minimum parking setback: Dwelling, single-family (detached)*, Dwelling, standards. Prison*, Rehabilitation clinicFront: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front upper floor units, Fitness/training studio, Florist, Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 40 Minimum lot area: 21,780 square feet. Minimum lotbuilding wall. For through lots, this required Garden shop, Gift shop/boutique, Government feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet. width: 100 feet. Minimum front building setback: 25 Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer tosetback shall only be located on the street with the office, Grocery/supermarket, Group care home feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards.highest thoroughfare plan classification. for developmentally disabled*, Group care home Industrial general (IG)—District intent. thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building setback: BSide: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, The IG (industrial general) district is intended to be 20 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 20 feet. 20.02.520 - Institutional (IN)—Developmentdistricts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning Hardware store, Health spa, Jewelry shop, Medical used as follows: Accommodate existing and future Maximum impervious surface coverage: 70% of the standards.districts. clinic, Music/media sales, Musical instrument industrial uses that provide basic employment lot area. Minimum lot area: 21,780 square feet. MinimumRear: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning sales, Park, Pet grooming, Pet store, Photographic needs for Bloomington and the surrounding region. lot width: 50 feet. Minimum front building setback: |districts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning studio, Restaurant, Restaurant, limited service, Ensure that industrial uses mitigate the potential Minimum parking setback: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicateddistricts. Retail, low-intensity, Shoe repair, Social service, negative impacts to surrounding properties in Front: 25 feet from the proposed right-of-way or on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building Sporting goods sales, Tailor/seamstress shop, terms of noise, vibration, outdoor storage, and ingress/egress easement. setback: 10 feet. Minimum rear building setback: Zoni ngMaximum structure height: Primary structure: 50 Tanning salon, Utility substation and transmission harmful air or water quality. Side: 10 feet. 10 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage:feet. Accessory structure: 30 feet. facility*, Video rental Rear: 10 feet. 60% of the lot area. Plan commission/board of zoning appealsCommercial limited (CL)—District intent. Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to guidance: Provide for appropriate lot sizes, Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 60 Minimum parking setback:The CL (commercial limited) district is intended Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. setbacks, buffering, and loading/storage area feet. Accessory structure: 35 feet. Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s frontto be used as follows: Provide small scale designs to ensure compatibility between industrial building wall.retail goods and services required for regular 20.02.270 - Commercial limited (CL)—Conditional uses and surrounding properties. New industrial Institutional (IN)—District intent. Side: 10 feet.or daily convenience of adjacent residential uses. land uses should have adequate access to The IN (institutional) district is intended to be used Rear: 10 feet.neighborhoods. Create an environment of Billiard/arcade room, Historic adaptive reuse*, arterial level streets and should avoid locations as follows: Provide regulations for properties owned Di s tr i ctswell-planned, visually appealing commercial Library, Museum. Place of worship, Police, fire adjoining residentially zoned properties. Encourage by state, county, city, and quasi-public institutions; Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 50developments that are quiet and well buffered or rescue station, Recreation center, School, proposals that further the growth policies plan including but not limited to parks, schools, feet. Accessory structure: 30 feet.from adjacent residential areas. Preserve preschool, School, primary/secondary, Veterinarian goal of sustainable development design featuring cemeteries, golf courses, and other facilities.existing neighborhood serving commercial uses clinic conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious Planned Unit Development (PUD)—Districtwith context sensitive regulations where other pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: intent.more intensive or permissive commercial zoning Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to resource consumption. Ensure that institutional uses are adequately The purpose of the planned unit developmentdistricts (e.g., CG, CA, CD) are not appropriate Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. distributed throughout the community to prevent (PUD) is to encourage flexibility in the developmentor desired. Promote the development of small 20.02.420 - Industrial general (IG)—Permitted segments from being under served. Institutional of land in order to promote its most appropriatescale, mixed use urban villages with storefront 20.02.280 - Commercial limited (CL)— uses: Auto body shop, Beverage bottling, Bottled uses should be located in areas that contain use; to improve the design, character and qualityretail, professional office, and residential dwelling Development standards. gas storage/distribution, Building trade shop, adequate public services. In particular, educational of new developments; to encourage a harmonioususes. Development should incorporate pedestrian Minimum lot area for subdivision: 5,000 square Business/professional office, Communication uses must be accessible via all modes of and appropriate mixture of uses; to facilitate theoriented design (scale and massing) and feet. facility, Convenience store (with gas or alternative transportation. Encourage proposals that further the adequate and economic provision of streets,accommodate alternative means of transportation. fuels)*, Distribution facility, Equipment rental, growth policies plan goal of sustainable development utilities, and city services; to preserve the natural, Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square outdoor, Gas station*, Government operations design featuring conservation of open space, mixed environmental and scenic features of the site; toPlan commission/board of zoning appeals feet per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: (non-office), Heavy equipment sales/rental, uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in encourage and provide a mechanism for arrangingguidance: Commercial and office uses should be at Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit Impound vehicle storage*, Light manufacturing, energy and resource consumption. improvements on sites so as to preserve desirablea scale that serves the immediate neighborhood. = 1.5 units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two- Manufactured home sales, Outdoor storage*, features; and to mitigate the problems whichResidential uses should be limited to multifamily bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = Police, fire or rescue station. Print shop, Radio/ 20.02.500 - Institutional (IN)—Permitted uses: may be presented by specific site conditions. It isdevelopment on floors above the street level 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than TV station, Research center, School, trade or Cemetery/mausoleum, Communication facility, anticipated that planned unit developments willcommercial uses. Pedestrian scale lighting, 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or business, Sexually oriented business, Testing Community center, Fraternity house/sorority house, offer one or more of the following advantages:building forward design, transit accessibility, and studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 lab, Tool and die shop, Utility substation and Golf course, Government office, Governmentreduced parking should be incorporated into of a unit. Minimum lot width: 50 feet. Minimum transmission facility*, Warehouse, Welding operations (non-office), Group care home for (a) Implement the guiding principles and land usethe site plan design. Encourage proposals that front building setback: 15 feet from the proposed developmentally disabled*, Group care home for policies of the growth policies plan; specificallyfurther the growth policies plan goal of sustainable right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Library, reflect the policies of the growth policies plandevelopment design featuring conservation of the average of the front setbacks of the existing Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. License branch, Museum, Outdoor Storage*, Park, specific to the neighborhood in which the plannedopen space, mixed uses, pervious pavement primary structures on the same block face, Parking structure, Place of worship, Police, fire or unit development is to be located;surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource whichever is less. Minimum side building setback: 20.02.430 - Industrial general (IG)—Conditional rescue station, Post office, Recreation center, School, (b) Buffer land uses proposed for the PUD soconsumption. 7 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 10 feet. uses. preschool, School, primary/secondary, School, trade as to minimize any adverse impact which new Maximum impervious surface coverage: 50% of the Amusements, outdoor, Crematory, Food or business, Transportation terminal, University or development may have on surrounding properties; SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN B
  • additionally proved buffers and transitions of development may be established in any district Plan commission/board of zoning appeals bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 structures on the same block face, whichever is A P PENDI Xdensity within the PUD itself to distinguish between except for the commercial downtown (CD) zoning guidance: Bloomington Hospital is encouraged to of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than 700 more. Attached front-loading garage or carport,different land use areas; district. expand without encroachment into established square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit 25 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated(c) Enhance the appearance of neighborhoods by neighborhoods such as McDoel Gardens and with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit. on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side buildingconserving areas of natural beauty, and natural 20.04.040 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)— Prospect Hill. Proposals for new or expanded setback: 8 feet, plus 4 feet for each story above thegreen spaces; General Standards: medical facilities should be scrutinized in Minimum parking setback: ground floor. Lots of record that are less than 60(d) Counteract urban monotony and congestion on Any qualifying parcel may be rezoned to a planned recognition of community interest, public heath Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front feet in width may reduce the required setback upstreets; unit development zoning district after compliance needs, and impacts on Bloomington Hospital so building wall. to 2 feet. Additions to existing structures may utilize(e) Promote architecture that is compatible with the with this chapter, plan commission review, and long as Bloomington Hospital continues to provide Side: 10 feet. the existing side setbacks, provided that the grosssurroundings; common council approval. The requirements its current level of community service. Encourage Rear: 10 feet. floor area of the existing structure is not increased(f) Promote and protect the environmental of Chapters 20.05, Development Standards proposals that further the growth policies plan by more than 50%. In no case shall the setback beintegrity of the site and its surroundings and and 20.07, Design Standards of the Unified goal of sustainable development design featuring Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 80 less than 4 feet. Minimum rear building setback:provide suitable design responses to the specific Development Ordinance shall apply to planned conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious feet. Accessory structure: 25 feet. 25 feet. Additions to existing structures may utilizeenvironmental constraints of the site and unit developments unless alternate standards pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and the existing rear setback, provided that the gross Bsurrounding area; and are deemed appropriate by the plan commission resource consumption. Residential single-family (RS)—District intent. floor area of the existing structure is not increased(g) Provide a public benefit that would not occur and common council. Any lessening of the The RS (residential single-family) district is intended by more than 50%. In no case shall the setback bewithout deviation from the standards of the Unified required standards of the Unified Development 20.02.540 - Medical (MD)—Permitted uses: to be used as follows: Provide for the development less than 10 feet. Maximum impervious surfaceDevelopment Ordinance. Ordinance shall be directly linked to the intent of Day-care center, adult, Dwelling, single-family of single-family neighborhoods while ensuring coverage: 40% of the lot area | planned unit developments, specified in Section (detached), Dwelling, upper floor units, Fitness compatibility with existing patterns of development.20.04.020 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)— 20.04.010, District intent, as determined by the center/gym*, Fitness/training studio*, Group care Maximum number of primary structures: One (1).Permitted Uses: The permitted uses in a PUD plan commission and common council. The PUD home for developmentally disabled*, Group care Plan commission/board of zoning appeals Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 40 Zoni ngdistrict ordinance are subject to the discretion and district ordinance shall indicate the land uses, home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care guidance: On vacant tracts, develop sites for feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet.approval of the plan commission and common development requirements, and other applicable home*, Medical care clinic, immediate, Medical predominantly single-family residential uses;council. The permitted uses shall be determined specifications that shall govern the planned clinic, Nursing/convalescent home, Police, fire or however, consider mixed residential densities, varied Residential multifamily (RM)—District intent.in consideration of the growth policies plan, the unit development. If the PUD district ordinance rescue station, Testing lab*, Utility substation and housing types, and nonresidential services where The RM (residential multifamily) district is intendedexisting zoning district designation of the area is silent on a particular land use, development transmission facility* supported by adjacent land use patterns. Ensure to be used as follows: Allow medium densitybeing rezoned to a planned unit development, the requirement, or other specification, the standard new developments contain a high level of street residential development to ensure an adequateland uses contiguous to the area being rezoned to of the zoning district specified in the PUD district Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to connectivity and are supported by adequate public mix of housing types throughout the community.a planned unit development, and the development ordinance or the applicable regulations shall apply. Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. services. Facilitate compact development patterns instandards and design standards of the Unified The development requirements that apply to the locations where there are high levels of public Di s tr i ctsDevelopment Ordinance. specified zoning district shall apply to the planned 20.02.550 - Medical (MD)—Conditional uses. 20.02.060 - Residential single-family (RS)— infrastructure capacity. unit development zoning district unless the PUD Ambulatory surgical care, Communication facility*, Permitted uses: Accessory chicken flocks*,20.04.020 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)— district ordinance specifies an alternate standard. Day-care center, child*, Drugstore, Florist, Community garden*, Dwelling, single-family Plan commission/board of zoning appealsDevelopment Standards: The PUD district ordinance may set land use, Gift shop/boutique, Historic adaptive reuse*, (attached)*, Dwelling, single-family (detached), guidance: Discourage the location of student-The development standards in a PUD district development requirement, or other specifications Homeless shelter, Hospital, Outpatient care Group care home for developmentally disabled*, oriented housing distant from the main Indianaordinance are subject to the discretion and for aspects of the development on which the facility, Parking garage/structure, Place of worship, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential University Bloomington Campus. Restrict theapproval of the plan commission and common Unified Development Ordinance is otherwise silent, Rehabilitation clinic, Research center care home*, Park, Urban architecture, Utility location of new multifamily development to areascouncil. The development standards shall be but may specify alternatives only to the standards substation and transmission facility* serviced by public transportation. Encouragedetermined in consideration of the growth policies of the provisions listed below, and may not specify Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to proposals that further the growth policies planplan, the existing zoning district designation of the alternatives to any requirement of this UDO that is Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to goal of sustainable development design featuringarea being rezoned to a planned unit development, not listed below: Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. conservation of open space, mixed uses, perviousand the development and design standards of the (1) Chapter 20.02, Zoning Districts; and 20.02.560 - Medical (MD)—Development pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy andUnified Development Ordinance. (2) Chapter 20.05, Development Standards. standards. 20.02.070 - Residential single-family (RS)— resource consumption. The preliminary plan shall show the conceptual Minimum lot area: 10,890 square feet. Minimum Conditional uses. location of all proposed improvements. lot width: 65 feet. Minimum front building setback: Bed and breakfast*, Community center, Historic 20.02.140 - Residential multifamily (RM)—20.04.030 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)— 25 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated adaptive reuse*, Museum, Place of worship, Police, Permitted uses: Artist studio, Community center*,Qualifying Standards: Medical (MD)—District intent. on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building fire or rescue station, Recreation center, School, Community garden*, Dwelling, multifamily,The area designated in the PUD map must The MD (medical) district is intended to be used setback: 10 feet, plus an additional 4 feet for every preschool, School, primary/secondary Dwelling, single-family (attached), Dwelling,be a tract of land under single ownership or as follows: Provide for the location and regulation story over two (2) stories if abutting a residential single-family (detached)*, Group care home forcontrol. Single control of property under multiple of hospital uses and associated medical facilities. zoning district. Minimum rear building setback: Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to developmentally disabled*, Group care homeownership may be accomplished through the use Ensure that medical land uses do not negatively 10 feet, plus an additional 4 feet for every story Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*,of enforceable covenants or commitments that impact adjoining residential land uses through over two (2) stories if abutting a residential zoning Park, Recreation center*, Rooming house*, Urbanrun to the benefit of the zoning jurisdiction. The control of lighting, noise, traffic congestion, and district. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 20.02.080 - Residential single-family (RS)— architecture, Utility substation and transmissionminimum gross area required for a planned unit spill-over parking. Encourage the continuation of 60% of the lot area. Development standards. facility*development is five acres. The minimum gross Bloomington Hospital’s medical care and related Minimum lot area for subdivision: 8,400 squarearea may be waived by the plan commission if services to the entire community, regardless Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square feet. Minimum lot width: 60 feet. Minimum front Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer toit is demonstrated that granting such waiver is of ability to pay, by ensuring that Bloomington feet per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right- Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards.consistent with the district intent as specified in Hospital meets its long-term space utilization Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or theSection 20.04.010, District intent. A planned unit needs. = 1.5 units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two- block face average setback of the existing primary SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN B
  • 20.02.150 - Residential multifamily (RM)— Plan commission/board of zoning appeals Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit 20.02.120 - Residential core (RC)—Development A P PENDI XConditional uses. guidance: Discourage the location of student = 1.5 units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two- standards.Bed and breakfast*, Day-care center, adult*, oriented housing distant from the main Indiana bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = Minimum lot area for subdivision: 7,200 square feet.Day-care center, child*, Historic adaptive reuse*, University Bloomington Campus. Restrict the 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than Minimum lot width: 55 feet. Build-to line:Library, Museum, Place of worship, Police, fire or location of new multifamily development to areas 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated onrescue station, Restaurant, limited service*, Retail, serviced by public transportation. Encourage studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 the thoroughfare plan; or the block face averagelow intensity*, School, preschool, School, primary/ proposals that further the growth policies plan of a unit. setback of the existing primary structures on thesecondary goal of sustainable development design featuring same block face, whichever is less. Additions to conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious Minimum parking setback: existing structures may utilize the existing front pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front setback. Attached front-loading garage or carport, 25Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to resource consumption. building wall. feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on theChapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. Side: 10 feet. thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building setback: 20.02.180 - Residential high-density multifamily Rear: 10 feet. 6 feet, plus 4 feet for each story above the ground20.02.160 - Residential multifamily (RM)— (RH)—Permitted uses: Assisted living facility, Bed floor. Minimum rear building setback: BDevelopment standards. and breakfast, Community center*, Community Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 50 25 feet. Additions to existing structures may utilizeMinimum lot area for subdivision: 21,780 square garden*, Dwelling, multifamily, Dwelling, feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet. the existing rear setback, provided that the grossfeet. Minimum lot width: 85 feet. Minimum front single-family (attached), Dwelling, single-family floor area of the existing structure is not increasedbuilding setback: 15 feet from the proposed right- (detached)*, Group care home for developmentally Residential core (RC)—District intent. by more than 40%. In no case shall the setback be |of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the disabled*, Group care home for mentally The RC (residential core) district is intended to less than 10 feet. Maximum impervious surfaceblock face average setback of the existing primary ill*, Group/residential care home*, Nursing/ be used as follows: Protect and enhance the core coverage: 45% of the lot area.structures on the same block face, whichever is convalescent home, Park, Rooming house*, Urban residential areas with emphasis on discouraging Zoni ngmore. Minimum side building setback: 15 feet. architecture, Utility substation and transmission the conversion of dwellings to multifamily or Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 35Minimum rear building setback: 15 feet. Maximum facility* commercial uses. Increase the viability of owner- feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet.impervious surface coverage: 40% of the lot area. occupied and affordable dwelling units through the Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to use of small-lot subdivisions, accessory dwellingMaximum density: 7 units/acre (6,223 square feet Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. units, and compatible property improvements.per dwelling unit). 21 units/acre (2,074 square feetper dwelling unit) for the total net acreage (gross 20.02.190 - Residential high-density multifamily Plan commission/board of zoning appealsacreage minus acres set aside due to environmen- (RH)—Conditional uses. guidance: Explore multifamily redevelopmenttal constraints) provided that the maximum gross Day-care center, adult*, Day-care center, child*, opportunities along designated arterial streets, Di s tr i ctsdensity does not exceed 7 units per acre (6,223 Historic adaptive reuse*, Library, Museum, Place in transition areas between the downtown andsquare feet per dwelling unit) over the entire devel- of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Recreation existing single-family residential areas, andopment. Dwelling unit equivalents: center, Rehabilitation clinic, Restaurant, limited when supported by adjoining land use patterns.Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit service*, Retail, low intensity*, School, preschool, Neighborhood-serving commercial and office uses= 1.5 units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two- School, primary/secondary may be appropriate at the edge of core residentialbedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = areas that front arterial streets.0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.100 - Residential core (RC)—Permittedstudio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 uses: Artist studio*, Community garden*, Dwelling,of a unit. 20.02.200 - Residential high-density multifamily single-family (detached), Group care home for (RH)—Development standards. developmentally disabled*, Group care homeMinimum parking setback: Minimum lot area for subdivision: 21,780 square for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*,Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front feet. Minimum lot width: 85 feet. Minimum front Park, Urban architecture, Utility substation andbuilding wall. building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right- transmission facility*Side: 7 feet. of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or theRear: 7 feet. block face average setback of the existing primary Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to structures on the same block face, whichever is Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards.Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 40 more. Minimum side building setback: 15 feet.feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 15 feet. Maximum 20.02.110 - Residential core (RC)—Conditional impervious surface coverage: 50% of the lot area. uses.Residential high-density multifamily Bed and breakfast*, Community center, Historic(RH)—District intent. Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square adaptive reuse*, Museum, Place of worship,The RH (high density multifamily) district is feet per dwelling unit). 30 units/acre (1,452 Police, fire or rescue station, Recreation center*,intended to be used as follows: Allow high-density square feet per dwelling unit) for the total net School, preschool, School, primary/secondaryresidential development to ensure an adequate acreage (gross acreage minus acres set aside duemix of housing types throughout the community. to environmental constraints) provided that the Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer toContinue the viability of existing high-density maximum gross density does not exceed 15 units Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards.residential developments surrounding Indiana per acre (2,904 square feet per dwelling unit) overUniversity and the downtown. the entire development. Dwelling unit equivalents: SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN B
  • 2001-2003 Phase I ESA’s 2003 Phase II ESA department report does not give evidence for release to the envi- of significant BTEX or PAHs in the groundwater suggests that the A P PENDI XA Phase I ESA was conducted by BCA (BCA 2001, BCA 2003a, BCA A Phase II ESA (BCA 2003d) was conducted by BCA dated Novem- ronment. A monitoring well was found on the CSX property behind diesel has degraded over time and the residual has relatively low2003b, BCA 2003c) on the CSX Railroad Corridor, McDoel Yard, ber 25, 2003 to confirm the presence or absence of the Recog- Wee Willies, but CSX has no knowledge of its origin. toxicity.former Indiana Creosoting and related adjoining sites in Blooming- nized Environmental Conditions (REC’s) identified in the Phase Iton in 2001-2003. ESA throughout the Corridor and McDoel yard. A sample from the well was found to contain 8.8 ppb trichloro- Clear Creek Sediment ethylene (TCE) which is above the RISC default residential limit of Clear Creek acts as the receiving water for the West and EastWithin the area of the switchyard, the following areas of envi- The following environmental conditions were investigated as a part 5 ppb. No significant PID readings were obtained from a limited Forks of Clear Creek and surface and subsurface releases fromronmental concern were identified: of this report: soil gas survey of the area and no VOCs were detected in the soil north Walnut Street south through Country Club Drive. Informa- or groundwater adjacent to the monitoring well. The presence of tion from the Monroe County Health Department indicates that1. Some areas of the railroad ballast had visible CA&C base. Fuel oil AST – Switchyard TCE in the groundwater could be a residual from minor spillage Clear Creek has received PCB contamination. With the excep-2. Minor oil staining was present on the ties and rail ballast A 150,000 gallon above ground fuel oil tank (AST) was located in in 1992. However, no apparent continuing source in the soil was tion of a single set of pole-mounted transformers near the round-throughout the length of the rail line. the switchyard from at least 1915 until 1973. Total Petroleum Hy- found. The TCE could also be due an upgradient source (there are house, no use or disposal of PCBs on the site has been identified.3. A 150,000 gallon AST containing fuel oil was documented on drocarbons (TPH) were detected in soil and groundwater samples present and former automotive sites located upgradient).the switchyard property. Although no known releases were found, around the AST area. Since the completion of the Phase II, IDEM Three sediment samples from the bank of the Clear and two Cthe tank was apparently situated within earthen containment, and rules have changed. TPH is no longer a chemical of concern ac- Coal, Ash & Cinders – Switchyard and rail corridor sediment samples from upstream locations on the West Fork ofcomplete records of its use and decommissioning are unavailable. cording to current IDEM guidance. In addition, no benzene, tolu- Coal ash and cinders was used extensively as fill in the McDoel Clear Creek were tested for PCBs and SVOCs. Low levels of SVOCRelease from the tank and the associated piping would have di- ene, ethylbenzene, and zylenes (BTEX) was found in any of the Yard and along the CSX corridor. Cinder fill is typically present to and PCBs were detected in all of the samples, but were belowrectly impacted soil and possibly groundwater. In addition, former groundwater samples; therefore, the sample results in the area of a depth of two to six feet in the switchyard in layers of cinder and RISC default residential limits. No PCBs were detected in sam- |employees reported that routine small releases occurred. the fuel oil AST are not a concern. The absence of significant BTEX gravel. Cinders were placed on the surface throughout the switch- ples containing waste oil from the maintenance shed area. The4. Releases in the form of oils, solvents, and fuels are possible or PAHs in the groundwater suggests that the diesel has degraded yard, but in many areas a topsoil has developed above the cinder source of PCBs detected in the sediment is likely runoff from up-from the turntable, roundhouse, machine shops, and outbuildings over time and the residual has relatively low toxicity. fill. stream sources. Envi r onment a lassociated with the roundhouse. Because of the long history orrailroad use and locomotive maintenance, the report states that it Roundhouse, turntable, oil house, maintenance buildings – Arsenic, lead, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contami- Indiana Woodtreating Site, Country Clubis likely that at least some residual soil and/or groundwater con- Switchyard nation was found throughout the switchyard and rail corridor. No additional investigation of the former creosoting site was per-tamination remains. The results of the investigation in this area indicate that the only formed for this Phase II assessment. On-going investigation is5. A potential exists for at least small releases of contaminants concern is related to coal, ash, and cinders. No other chemicals of Indiana University Bus Garage, 120 W Grimes being conducted by CSX.to the soil and/or groundwater from open dumping and burning as concern were identified exceeding closure levels. The oil staining observed in the Phase I was investigated. No fieldwell as chemical dumping. evidence of contamination was observed. No contamination was 2005 Phase II ESA – CSX Railroad Corridor6. Coal, ash, and cinders were present in the McDoel Yard. Coal Yard office fueling area and floor tile – Switchyard found in shallow soils or groundwater associated with this area of A Phase II ESA (BCA 2005) was conducted by BCA dated Septem-combustion byproducts often have high levels of metals and PAHs. The results of the investigation in this area indicate that no chemi- concern. ber 15, 2005 to confirm the presence or absence of the Recog-The leachability of these contaminants is usually low. cals of concern were identified exceeding closure levels related nized Environmental Conditions (REC’s) identified in the Phase I7. Electrical transformers were found on the switchyard property to petroleum. Floor tiles in the building were tested and found to Amoco Oil Bulk Storage Site, 29 W 1st ESA throughout the CSX railroad corridor.and appeared to be old. These transformers likely belonged to the contain asbestos. It was recommended that an Asbestos Mainte- The site has been an active bulk site since at least 1927. Pipeslocal power company. nance Plan be prepared for the yard office or the floor tile be re- were still present on the CSX RoW that were probably part of a The following environmental condition was investigated as a part moved from the facility. rack that was used prior to the 1970s to off-load petroleum prod- of this report:Potential for impact from adjoining sites, including: ucts from rail cars. Field evidence of the petroleum was observed• Creosoting plant site adjoining to the southeast K&W Products, 227-241 W Grimes in probes adjacent to the pipes at depths of 9.5 to 12 feet. Gaso- Coal ash and cinders was used extensively as fill along the CSX• K&W Products, 227-241 W Grimes Lane – It is likely that con- The site was a manufacturer of chemicals for the automobile in- line range TPH was detected in one of three probes at 8-12 feet at corridor. Cinder fill is typically present to a depth of one to threetamination exists on the switchyard property near this site. Con- dustry for many years and stored chemicals in underground tanks. 2,200 ppm, well above the IDEM limit. Evidence of contamination feet in the switchyard in layers of cinder and gravel. Cinders were was observed at a depth of 8 to 12 feet, but no evidence of con- Stu di e stamination was found on this site, and evidence indicated that the No field evidence of contamination was observed in two probes on placed on the surface throughout the switchyard, but in many ar-source was the rail yard according to the owner’s consultant. The the CSX property adjacent to the site. No VOCs, diesel or gasoline tamination was found in more shallow intervals. eas a topsoil has developed above the cinder fill.nature of the contamination is unknown. range TPH was detected in samples from this location.• IU Bus Garage, 120 W Grimes – Potential exists for contami- Based on the absence of evidence of shallow contamination, it is Arsenic, lead, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contam-nation from waste oil handled on this site which adjoins the switch- MJ Dallas, 1710 S Walnut likely that the petroleum observed at 8-12 feet migrated laterally ination was found throughout the rail corridoryard The site has been a car lot since at least 1986 and is an active low from the adjoining bulk plant and probably did not originate from• South Walnut Street Businesses – There is limited potential priority Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) site. No field surface spills during off-loading of fuel from rail cars. 2006 Supplemental Phase II ESAthat contamination from these sites would impact the switchyard. or laboratory evidence of petroleum was observed in soil samples A Supplemental Phase II ESA (BCA 2006) was conducted by BCAExtent of contamination from these sites, if any, is unknown. from two probes along the property. Bloomington Hospital Maintenance Facility, S Morton in 2006 to evaluate the potential for migration of Chemicals of• Clear Creek – This adjoins the switchyard to the east. Records Bulk petroleum storage plants and an auto repair shop formerly Concern (CoC’s) to groundwater and their impact on the ground-were found indicating numerous releases have occurred and may Wee Willie’s spill report, 1724 S Walnut occupied this site and were situated across Morton Street from water, weather Coal, Ash, and Cinders (CA&C) was present in allimpact the switchyard, and Monroe County Health Department re- A 1992 spill report in the Monroe County Health Department files the railroad. Field evidence of petroleum was observed in one of locations along the corridor, what, if any, existing surface materi-cords indicate that Clear Creek has received PCB contamination. indicates that containers were found on the CSX property behind two probes at 10-12 and 16-20 feet. No BTEX was detected in the als are below RDCL’s and where acceptable surface materials are Wee Willies Restaurant. The report indicated that a bucket of Tex- groundwater sample collected from this location. thick enough to prevent direct exposure to CA&C. aco fluid (trichloroethylene) was found with its top rusted open, an open 5 gallon bucket of paint-like material was on bare ground, Petroleum detected at this location likely originated from an off- Although some metals (antimony, arsenic, lead and thallium) and a 55-gallon drum labeled regular gasoline was fond with other site petroleum source located upgradient. Because BTEX was were found in the CA&C at this site (or commonly on similar sites) trash. No indication of the exact location of the materials was giv- not found in any of the groundwater samples, the results in this in excess of the RISC RCL-migration, the metals were generally en, and no indication of what was done was provided. The health area are not a concern per current IDEM guidance. The absence SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN C
  • found not to have the potential to migrate based on SPLP extrac- 2009 Site Investigation Report A P PENDI Xtion and analysis. Where a single metal (antimony) was found to Remediation requirements per the approved plan were methave the potential to migrate, no actual migration was observed AECOM completed a Phase II ESA on the switchyard property in throughout the Phase 1 portion of the B-Line Trail. Site closurein deeper samples. Although groundwater was generally not en- July 2009. Soil samples were collected from 60 locations on for the B-Line Trail Phase 1 was requested. A Site Status Lettercountered in this investigation, where present, testing generally the property. Fourty-four subsurface samples were collected on was received dated October 5, 2010 and included an Environ-indicated that it was not impacted by dissolved phase migration the site and a surface soil sample was collected from all 60 lo- mental Restrictive Covenant (ERC) on the site limiting the use ofof CoCs. cations. Metals were found to be prevalent in the surficial soils the land. The ERC was recorded in the Monroe County, IN Re- throughout the switchyard and PAHs were also detected across corder’s office on November 8, 2010. The limitations in the ERCA total of 40 soil samples were taken within 12 inches of the sur- the site in surface soil material. In addition, TPH exceeded the include restrictions on excavating the site, prohibiting the use offace and analyzed. Arsenic exceeded the RCL-direct in 21 sam- IDEM RISC Residential Default Closure Level (RDCL) in nearly all the site for residential or agricultural purposes, and requiring theples and lead exceeded the RCL-direct in two. Benzo(a)pyrene sample locations. site cover to be maintained.(BaP) exceeded the RCL-direct in 18 samples and Benzo(b)fluor-anthene, Ideno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and/or Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene In subsurficial soils, metals, PAHs, and TPHs were detected at 09-2011 McDoel Switchyard Phytoremediationexceeded the RCL-direct in 11 samples. higher than RISC RDCLs. Study C A Phytoremediation Study was conducted by Indiana UniversitySoil probes in this investigation confirmed that the CA&C was 2009 Preliminary Conceptual Site Model and Environmental Data professors Heather Reynolds and Lauren Smith, both of the De-present at most locations along the length of the corridor and to Gap Analysis partment of Biology. The study included microcosms with soilthe limits of the property at most locations as well. Several ar- from the McDoel site and plant species known to accumulate |eas along the corridor were identified as having sufficient cover AECOM completed a conceptual site model and environmental lead, arsenic and PAHs. The study did not demonstrate potential(≥12”) to prevent direct exposure to CA&C and include areas re- data gap analysis for the site in 2009. In general, few chemicals for phytoremediation of lead, arsenic, and PAHs under the ex-cently landscaped between 7th Street and Rogers Street as well are present at concentrations exceeding IDEM risk based default perimental conditions. However, the concentrations of lead and Envi r onment a lsome areas between the Convention Center Crossing (CCC) and closure levels for human receptors. A screening of data against arsenic in the soil used for the study were well below the con-2nd Street. residential, industrial, and draft recreational closure levels show centrations found at many locations on the site (and below likely fewer exceedances of the recreational criteria thereby suggesting closure goals), making plant uptake less likely. Further, someThe recommended remedial action was to either cover all areas that closure of the site according to a recreational land use may laboratory testing results suggest experimental error and requirewhere shallow soil (0-12”) exceeded RCL-direct for one or more be favorable. In the case of ecological receptors, several chemi- additional study to troubleshoot.analytes with a walking/biking trail of pavement or an alternate cals detected at concentrations that exceed default USEPA eco-impervious surface, or to cover the impacted area with 12 inches logical screening levels. It should be noted that such exceedanc-of topsoil with vegetative cover. Since existing grade had to be es do not categorically mean that ecological receptors are at risk 2010 McDoel Switchyard Ecological Risk Assess-maintained, an equivalent amount of impacted fill would be re- of adverse effects but rather that additional evaluation of risk to mentmoved and disposed at a landfill prior to placement of the pave- this receptor group may be warranted. An ecological risk assessment was completed by Indiana Uni-ment and soil cover. versity students Emily Kerr, Katie Mauldin, Nancy Rachlis, and Shaun Ziegler. The report concluded that, in its current condi-2008 Limited Subsurface Investigation – Former tion, the switchyard poses a significant ecological risk. Further- 8-2009 Remediation Completion Report – B-Line more, the risk would be mitigated with the use of a soil cover onCSX Rail Corridor Trail Phase 1ATC Associates completed a Limited Subsurface Investigation on the site. BCA completed the design, engineering and remediation over-the CSX rail corridor property from 2nd Street to Grimes Lane in sight of the Phase 1 of the B-Line Trail which extended from Rog-August 2008. This investigation was conducted to address the ers Street to 2nd Street in downtown Bloomington. The reportareas of concern identified in previous investigation reports. documented the remediation conducted for the B-Line Phase 1 Stu di e s remediation project. Per the design, the existing site grade wasBased on the soil analytical data, twenty-nine of the thirty near generally maintained. Surface soil was removed from areas ofsurface soil samples collected during this investigation exhib- surface exceedances and replaced by topsoil, pavement, or alter-ited levels of one or more constituents of concern that exceed nate impervious material such as pavers. All impacted soil re-the IDEM RISC DCL for commercial land use. The near surface moved from the site was disposed at a licensed landfill. The cor-soil samples were collected at a depth of one to two feet below ridor was subdivided into four areas based on surface impacts:ground surface (ft-bgs). • Area A - Surface exceeded the RCL-direct and was removedBased on the groundwater analytical data collected, groundwater and replaced.samples collected from all six boring locations exhibited levels of • Area B - Clean surface cover soil was already placed over im-one or more constituents of the IDEM RISC RDCLs. pacted materials (south of Rogers Street). • Area C - Existing surface materials do not exceed the RCL- Direct. • Area D - Less than 12 inches of impacted fill overlies native soils (between 2nd Street and Convention Center Crossing). SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN C
  • SWITCHYARD PARK A P PENDI XNon-native Herbaceous PlantsNon-native species noted with an asterix *Non-native invasives noted with two asterix **Alliaria petiolata** Garlic MustardAndropogon virginicus BroomsedgeApoycynum cannabinum Indian HempArctium minus * Common BurdockAsclepias incarnata Swamp MilkweedAster falcatus White Prairie AsterAster puniceus Swamp AsterAster sp. DBrassica sp.Campanulastrum americana American BellflowerCarex sp.Centaurea maculosa* Spotted Knapweed |Chicorium intybus* ChicoryDaucus carota* Queen Anne’s LaceDipsacus fullonum* Teasel Gr owthElymus canadensis Canada Wild RyeElymus villosus Silky Wild RyeEupatorium perfoliatum BonesetFestuca arundinacea* FescueIris virginica Blue Flag IrisLobelia inflata Indian TobaccoOenothera biennis Common PrimroseOnocloa sensibilis Sensitive FernPerilla frutescens* Beefstake Plant Pol i cyPhytolacca americana PokeweedPolygonum sp.Polystichum acrosticoides Christmas fernPotentilla sp.Ranunculus sp.Rubus allegheniensis BlackberryRubus occidentalis Black RaspberryScirpus atrovirens Dark Green BulrushScirpus cyperinus Woolgrass Di s tr i c tsScirpus validus Soft Stem BulrushSolidago canadensis Canada GoldenrodSolidago nemoralis Gray GoldenrodSorghum halapense* Johnson GrassVerbascum thapsus* Mullein SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN D
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