EVALUATION

OF
MANAGEMENT APPROACH INFLUENCING
CREATIVITY THROUGH INTERNAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT– AN
EVALUATION STUDY OF...
SBMG6009

Management dissertation

Declaration
I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled "Evaluation of Management a...
SBMG6009

Management dissertation

Acknowledgments
I thank the Almighty who gave me the strength in order to complete this...
SBMG6009

Management dissertation

Abstract
This dissertation intends to understand the role of relationship management in...
SBMG6009

Management dissertation

Table of Contents
1)
A)

2)

3)

4)

RESEARCH QUESTION: ..................................
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List of Figures

FIGURE 1: MANAGEMENT APPROACH FORMULATION, ADAPTED FROM BODDY (2002)……...
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1) Introduction
An advertising agency is identified as a creative enterprise for it‟s p...
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a) Ad agency Background
JWT is one of the most affluent advertising agencies in the wor...
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a) Management Approach
The management process, in general constitutes the basic human a...
SBMG6009

Management dissertation

turbulence refers to the dynamic and spontaneous process of ideating and innovation. Th...
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Management dissertation

department have to work hand in hand to act as the bridge that connects the two
distant...
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Management dissertation

hybrid with best practices within the industry , defined by “operational techniques and...
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Management dissertation

Creative people in advertising agencies believe that they know much more about
advertis...
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Management dissertation

internally and externally for„great work‟ output.

f) Creative Vs/&Account executives: ...
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Management dissertation

agencies as well. The culture of a particular agency determines its management
practice...
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4) Methodology
A research study can either be inductive or deductive; Inductive researc...
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-

Sampling: The sample questioned in the process were determined with the
helped of si...
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Management dissertation

selection is left to the discretion of the researcher. Since this method is
independent...
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The University‟s ethical code as specified, has been adhered at all levels of the data
...
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5) Qualitative analysis
a) Interview Design:
The interviews were conducted based on thr...
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Even though extra time can help creatives to experiment with the brief, without time
sc...
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The management’s approach towards this relationship
Finally the third set of question i...
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Themes

Management dissertation
Topics which arose

Creative ideation and
creative
Independence

Importance of cr...
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6) Extension of Hypothesis:
From the qualitative analysis the issues raised and topics ...
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7) Quantitative Analysis
a) Questionnaire design
Based on the data collected from the q...
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c) Question 5 -6
Questions 5 and 6 were framed in order to analyse the employee percept...
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f) Questions 12
The qualitative analysis identified new themesabout the culture and val...
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8) Final Analysis
Factors influencing the creative process
From the quantitative analys...
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employee wanted a smooth and collaborative work environment and another 25%
wanting a b...
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over all. 40% believed that the management wanted a smooth and collaborative
environmen...
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and order, is existent and works efficiently within the agency. (See appendix 8 table
M...
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The management approach in any organisation gives the scope and direction for the
organ...
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understanding the relationship dynamic within agencies and it‟sover all influence on
th...
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10) Bibliography
1. Arson, J., 1994. A Pragmatic View of Thematic Analysis. The Qualita...
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12. Hackley, C. & Kover, A.J., 2007. The trouble with creatives: negotiating
creative i...
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http://openarchive.cbs.dk/bitstream/handle/10398/8148/x656557124.
pdf?sequence=1 [Acces...
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37. Srivastava, A. & Thomson, S.B., 2009. Framework Analysis: A Qualitative
Methodology...
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Appendices
Appendix 1:
The acknowledgement letter stating that I had conducted my resea...
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The initial proposal without any modification, approved by the university, is
attached ...
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Management dissertation

Table of Contents
TOPIC TITLE: ...........................................................
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A study of the management approach adopted in the creative industry – a case of JWT
Ind...
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the working between the clients and the creative department in the agency. The
administ...
London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
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London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
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London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105
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I was given the opportunity work alongside the account management and creative team to understand day to day relationship management. I used research tools such as questionnaires and in depth interviews and appropriate methodologies for detailed analysis of the collected data. I secured excellent feedback with a Ist class grade (Distinction), for research methodology used and accuracy of report.

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London sbmg6010 a_ t 6_mnd_jul 12 term_1002105

  1. 1. EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT APPROACH INFLUENCING CREATIVITY THROUGH INTERNAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT– AN EVALUATION STUDY OF THE APPROACH IN JWT CHENNAI Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Hons.) in Business Management Of University of Wales, Trinity St. David Submitted by Swetha Sureshbabu 1002105 Dissertation supervisor: Mr. Richard Small Module code : SBMG6010 Date : 15th October 2012
  2. 2. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Declaration I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled "Evaluation of Management approach influencing creativity through internal relationship management – An evaluation study of the approach in JWT Chennai ", submitted by me for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Hons.) in Business Management, is a result of my own original work. The data collected for studying theories and the organization are in the scope of research objectives and appropriately referenced. The Interviews and questionnairesconducted were in adherence to the University‟s ethical considerations, with prior consent from the Agency‟s management. A letter of acknowledgment from the management has been included, for perusal. The project is carried out under the guidance of Mr. Richard Small, my supervisor. This work has not been previously submitted for the award of any degree, diploma, or fellowship to any University or Institution. Swetha Sureshbabu Date : 15th October 2012 Place : United Kingdom 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 2
  3. 3. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Acknowledgments I thank the Almighty who gave me the strength in order to complete this project successfully. I would like to thank the University Of Wales : Trinity St. David for giving me this research opportunity , which has helped me to bring forth my convictions in writing. I am also thankful to Mr. Richard Small, who has been my guide and helped coordinate my projectwith ease. I am also thankful to JWT, Chennai, which had graciously offered me the opportunity to conduct my research. I am particularly thankful to Mr. M.L. Raghvan Vice president, JWT Chennai and Mr. Kripaakar Christopher, Account director, JWT Chennai,who have closely helped me in the completion of this study. I am indebted to the employees of JWT, Chennai who provided me their time and support, whilst participating in the research. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 3
  4. 4. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Abstract This dissertation intends to understand the role of relationship management in an advertising agency and how the management thereby influences the creative process, in the real world scenario. The research was conducted at JWT Chennai. The research objectives were to determine the management approach to creativity; the relationship between the creative and account departments and the management‟s ability in supporting this relationship. For the purpose of understanding the industrial perceptions, qualitative interviews were conducted to understand the major themes of the research question. This modelled the quantitative research questionnaires, which were administered at JWT Chennai to test its relevance and fulfil the research objectives. The relevance of the research question in the practical scenario was determined and helped in deducing the hypothesis. The research also pointed out the influence of agency culture and value on the management approach, which influenced the creative process by supporting the dynamic internal relationships. This dissertation report has made use of thematic framework analysis and frequency tables to analyse the qualitative research findings and also made use of bar charts and pie diagrams while analysing the quantitative research findings. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 4
  5. 5. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Table of Contents 1) A) 2) 3) 4) RESEARCH QUESTION: ......................................................................................................................... 8 A) HYPOTHESIS: ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 B) RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................................................... 8 A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................................... 8 MANAGEMENT APPROACH.................................................................................................................................... 9 THE CREATIVE ENTERPRISE: THE ADVERTISING AGENCY .............................................................................. 9 SIGNIFICANCE OF CREATIVE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES............................................................................ 10 THE CREATIVE HUMAN CAPITAL: ..................................................................................................................... 12 THE ACCOUNT EXECUTIVE: ................................................................................................................................ 13 CREATIVE VS/& ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES: THE RELATIONSHIP DILEMMA .................................................. 14 AGENCY CULTURE AND VALUES: ....................................................................................................................... 14 CURRENT ISSUES IN ADVERTISING .................................................................................................................... 15 METHODOLOGY....................................................................................................................................16 PRIMARY DATA TYPES ....................................................................................................................................... 16 Qualitative research analysis .................................................................................................................................. 16 Quantitative research analysis ............................................................................................................................... 17 B) SECONDARY DATA TYPES.................................................................................................................................... 18 C) ETHICAL CONSIDERATION .................................................................................................................................. 18 D) RECORD OF MEETINGS ........................................................................................................................................ 19 A) 5) A) B) 6) 7) INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 7 AD AGENCY BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................................... 8 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................... 20 INTERVIEW DESIGN: ........................................................................................................................................... 20 KEY THEMES: ........................................................................................................................................................ 20 Creative ideation and creative independence ................................................................................................. 20 Relationship between the accounts and the creative department ........................................................ 21 The management’s approach towards this relationship ........................................................................... 22 EXTENSION OF HYPOTHESIS: .......................................................................................................... 24 A) B) C) D) E) F) G) QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................ 25 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN .................................................................................................................................... 25 QUESTIONS 1-4.................................................................................................................................................... 25 QUESTION 5 -6 ..................................................................................................................................................... 26 QUESTION 7-10................................................................................................................................................... 26 QUESTION 11 ....................................................................................................................................................... 26 QUESTIONS 12 ..................................................................................................................................................... 27 SAMPLE A: THE ACCOUNT DEPT. VS. SAMPLE B: THE CREATIVE DEPT. .................................................. 27 8) FINAL ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................................................28 Factors influencing the creative process ........................................................................................................... 28 Relationship between the creative and account department .................................................................. 28 Management approach to support internal relationships ........................................................................ 29 Culture and value of the agency ............................................................................................................................ 30 9) CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................................... 31 10) BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................................34 11) APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................ 38 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 5
  6. 6. SBMG6009 Management dissertation List of Figures FIGURE 1: MANAGEMENT APPROACH FORMULATION, ADAPTED FROM BODDY (2002)………………………………………….. 09 FIGURE 2 : THE ACCOUNT DEPARTMENT VICIOUS CYCLE ADAPTED FROM SOLOMON (2008)…………………………………...13 FIGURE 3 : QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ANALYSIS | FREQUENCY TABLE ............................................................................................... 23 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 6
  7. 7. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 1) Introduction An advertising agency is identified as a creative enterprise for it‟s pivotal element of creativity.(Greffe, 2006). Creativity here guides the personnel in creating communication campaign „suitable‟ to the need of the clients. Considering this aspect, the creativity here therefore is bounded by the rationalities of the client demands, market requirements, brand requirement and obligations, competitors and marketing objectives(Bell, 1992)(Zinkhan, 1993)&(Nachum, 1996). Thus the „commercial‟ creatives have lesser freedom when compared to other types of creative personnel.(Stein, 1991) However such constraints on creativity imposed by the rationales of commercial working, will stress and frustrate the working of the creatives(Stein, 1991). The creatives who yearn for this freedom of expression at the same time require governance and direction to enhance the creative process(Krohe, 1996). All advertising agencies work with different functional departments, primarily divided into two departments: creatives and account department(Kover & Goldberg, 1995). Their attitudes and characteristic traits are radically different from each other and inevitable to respective job roles(Bell, 1992). All these factors lead to the existence of a dynamic relationship between the creative and the non-creative individuals; those who create the communication content and those who impose the client requirements and marketing constraints, respectively. Organisations, which base their existence on the creative capabilities of its personnel, have to manage their talents effectively with a management style that best capitalise the creative potential of its employees(Stein, 1991). This also involves efficient relationship management, which will support the dynamic environment in the agency. When creative and non-creative individuals work together, their interactions and conflicts stimulate creativity. The management has to provide an environment conducive to the sustenance of such a strenuous scenario, sometimes even an adhocracy(Kover & Goldberg, 1995). This depends on management practices and choices, which influence the course of this „internal‟ relationship &(Bilton, 2012).Thus the management plays a pivotal role in influencing the quality of the creative content through appropriate relationship management practices. A lot of research has been done to understand management approaches in creative enterprises, relationship management and its influence on the creative process. The works of Bilton (2012), Stein (1991),& Kover & Goldberg (1995) have emphasised the importance of management approach&intervention, influencing the creative process1. Similarly Hackley & Kover, (2007)& Krohe (1996) have empasised the need for the management to support the relationship between the creative and the account departments. However, the works of Krohe (1996), Solomon (2008) & So(2005) is more specific in describing the way the management supports the relationship between its internal departments, thereby influencing creativity. This study intends to find the relevance of this concept in the real world scenario by testing it within an ad agency context. 1The initial proposal made for the dissertation focused only on the management approach within an agency (See appendix 1). This proposal was however slightly modified to accommodate the in depth understanding of relationship management and its influence on the creative process, upon consultation with supervisor. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 7
  8. 8. SBMG6009 Management dissertation a) Ad agency Background JWT is one of the most affluent advertising agencies in the world with branches in over 200 cities across 9 countries. It houses more than 100,000 marketing professionals producing award worthy marketing content, acknowledged by leading awarding bodies such as Cannes and Young Guns. Started as an advertising brokerage company in 1864, JWT has grown to become the „4th largest full service agency‟(Gennaro, 2009)(Bell, 1992). Stephen King, who was part of JWT London, set forth the foundation of the account planning process, which has become one of the essentials of advertising. This enabled JWT to make its everlasting contribution to the advertising sector.(JWT, 2007)&(VIC Brand, 2002) JWT Chennai, a valuable entity of JWT‟s Indian Operations , is the host company in which this study has been conducted. Chennai, owing to its location has a very diverse population comprising cultures and people from across India. Similarly the agency, true to its location has a diverse work force, bringing together a mix of vibrant cultures and diversity under the same roof. JWT Chennai was the first agency in India to have won a Cannes‟s Gold Lion (Film category) and has been accredited for several internationally acknowledged marketing campaigns. JWT(2012) &(The Times of India, 2009) 2) Research Question: How the management approach influences creativity, by supporting the relationship of the creative and account departments, at JWT Chennai? a) Hypothesis: The management’s relationship management approach influences creativity. b) Research Objectives As mentioned, earlier research has provided the theoretical understanding of the concepts of management approach in creative enterprises and internal relationship management. However this study will test the practicality of this concept by understanding the approaches and the identities of the agency personnel and test the hypothesis within the ad agency. Employee perceptions are recorded to anlyse and deduct the relavance of the hypothesis. Owing to the vastness of the subjects of creative management approach and relationship management, their influence of creativity is to be tested with the following research objectives within JWT‟s context. What is the role of management, creative and acount departments on the creative process? What is the relationship between the creative and the account department? How does the management support this relationship? 3) Literature review 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 8
  9. 9. SBMG6009 Management dissertation a) Management Approach The management process, in general constitutes the basic human activity of running our lives.. Within the business context, „management‟ involves helping the organisation to „survive‟ and „sustain‟ in a competitive environment. It involves identifying opportunities and governing resources efficiently, to fulfil objectives, thereby yielding beneficiary results. Thus the management approach in an organisation is crucial not only to its continued presence in the market but also to its performance and success. (Boddy, 2002) With respect to performance, Human capital management is one of the major factors of success in an organisation. Organisations have increasingly understood the relevance of efficient human capital management in gaining competitive advantage. However, many organisations are yet to understand the importance of employee management and its strategic influence as a great asset to the company. (Mullins, 2005) Thus in the modern context, organisations have new models and approaches of management to adhere to, keeping in mind the varied factors contributing to the success of the organisation. The essential nature of the managerial work The context which the activities of management takes place The manner in which responsibilties and duties of management are excercised The actual process of management and execution of work Measure of organisation performance and effecitveness Figure 2: Management approach formulation, Adapted from Boddy (2002) Based on the above considerations, an organisation will be able to formulate its own unique approach with which it employs resources to gain competitive advantage. Several approaches such as the classical approaches of Bureaucracy and scientific management(Boddy, 2002), the human relations approach, contingency approach, systems approach, post modernism(Mullins, 2005), etc. have been identified and research has been done extensively to model the organisational setup,suitable to each approach.These approachesgive managers the essential guidelines for management practices. However, with respect to a creative enterprise, several other considerations are to be taken into account. b) The Creative enterprise: The Advertising agency Creative enterprises are companies that harness the talent, skill and creativity of individuals to potentially create wealth and job opportunities by utilizing intellectual property. This definition of creative enterprises states the emphasis on personnel management as the means to the entire framework in creative industries. Here the increase in performance deals with the expertise showed by the creative personnel in these enterprises.(Greffe, 2006) As a creative enterprise, the two challenges to be met are uncertainty and turbulence. While uncertainty reflects the risk factors involved with intangible products (creativity and ideas), 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 9
  10. 10. SBMG6009 Management dissertation turbulence refers to the dynamic and spontaneous process of ideating and innovation. Thus managing these challenges effectively is crucial to the success of the organisation. Besides these challenges, creative enterprises face furthermore issues to deal with which are taken into consideration while formulating the management model. These are New technological advancements Effective management of intellectual property Effectual strategies and revenue models Standardization and quality control of internal operations Competition and demands of stakeholders The above challenges maybe argued to be the issues faced by any industry. However, creative enterprises, unlike other industries, innovate and produce intangible products such as intellectual property. Furthermore the employee attitude within a creative enterprise is much different from a traditional organisation. As mentioned before, the turbulent nature within the organisation is largely contributed by the employee attitude and behaviour. Thus managing this behaviour of the humancapital, is the primary difference between traditional and creative enterprises.(Greffe, 2006)&(Townley et al., 2009) c) Significance of creative management approaches According to Mullins (2005) idea factories aka creative enterprises should have an organisational structure, which is fluid with, limited formalised relationships. However, as the size of the organisation increases, the structure evolves into a formalised structure. But creativity and structure are socially equated to be opposites of each other. Furthermore, structure is assumed to curb creative spontaneity. Thus it is important to understand how creative processes are structurally managed. Bilton (2012), explains that in the early 1960s advertising agencies worked on the basis of the heroic model of creativity which emphasised the significance of individualistic creativity. The process of innovation and ideation held an upper hand over actual application and development of ideas. It glorified the specific heroic creative‟s individual work rather than encouraging the collaborative, convergent and shared creative efforts. However, the creative industry especially, advertising agencies slowly moved on to the structural model of management owing to the requirements of the creative economy. It emphasised on the need for shared creative practises and the benefits of creative „networking‟. Pazarzi (2007), while defining a network model for TV advertising production processes, has pointed out how the networking model in an ad agency influences the outcome of the advertising process on the whole.She points out that within an advertising creation network(a temporary project team comprising different firms involved in the advertisement production) the ad agency bears the centrality of functions. Here the account department , the planning department and the creative 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 10
  11. 11. SBMG6009 Management dissertation department have to work hand in hand to act as the bridge that connects the two distant points of the network: the product selling corporate giant and the working ethics of Audio visual teams creating the ad. She cites that this networking model within an advertsing creation network is more relevant to the administration of the ad agency when compared to any other firm, participating in the ad creation process. Though this article provides an insight of only one of the functions of an ad agency, it gives the understanding of how networking management structures influence the success of processes within an agency. Hirschman (1989) designed the ‘role’ model which collaborates the efforts of the various staff or „roles‟ within the agency, helping in putting together an advertisement. According to her, the concepts of role perception , authorship and communication goals of the art director , copy writer , brand manager, account executive and agency producer, model the working within that agency. While the account servicing team works to reduce risks , the creative department will always intend to maximise the impact of the advertisement. Similarily the creative team has an inherent sense of ownership of the creative idea while the servicing team do not associate itself with such emotions inspite of their financial and managerial contributions. Such individualistic perceptions of these distintive roles, allows advertising to be managed effieciently as a team. Another proficient model identified by Ensor et al. (2001), is the knowledge management model. While pointing out the need for a knowledge management approach in any form of creative enterprise , the article points out how advertising agencies in the UK are organised in a way that encourages free flow of information. Thiscontributes to the creative working environment. The article also points out that the flat organsational structure, the creative element of the organisational structure, the involvment of the senior management , team based projects etc.. have provided the dimensions necessary for effective knowledge management. Several other factors such asbuilding, recruitment, mentoring and age profile of employees have been identified which makes this model effective and practical. Despite such structural management models, creativity cannot be managed through a pre-concieved structure. According to Byrne et al. (2009) the creative process is dynamic and ill defined. Thus the leader of the firm cannot rely on a structure for delegation of work and direction of the ad agency. He/she is expected to induce a structure which provides the work environment for innovation. Since the benefits of a structured process, are well defined, creative leadership must steer clear of beauracracy and mechanistic structure. However, it should capitalise on the opportunities and resourcres made available in the agency. In this article, the author lays emphasis of creative leadership to „manage‟ the process of innovation. On the other hand, Hackley & Tiwsakul, (2008) state that ad agencies are beuracratic with extensive paperwork and system procedures. However, they act like polymorphs since these procedures are extremely flexible and implemented objectively when accounted for, in reality. They also state that „manage‟ is too sophisticated a term to describe the organisation of the percieved chaotic creatives and the risk inhibiting account department. Thus they conclude by defining the management approach to be 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 11
  12. 12. SBMG6009 Management dissertation hybrid with best practices within the industry , defined by “operational techniques and process rather than management style”(Hackley & Tiwsakul, 2008) This gives us the perspective of the human capital within creative enterprises like ad agencies. As Shirley (1997) describes, management control and performance go hand in hand. She describes that creative work environment has to be fun, motivating and stimulating at the same time yield expected performance. For this she rules out the extreme states of anarchy and slavery as both could induce an unfavourable work environment , where in productivity will be minimised with possible resistance and revolt. This can be attributed to the industry wide sterotype that creative people require to be bound by a loose management rope to ensure its consisteny in performance. However if the employess are „managed‟ through team working , the performance ratio has been proved toformidably increase. From the above discussed models, we infer that the management of the human capital will influence the primary working within creative enterprises. However , it involves a certain level of expertise, with industry wide presumption that agencies have to be managed differently.(Bilton, 2012) d) The Creative humancapital: According to Townley et al., (2009) the labour market in a creative enterprise is over supplied. The creative population have the inherent skills to innovate and are not motivated „just‟ by incentives and rewards. However, mentoring and providing rewards and acknowledgment of expertise also contribute to elevated motivation and performance within the creative enterprise(Greffe, 2006). Owing to this over saturation of the labour market, attracting the right skilled labour and „managing them effectively is the key to success in a creative enterprise like ad agencies. (Byrne et al., 2009) Further the image and identity with which creatives are attributed with, is a general stereotype supported by both academics and media alike. They have to put up with the quirky workaholic macho image, working long hours and maintaining coolness. (Hackley & Kover, 2007). In the marketing context, creativity is increasingly viewed as a technical output of „creative‟ professionals. However, the identities of these professionals are taken for granted and mostly assumed than confirmed with reality. Hackley & Kover (2007) explainsthe perception of ad agency creative representativesfinding bureaucracy pointless and preferring a more flexible structure. In advertising, most of the creative work is done to fulfil their own ideals, which therefore contradicts the values of their respective agencies. In the majority of cases, creative department almost always have some friction with the account department. But it points out, that these contradictions and frictions have eventually institutionalised, creating that environment where in such „trouble‟ is required for innovation and creativity. (Hackley & Kover, 2007) 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 12
  13. 13. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Creative people in advertising agencies believe that they know much more about advertising than their clients and the account department. Bearing this in mind, the conflicts and friction that arise, can be skilfully directed towards the creative process. This will also be influenced by the flexibility of the organisational structure that is adopted.(Kover & Goldberg, 1995) The creative department truly believe in working for themselves. As mentioned earlier, mentoring and rewarding may motivate the creative process but do not necessarily influence the process on the whole. They are driven by their own sense of achievement and prefer acknowledgement and appreciation of their work, to be the best reward.(Hackley & Kover, 2007)&(Bilton, 2012) e) The Account executive: The account executive team or the „client servicing team‟ are the people who bridge the gap between the clients and the creative department. They instruct the creative team to come up with ideas, which would fulfil the requirements of a particular client. They work around the initial idea of client and draft a creative brief, with some revisions to the initial idea. This provides the impetus for the creative process in the creative department. From there on, they co-ordinate the working of the creative and clients, through a series of continual changes and make over, till a consensus is reached.(Pazarzi, 2007) In addition to this, budgeting and scheduling are other important internal processes, which account executives attentively consider. Working within an approved schedule and budgeting gives the agency the basis for their campaign design process. If these processes are overlooked, it will disregard the integrity of the product and message, required to be promoted. Furthermore, it would lead to the formulation of agency bad practice, which would undermine the credibility of the agency.(Solomon, 2008) The account manager being the in-house representative of the client, works to satisfy the marketing, sales and promotional needs of the client.In spite of being constantly accused for working on the opposite side (the clients), an account executive has the distinctive requirement of satisfying client needs successfully but also keep the agency‟s interest intact.(Moeran, 2008). However, the general framework identified below, describes the primary working of an account executive. From this it‟s understood that the working of the account executive team is a vicious circle of maintaining trust as the foundation of a great relationship leading in turn, to great work.(Solomon, 2008) While many mechanistic responsibilities and duties can be identified to describe the job role of an account executive, this framework has pointed out the necessity for productive relationship and trust both Relationship Great Work 1002105 Trust Figure 3 : The Account Department Vicious cycle Adapted from Solomon (2008) Swetha Sureshbabu 13
  14. 14. SBMG6009 Management dissertation internally and externally for„great work‟ output. f) Creative Vs/&Account executives: the Relationship Dilemma The description of the creative and account executive department gives the overview of the working of the respective department. However their relationship has an adverse effect on the performance of the agency.(Moeran, 2009)(Pazarzi, 2007)(Stein, 1991)&(Townley et al., 2009) In most agencies, an “account team” is the group of advertising personnel with different expertise coming together to meet the promotional needs of aparticular client. This team may include both the account executives and the creative department‟s copy writer, art directors etc.. It is this conflicting area of expertise that causes friction within agency. (Moeran, 2008) Other advertising personnel always question the balancing act put up by the account executives. They argue that the executives work towards the satiation of the clients need while disregarding the interest of the agency. Creative directors always implore the account executives to present their idea without censorship, to clients. This is brought out in popular culture through a scene from the TV series MADMEN : “You‟ve got to spend more time selling my ideas to the client than trying to sell their ideas to me.” This funny yet meaningful quote brings out the creative team‟s exasperation to find ways to make the account team, presenttheir original ideas to the clients. (RadioInfo News, n.d.) However, this relationship has become characteristic to the advertising industry. Agencies not only continue to survive in this dilemma but also successful. Some agencies have processes of subgrouping, dual teams of creative director and copywriter for a single account and project deadlines etc.. Each agency has their own set of processes, which help them support the relationship between the different departments within the agency.(Moeran, 2009). The management approach within an agency clearly contributes to the relationship between the advertising personnel. The agency however, handles a particular approach to fulfil its objectives, primarily to enhance the creative process. While some opt for an adhocracy with a flexible combination of authority and negotiation(Kover & Goldberg, 1995), some resort to autonomy, through the adherence of strategic objectives (Mullen, 1995). Thus the management approach, personnel relationship and creative process enhancement are all interconnected. g) Agency culture and values: Another factor, which influences the aspects of management approach and relationships, is the values and culture of the agency. The culture of the agency also determines client relationship and plays a pivotal role in attracting clients.(Rojek, 2009). Clients are prone to forge contract with agencies, which have values such as team work, honesty, open creativity, truth telling & simple organisational structures as they believe that this contributes to improved efficiency(Krueger, 1998). Since organisations in general differ in their organisational culture, the same case applies to 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 14
  15. 15. SBMG6009 Management dissertation agencies as well. The culture of a particular agency determines its management practices, strategic decision, budget control etc. Thus the management is guided by the culture of the agency in order to direct its course in every aspect of the business .(Jugenheimer & Kelley, 2009). Furthermore, potential employees who share the same personal values to the values upheld by the agency, are bound to join the specific agency, thereby making agency culture a strong factor in attracting talent in the industry.(Lockhart, 2011) h) Current issues in advertising With the continual instability of the economy worldwide, the advertising agency is one of the many industries deeply affected.(Consterdine, 2009). This is due to the marketing budget cutbacks of corporate companies to survive in the economic downfall. Thus agencies rely on long standing relationships with their clients that provide them with financial benefit and security. However, agencies now face the threat of being replaced.According toSo (2005), relationship with clients can be strengthened through extensive work performance. Clients are slowly edging away from socialising and personal connection and prefer to foster relationships based on the agencies capability to effectively satisfy their needs. Maintaining the best interest of both the agency and client with respect to performance has become the way forward to aid both parties achieve their objectives. (So, 2005) In spite of cut backs on advertising expenditure owing to recession, PPAI report points out how companies can prove to be successful by keeping their advertising spend intact. The report also points out that the economic downturn could be the right time to over take industry rivals, if creative opportunities are identified. This has lead to a 0.6% increase in profits for companies, which had maintained their ad spends. (Consterdine, 2009) This shows that ad industry is now witnessing a competitive environment purely based on increased performance. This performance is defined by agencies identifying efficient creative processes and opportunities. Therefore, there is an increased necessity for the advertising management to enhance the creative process. The relationship between the account and the creative department has a notable effect on the creative process, as proven through research. This report intends to identify the relevance of this relationship and also how the management contributes to this collaboration between the creative and account department. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 15
  16. 16. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 4) Methodology A research study can either be inductive or deductive; Inductive research leads to generating theory while deductive research leads to testing theory. This dissertation is designed to be a deductive research, thereby testing the relevance of earlier studied theories. (Kothari, 2004) The data collected for research purposes are classified into two types: primary data and secondary data. a) Primary Data Types Primary data is collected for the very first time, to meet the purpose of a specific research. This data is more reliable and convenient as it is first hand information collected through techniques and tools to suit the convenience of the researcher. The quality of the data collected, however depends upon the right choice of data collection techniques and also the measures taken by the researcher to influence the accuracy of the responses. This can be done through making the participants, aware about the purpose and relevance of the study. - The primary data collected in this study has been subjected to both qualitative and quantitativeanalysis for the purpose of testing the hypothesis. Qualitative research analysis Qualitative research analysis involves the measurement of qualitative phenomena. The data analysed here, is descriptive and generally expressed though words. This is the most preferred form of research when dealing with human behaviour. Human emotions, attitudes and perceptions influencing behaviour, are factors that cannot be quantified. Hence, qualitative research techniques and tools are used to analyse and measure the „quality‟ of these entities, which influence the outcome of the research. - In this study, Qualitative research is conducted by the collections of datathrough structured interviews. This helps to understand the industry wide perception of the general themes of this study: management approach, internal relationships and the creative process. The interview is conducted outside the host company in order to determine the industrial stereotypes about the identified themes.(Kothari, 2004) - Structured interviews: An interview is a techniquein which the researcher asks a set of predetermined questions with same set of words and order of questions. These questions are listed in an interview schedule, which is put together based on the themes and research objectives of the study. Theadvantage of this technique is that it enhances comparative analysis due to the uniformity of data generally acquired. In this study, the hypothesis is already supported by the literature review. Therefore the questions were framed in order to test the relevance of those theories and establish the industrial stereotypes of the identified themes.(Kumar, 2005) (See appendix 5) 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 16
  17. 17. SBMG6009 Management dissertation - Sampling: The sample questioned in the process were determined with the helped of simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is the concept where every element of the population has the probability of getting into a sample with an equal probability of getting chosen within the sample. Here the sample comprised individuals from the advertising industry and this sampling method was chosen in order to get an overallindustrial overview of the concepts, which arise in this study.(Kothari, 2004) - Thematic framework analysis & frequency tables: The data thus collected was subjected to thematic framework analysis (See appendix 6) a qualitative research tool which helps the researcher to collect all the data and then sort them based on the common ground of key these and issues. Being dynamic and flexible techniques it helped in taking all the responses into account for the analysis and helped identify themes, which further modelled the quantitative research. Also a frequency table (see Figure 3) was complied to understand the recurrence of topics and issues. It also helped identify new themes, which widened the scope of the research.(Arson, 1994)&(Srivastava & Thomson, 2009) Quantitative research analysis Quantitative research analysis on the other hand, involves the measurement of numerical data, which can be easily quantified and accounted. This kind of research is more suitable to present data that influences the outcome of the research through scale level and volume of the data categories. (Kothari, 2004) - Quantitative research is conducted through the collection of datawithclosed ended questionnaires administered in the Ad agency. This helped to record the employee perceptions of the management approach to creativity and internal relationships. It also intended to analyse new themes, which were realised in the process of the qualitative interviews conducted earlier. - Closed ended questionnaire: With the help of the themes and issues identified from the qualitative analysis, the questionnaire is designed with close-ended questions (See appendix 7) . A questionnaire is a written list of questions, which are self-administered by the respondents themselves.(Kumar, 2005) However the accuracy of the responses depends upon the clarity of the questions. This is important due to the self-administering of the questionnaire. With respect to close-ended questions, the responses are limited to a set of pre determined probable choices. However, these choices should be based on sound evidence supporting the probable answers. In this study, the themes identified from the qualitative analysis, have provided the basis for the possible responses in the questionnaires. Furthermore, through administering a close-endedquestionnaire, it has been possible to quantify and represent the data. (Reja et al., 2003) - Sampling: The sampling technique employed here is quota sampling (See appendix 8 table A), which is a non-random sampling method. Here the population is divided into specific mutually exclusive sub groups and the 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 17
  18. 18. SBMG6009 Management dissertation selection is left to the discretion of the researcher. Since this method is independent ofa sampling frame, the questionnaires can be administered easily avoiding errors. In this study 10 marketing professionals from the creative and 10 marketing professionals from the account department at JWT have participated. (Crawford, 1997) - Bar charts and pie diagrams: These tools have been used for representing the data collected. They give a pictorial representation of numerical data collected and helps present the data statistically. With respect to this study, bar charts and pie diagrams have been used to present the quantified results from the questionnaires administered at JWT.(Kothari, 2004) b) Secondary data types Secondary data on the other hand is the data, which has been collected earlier for other research or any other purpose but also satisfies the needs of the specific research. Though this type of data may provide the researcher with academic insights and perspectives of other individuals, it is not generally relied on, as a primary source of evidence in the research context. However, this also depends upon the topic of the research as some studies may require primary „documentary‟ evidences to support their research findings. One of the most important considerations, which influences secondary data collection is the availability of the resources and the permission to divulge and present the data obtained. Often documentary involving organisational practices and culture are kept confidential and restrictions are laid upon its reproduction and utilisation for analysis. Also other forms of secondary data, like market reports, company analyses etc. are difficult and expensive to acquire.(Kothari, 2004)&(Kumar, 2005) In this research, secondary data collected are in the form of writtendocumentary, which gives an overview of the employee structure and work environment within the agency. This is obtained through the agency‟s official website and a few news articles. However, the secondary data used in this study is very limited in scope and hence, has a negligible influence on the outcome of the study. c) Ethical consideration Interviews were conducted with prior permission acquired in person.The context and relevance of the study has been explained to the respondents in order ensure the accuracy of the responses. The questionnaires have been administered in the agency only after acquiring permission from the heads of the internal departments. The analysis of this data has been done only after seeking permission to the executive head of the agency. Confidentiality of the information collected has been maintained at all levels. As the report is deductive in nature, it doesn‟t criticize the approach adopted at JWT and only analyses the perception of the employees. In spite of these employees preferred anonymity. Some staff had also hesitated in disclosing information through the questionnaires. In these cases, time was taken to explain the context of the research and ensure their co-operation in the data collection process.2 2However, the transcript of the interviews and questionnaires are available upon request. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 18
  19. 19. SBMG6009 Management dissertation The University‟s ethical code as specified, has been adhered at all levels of the data collection process. The ethical form provided by the university has been filled out and attached to the appendix. (See appendix 3) d) Record of meetings The record of meeting with the supervisor to co-ordinate the working of the dissertation study has been complied and included in the appendix for perusal. (See appendix 4). 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 19
  20. 20. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 5) Qualitative analysis a) Interview Design: The interviews were conducted based on three themes closely associated with the research objectives: Creative ideation and creative independence Relationship between the accounts and creative department The management‟s approach towards this relationship The questions were framed in such a way so as to understand the co-relation between each of these themes and the overall industrial perception of these themes. With the help of thematic framework analysis, the tabulations (See appendix 6) the co-relation between each of these themes have been established. b) Key themes: Creative ideation and creative independence The first set of questions was framed in order to understand the basis of the creative process, the creative independence and the limitations to the independence exercised. Furthermore the questions were also framed to understand the account department‟s influence on the process of creativity and independence. The answers to these questions aided the research to bridge the gap between creativity and the account department‟s influence on creativity. The interviews have helped to understand the creative process, which begins with the drafting of the creative brief, the basis of the client requirements. This shows the importance of the account department‟s capability in drafting an effective brief, which is also the first form of communication between the agency and the client. The respondents also pointed out that an effective brief is faced with lesser queries by the creative team. About the creative independence, the respondents agreed that the creative department is given room for innovation keeping in mind the client requirements. This window by itself is considered as an obstacle for the creative process. Apart from this, the brand image, brand guidelines, budgeting and time schedules, local trends, regional restrictions, regulatory bodies are some of the restrictions, which are to be taken under consideration. Further the respondents also elaborated on time restriction as one of the main considerations in the creative process. Though some believe that time schedules do affect negatively, it isessential as the creative process is an on-going process. Without deadlines, the creatives will continue to innovate and might take days, weeks or even months to crack ideas. One of the respondents also pointed out that without schedules, the ideas, cracked at its own pace, are old fashioned at times and hence, unusable 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 20
  21. 21. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Even though extra time can help creatives to experiment with the brief, without time schedules work wouldn‟t get done. The respondents also explained how the creative process is affected by the account department‟s involvement. As explained earlier, a good brief wouldn‟t warrant many queries and so the drafting of a good brief lies depends on the account department‟s capability. Furthermore, the account department is over confident about the client requirements. They would rathersell the brief to the creative than convince the clients to look into a presentation, much different from the client‟s brief. Their role in the agency is indispensable as the respondents agree that the account department leverage the values of the clients in the agency. Relationship between the accounts and the creative department With the first set of questions establishing the link between creative process and the account department‟s involvement in the process, the second set of questions intend to understand the relationship between these departments. It also intends to understand how this relationship affects the creative process. The respondents unanimously agreed that there is some form of friction that always exists between the account and the creative department. They agree that in most advertising agencies, the friction is maintained at a healthy level but at times, situations and personal agendas lead to an unhealthy environment. This can be attributed to the different priorities that each of these departments adheres to. While the account department concentrates on the sales and bringing revenue to the agency, the creatives prioritise on putting forth award worthy and notable work forward. While they work to meet „only‟ the client requirements, the creatives share the same value along with a personal longing for achievement and acknowledgment. On questioning about its necessity in the industry, some of the respondents agreed that the existing healthy friction between the account and the creative departments helps most agencies to get work done. However, some of the respondents believed that if the relationship moves to smoother grounds, the quality of workcould improve. All respondents agreed in unison that the relationship does affect the quality of work both positively and negatively. Some pointed out that if the friction existing were healthy, the ego clashes thus arising would help contribute to the creative process. However, the negative influence of such a relationship will break apart the unity of the agency thereby resulting in poor performance. On asking about personal preference, the respondents had mixed views between continuing in the same dynamic culture and a smooth collaborative culture. However, majority of them agreed that a smooth and collaborative environment gives employees the state of mind to perform efficiently in their respective functions. Even the respondents who preferred to have a competitive friction with their counterparts in the other department, stress on the need for an over all collaborative environment for better output of work. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 21
  22. 22. SBMG6009 Management dissertation The management’s approach towards this relationship Finally the third set of question intends to perceive the management‟s involvement and approach in handling this relationship between the account and creative departments.Most of them agreed that in most agencies, the top management tries to inculcate a smooth relationship irrespective of the inevitable friction. Whatever be the form of friction, the management, almost in all cases comes up with practices and rituals to maintain a collaborative environment. However, some of the respondents described how some agencies do not influence the existing relationship between the departments. They force them indirectly to work together, imploring them to cast aside their difference and work together as a single unit. On questioning about their perception of the management‟s „relationship‟ preference, all respondents agreed that the management always prefers a smooth and collaborative environment. Depending on the „culture‟ and „orientation‟ of the agency, the management might leave the „healthy competition‟ intact as the positive consequence of this type of friction, improves the quality of work in most cases. However, with respect to the overall working culture, the management will always support a collaborative relationship. They persistently try to overcome the reality in spite of industry known fact that „friction‟ is inevitable. They continue in their efforts in order to eliminate a negative working environment, which could hinder the creative process and the functioning of the agency. As seen in theFigure 3, with respect to the above-identified themes, the respondents have frequently brought up the following topics: With respect to the 1st theme, the importance of the creative brief and the different barriers to creativity such as time scheduling, budgeting, client pressure, brand image and guidelines were topics, which recurred frequently. The account department‟s involvement in the creative process, their attitude towards work and the need for coordination with creative department, were other issues, which were brought up frequently. In the 2nd theme, issues such as the need for a smooth collaborative team improving the creative process and a general competitive environment with equal amount of healthy friction and collaboration, were raised by four in five of the respondents. Another equally resonating issue was that of healthy competition improving the quality of work in specific scenarios. In the final theme, the most important topics, which were brought up, by four in five of the respondents were the management‟s need to smoothen the relationship between the departments and also their insistence of making these departments work together forcefully. Other important issues raised by 60% of the respondents were the management‟s preference for a collaborative relationship between departments and how this relationship instils a healthy work environment. Apart from these issues, there was also another interesting issue, which was voiced by 2 of the respondents: the management‟s insistence of healthy friction. This was contrary to their own responses about the management‟s stance with respect to relationships. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 22
  23. 23. SBMG6009 Themes Management dissertation Topics which arose Creative ideation and creative Independence Importance of creative brief Frequency (total no. of respondents) 5 Account Department‟s Involvement 3 - Brand guidelines and image 5 - Time schedules Significance - Consumer perceptions 4 - Client requirements – time and money 5 - Account Dept.‟s Refusal to new ideas 4 - Sales oriented vision of account dept.. 4 - Need for coordination of time schedules 4 and budgeting with the creative process - Need for a collaborative relationship. Relationship between accounts and creative department and Healthy competition improves quality. budgeting- 4 3 „sometimes‟ 3 Smooth collaborative team work 4 „generally‟ improve quality of work - Ideal 50 : 50 – mixed relationship 4 preferences (smooth / friction). Management’s approach to this relationship - Ad agency‟s management preference for 4 smooth relationships, - Need for management to smoothen 4 relationships within agency. - Agency‟s preference for healthy „friction‟ - Management forcing departments to work 2 together. Smooth collaborative relationship 3 required for healthy work environment. 4 Figure 4 : Qualitative research analysis | Frequency table 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 23
  24. 24. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 6) Extension of Hypothesis: From the qualitative analysis the issues raised and topics discussed, brought up a few other considerations and has increased the scope of the hypothesis. The creative department of the agency ideates the creative content. However, the interviews have thrown light on the account department‟s involvement in the creative process. Despite being sales oriented, the account department has a major contribution to the creative process; through drafting the creative brief and their continued involvement, posing the considerations of the clients to the creatives from time to time. Also the respondent‟s call for coordinated working of time schedules and budgeting, shows the major problem areas causingdisruption to both the relationship and the creative process. The notion of advertising personnel surviving off the rivalry among its core departments is weakened by 80% of the responses showing, that a collaborative environment improves the quality of work. Also the contrary notions of both collaborative team work and „healthy‟ friction improving the quality of work,emphasises on the need for a balance in this dynamic relationship. It‟s evident that advertising personnel in general prefer a collaborative environment for the over all working with occasional difference of opinion, boosting the competitive morale. The rivalry here becomes healthy contributing to the creative process but doesn‟t create animosity. The interviews also pointed out the advertising personnel‟s awareness on the consequences of unhealthy rivalry. In spite of the inevitable friction existing among departments, in most agencies the management tries to enforce a smooth and collaborative environment. This points out the management‟s perception of the relationship and what they believe would contribute to the creative process. Two in five of the respondents had supported the existing friction, earlier. However, 80% of the respondents have agreed that the management‟s preferred smooth relationship has almost always contributed to better out put of work. This supports the hypothesis that management‟s approach in handling the relationship between the core departments, influences creativity. The contrary responses of most agencies preferring a smooth relationship and some agencies preferring a dynamic rivalryhave raised new considerations. The aspects of orientation and culture of the agency to which each of the respondents belong, have been reflected in their responses. Most of the respondents agreed on striking a balance betweensmooth collaboration and competitive friction.But two in five of them strongly believed that the „played down‟ animosity is required to get the work done. This is strongly suggestive of the culture existing within their respective agency. The management ordains the culture of any organisation and this shows how it can influence the perceptions of its employees and thus the creative process in the whole. The qualitative analysis has not only supported the hypothesis of this paper but has brought to light a few other considerations, which has widened the scope of the hypothesis. To further support the hypothesis, a quantitative analysis had been conducted and is being presented as follows 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 24
  25. 25. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 7) Quantitative Analysis a) Questionnaire design Based on the data collected from the qualitative open-ended interview, the hypothesis has further been tested by conducting a closed ended questionnaire with the employees of a reputed ad agency. The questionnaire comprised a mix of scaled, multiple choice and yes/no questions in order to get straightforward and accurate data, which could further analysed. The questionnaire like the qualitative interview is also based on the three themes associated with the research question. However, it has also taken into account an additional element about the „culture‟ of the ad agency. With the help of bar charts and pie charts, the results of the questionnaire are presented in appendix 8, which has aided in the final analysis. The questionnaires intends to clarify the data acquired through the qualitative analysis and understand the perception of the three identified themes within the context of a specific ad agency. b) Questions 1-4 The questions 1-4 intended to understand the agency‟s personnel‟s relationship and attitude towards their counterparts in the other departments. In 1st and 2nd question the respondents were asked to rate their current and desired future relationship affinity with their counterparts in the other department. From appendix 8 Table B about 40% of the respondents have rated their current relationship at a scale 3 out of 4 with 30 % of them rating it 4 out of 4. In context to the 2nd question, appendix 8 Table C has pointed out that 65% of all respondents intend to build a highly cordial relationship, rating at a high 4. 35 % of them want to build a fairly cordial relationship with only 10% wanting a slightly detached relationship. Question 3 intended to understand the definition of the relationships within the agency, which its employees related to. Almost all the respondents (90%) agreed in having a co-operative relationship with their counterparts, however with occasional difference of opinion. Only 5% believed that the agency had an uncooperative relationship model with rarity in collaboration and consensus.(See Appendix 8 Table D) Question 4 intended to understand the personal preference of relationship affinity required within the departments to improve the creative process. Evidently 50% of the respondents wanted a smooth collaborative relationship with their peers; 25 % wanted friction to exist for better work out put while 25% believe in an ideal balance between both scenarios.(See Appendix 8 Table E) 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 25
  26. 26. SBMG6009 Management dissertation c) Question 5 -6 Questions 5 and 6 were framed in order to analyse the employee perception of the management practices with respect to the relationship management context. When asked about their perception about the relationship management practice of the top management in the agency, 50% of the respondents believed that the management lets the departments work independently maintaining the friction only with respect to work but otherwise encouraging a collaborative work environment. Also 40% of the respondents acknowledged the management‟s practise to collaborate the working of the department at all times. Question 6 was framed to understand whether the employees of the agency supported the management practice. When asked to rate the efficiency of the internal relationship management process, half of the respondents believed that a good process was in place with room for further improvement. Only 30 % believed that a bad process was in place with only a few management practices being productive. (See Appendix 8 Table G&H ) d) Question 7-10 On identifying the barriers to creativity from the qualitative analysis, the respondents were asked to rate to what extent each of these specific barriers was emphasised by the management and also to what extent it influenced the creative process. Budgeting and time schedules have been identified to be the top most considerations, influencing the creative process. With respect to budgeting, 75% of the respondents believed that it was emphasised considerably, rating it at 3 on a scale of 4; also 75% of the respondents believed that this has a quite an influence on the creative , again rating it at 3 on a scale of 4.(See Appendix 8 Table I & J) With respect to Time constraints,65% of the respondents believed it is considerable emphasised by the management (rating at 3 on a scale of 4). However, 80% of all respondents pointed out that time constraints heavily affected the creative process, with the rest 20 % pointing out the considerable influence of time schedules. (See Appendix 8 Table K & L) e) Question 11 This question was framed summing all the considerations from the previous questions into one; with all the relationship management practices put into place , do the employees find the team meeting with their peers from the other departments, productive. For this 75% of the employees believe that their agency practices have lead to productivity in their team meeting. Only 25 % disagree and support the inefficiency of the relationship management practices. (See appendix 8 table M) 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 26
  27. 27. SBMG6009 Management dissertation f) Questions 12 The qualitative analysis identified new themesabout the culture and value of the agency influencing the relationship and thus the creative process. Thus questions 12 were framed to understand the perception of this aspect among the employees. When asked whether the relationship management reflected the culture of agency, 65% of the respondents agreed with only 35 % disagreeing to the concept. (See Appendix 8 Table N) g) Sample A:The Account Dept. Vs. Sample B: The Creative Dept. The respondents were divided into two samples based on the department they belonged to. Though the results in percentage were given in totality taking both the departments into account, the sampling helped in giving a new dimension to certain aspects of the questionnaire. With respect to question 4, the personal preference of the type of relationship within the agency revealed that among the respondents who chose between options a and c (friction & ideal balance between both), 60 % belonged to the creative department.(See Appendix 8 Table F) Also with respect to question 12, among the 65% who wanted a client oriented agency,all the respondents from Sample A chose a client oriented agency while 3 out 10 respondents from sample B also wanted a client oriented agency. This is surprising as sample B represents employees belonging to the creative department. (See Appendix 8 Table N) 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 27
  28. 28. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 8) Final Analysis Factors influencing the creative process From the quantitative analysis, the factors that influence the creative process at JWT have been identified. The descriptions of the creative process, jotted down the sequential activities that are followed in the process of creative ideation. From this analysis, it is evident that the creative process at JWT is deeply influenced by factors such as budgeting and time scheduling, with 75% and 80% of the employees vouching for its influence on creativity, respectively. (See appendix 8 table J & K). The qualitative analysis has also pointed out the predominant barriers to creativity: Budgeting and time scheduling. Though other factors such as regional, cultural barriers, advertising governing regulations, client pressure, brand guidelines & market needs have been pointed out (see figure 3), budgeting and time scheduling had recurred in the discussion among all participants.(See appendix 6). While discussing the influence of these factors on the creative process, the qualitative analysis also pointed out the account department‟s influence in monitoring and ensuring that these factors are adhered by the creative. Furthermore, the account department is crucial to the creative process in drafting the creative brief. (See appendix 6). In the quantitative analysis, this view is supported by the employee perception at JWT; 75% and 65% of the employees believe that the management enforces budgeting and time scheduling „considerably‟ (See appendix 8 Table I & L). The account department enforces time scheduling and budgeting within the agency. This becomes the duty of the account department and the management relies heavily on its working to enforce these regulations.(Solomon, 2008)&(Pazarzi, 2007). This also points out how the management coordinates the working of the account department which in turn influence the creative department‟s work out put. The management even establishes a flexible environment, an adhocracy wherein the creative department is given a flexible yet controlled environment, which is bounded by authority and negotiation(Kover & Goldberg, 1995). The account department again enforces these processes(Moeran, 2009)&(Greffe, 2006). The management‟s approach at JWT influencing the creative process supports these theories. Considering the tables I & L (appendix 8), it is evident that the management has a considerable influence on the creative process. The qualitative research has emphasised the account department‟s involvement in coordinating the efficiency of these factors. (see appendix 6). Thus it can be deducted that the management at JWT enforces regulations and influences the creative process by encouraging the account department to coordinate with the creative department, closely. Relationship between the creative and account department At JWT Chennai, the employees generally tend to have and also want a smooth and collaborative relationship with the other internal department (See appendix 8, Tables B & C). When asked about their preference of work environment scenario, 50% of the 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 28
  29. 29. SBMG6009 Management dissertation employee wanted a smooth and collaborative work environment and another 25% wanting a balanced environment of „healthy friction‟ engaged within a collaborative environment (See appendix 8 Table E ).. Though another 25% of the employees preferred friction, this can be negligible since 60% of the employees who chose between friction and „ideal‟ balance, belonged to the creative department (See appendix 8 Table F). The creative personnel are in general known for their macho and rebellious nature, which is reflected in their choices and decision-making.(Hackley & Kover, 2007). This can be attributed towards their choice of having an element of friction within the agency. Through the qualitative analysis, it is evident that the industry is divided in its relationship preference within agencies. While some believe that friction is necessary, others believe that a smooth and collaborative environment is essential for better work output. Some others feel that friction, if engaged within a collaborative environment, would result in outstanding output of work. (See appendix 6). Also the qualitative analysis has established the influence of these relationships on the creative process. The individuals who support „healthy‟ friction believe that the ego boost and competitive scenario improves the quality of work while those who encourage a smooth relationship, point out the necessity of a collaborative work environment. This in turn results in a large number of people preferring a collaborative environment which minimise conflict but keep the competitive friction intact, in order to get work done. (See figure 3 & Appendix 6) This supports the theory propounded by Krohe, (1996) who points out how the interactions between the internal departments result in conflict and keeping this to a minimum, will stimulate the creative process. Hirschman (1989) in his work on role based management approach, points out that the attitudes and indenties of the creative and non creative separate them. The relationship between these cross functional teams is essential for the working of the organisation(Hackley & Kover, 2007). The relationship between the creative and account departments within JWT Chennai, is clearly smooth and collaborative which also engages the difference of oppinion arising between these departments, in a healthy environment. This is evident from table D (see appendix 8),which points out that 90% of all employees descibed the internal relationship within the agency to be„ co-operattive with occasion differnce of opinion‟. This is therefore in adherance to the theories presented above. Thus at JWT Chennai , the account and creative departments work in a Smooth and collaborative environment, thriving off the ocassional conflict to generate quality work, in adherance to client and market requirements. Management approach to support internal relationships Finally from the quantitative research, the management‟s approach to relationship management at JWT is perceived to be the following: The management collaborates our working while maintaining minimum friction within the departments, for creative wellness. 50 % of the employees believed that the management maintained the friction at minimum level but collaborated the smooth working of the departments 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 29
  30. 30. SBMG6009 Management dissertation over all. 40% believed that the management wanted a smooth and collaborative environment throughout, with no room for friction. (See appendix 7 & 8, Table G). The qualitative research has also identified themes addressing the management measures and practices to internal relationship management. Respondents recurrently raised issues about the need for the management to support the internal relationships. While some mentioned that management persistently tries to smoothen and collaborate the working of the internal departments, some managements force their personnel to work together, trying to minimise the eminent conflicts in the course of their working. (See figure 3 and appendix 5). The quantitative research established that in JWT, 50% of employees believe that the measures taken by the management to support the relationship is „ a good process with room for improvement‟ while 30 % believe that the processes in place, has to „necessarily‟ improve for efficient performance. (See appendix 8 Table H) The management has its own set policies and rituals to enhance and support the relationship between the creative and account department. These processes help to structure the relationship management practices within the agency(Moeran, 2009). The different management approaches adopted to manage the creative enterprise, is mostly comprised of practices, which determine the course of the relationship between the creative and the non-creative. Adhocracy (Kover & Goldberg, 1995), autonomy(Mullen, 1995) and other forms of management approach do not manage the relationship between the chaos (creative) and order (client services), but comprise operational techniques which determine the course of the relationship and hence the performance of the agency.(Hackley & Tiwsakul, 2008). From this it can be understood that the management at JWT engages in an approach, which maintains collaborative working of its internal departments and minimises the arising conflicts. Culture and value of the agency The qualitative research has established that the top management in different agencies have different perceptions to internal relationship management. This is evident from the mixed responses, which were recorded during the interviews. It is also pointed out that the basis of the responses differed due to the values and culture of the organisation which the respondents belonged to. In general the management is generally seen to encourage a collaborative work environment with or without friction. This depends upon the culture of the organisation too. In some cases, the management doesn‟t involve itself in the internal relationship management and this can be attributed to the positive consequence of conflict within ad agencies. (See Figure 3 and appendix 5). At JWT, the employees wanting a collaborative workspace with minimised conflict, reflects the culture and the values upheld by the agency. When asked if the relationship management supported by the top management reflects the culture of JWT, 65% of employees agreed to the notion. (See appendix 8 Table N). When asked about their eagerness to look forward to team meeting with their peers in the „other‟ department, 75% of the employees agreed to look forward to such meetings. This showed that the culture of JWT, which intends to strike a balance between friction 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 30
  31. 31. SBMG6009 Management dissertation and order, is existent and works efficiently within the agency. (See appendix 8 table M). The culture of ad agencies determines the value perception and performance, as it ordains the practices, which result in work output. This in turn helps in maintaining strong „external relationships‟ and also foster „internal relationships‟, by retaining talent.(Lockhart, 2011)&(Krueger, 1998). The management, which works to improve performance, adheres to the agency culture guiding the strategic processes and relationship management practices. The management therefore pays careful attention to maintaining the values and culture, intact(Jugenheimer & Kelley, 2009).From this, it is understood that the management by supporting the internal relationships, also upholds the culture and values of the organisations. Thus the management approach is reflective of these values and culture. JWT being the 4th largest full service agency with operations spanning 200 cities, has a very diverse work force. The organisational culture, emphasising on quality and teamwork is exercised through out all branches, with certain limitation posed by regional constraints. However, the relationship management practices employed and fostered by the top management have always resulted in quality work out put. Thus the management approach to relationship management can also be assumed to be the management‟s way of upholding the agency‟s values and culture.(VIC Brand, 2002)&(JWT, 2012) Thus from the final analysis, the following conclusion are made: The management approach at JWT influences the creative process by enabling the account department to closely co-ordinate with the creative department and enforce regulations through strong reliance on the working of the account department. The relationship between the account and the creative department at JWT Chennai is that of a smooth and collaborative work environment with minimised conflict, which gives the dynamic momentum to improve the creative process. The management at JWT supports this relationship by having process and systems governing the internal relationship management. The management prefers to maintain the smooth work environment and maintain friction to a minimum to improve the quality of work, by exploiting the positive consequences of „Healthy‟ friction. The management approach to internal relationship and creativity at JWT Chennai is reflective of the culture and values of the agency. 9) Conclusion 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 31
  32. 32. SBMG6009 Management dissertation The management approach in any organisation gives the scope and direction for the organisation objectives. With respect to a creative enterprise, traditional management approaches do not suffice due to the pivotal element of creativity. This trait, areflective of a human characteristic, points out the behavioural element of such enterprises. These enterprises, which rely on the capitalisation of human talent and creativity, are thus managed differently. There is a need to manage this creativity as a creative enterprise consists of both creative and non creative (account department) individuals, who vary in their characteristic traits and attitudes. Thus managing their relationship also becomes crucial to the performance of the creative enterprise. With varied literature and research conducted on the same topic, this dissertation paper intended to analyse the relevance of this topic in the real world. The study was structured to test the hypothesis in an ad agency and analyse the findings to deduct its relevance in a practical scenario. JWT Chennai, being one of the renowned agencies of the world, provided the right platform for this research with its diverse work force and rich organisational culture. In addition to this, qualitative research was done by conducting interviews in order to deduce the industry wide perceptions on management approach to creativity and internal relationship management. From the qualitative analysis, the themes identified and recurred in the discussions, tested the relevance of the research objectives. However, it also pointed out another important factor, which influence all the three aspects of this research: the agency culture. This helped in modelling the quantitative research, which involved in drafting a questionnaire based on the themes identified from the qualitative research. This further helped in analysing the employee perception on each of the identified themes, which in turn helped to fulfil the research objectives. The data, which were quantified with the help of bar charts and pie diagrams, provided statistical presentation pertaining to the key themes. From the final analysis of the literature, qualitative and quantitative research findings, it is understood that management approach within an ad agency influences the creative process by supporting the relationship between its core internal departments and this has been practically proven by studying it within an ad agency. However, this report has also identified that the relationship between the core departments and the management‟sapproach influencing the creative process, is influenced heavily by the values and culture of the agency. There is no standard form of creative management approach or generalised orientation of internal relationship, as these factors are reflective on the culture of the agency. The various types of management approaches identified and explained in the literature review, point out how different each management approach is, to another. The culture of the agency greatly influences the creative process. Thus the management approach to internal relationship management, influencing the creative process, is a reflection of its values and culture. Thus in this dissertation report, the research question has been analysed in the real life scenario and new themes have also been identified which has widened the scope of 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 32
  33. 33. SBMG6009 Management dissertation understanding the relationship dynamic within agencies and it‟sover all influence on the creative process. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 33
  34. 34. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 10) Bibliography 1. Arson, J., 1994. A Pragmatic View of Thematic Analysis. The Qualitative Report, 2(1), pp.4-5. 2. Bell, J.A., 1992. Creativity, TV Commercial Popularity, and Advertising Expenditures. nternational Journal of Advertising , 11(2), pp.165-83. 3. Bilton, C., 2012. Manageable Creativity. International Journal of Cultural Policy , 16(3), pp.255-69. 4. Boddy, D., 2002. Management: an Introduction. 2nd ed. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. 5. Byrne, C.L., Mumford, M.D., Barrett, J.D. & Vessey, W.B., 2009. Examining the Leaders of Creative Efforts: What Do They Do, and What Do They Think About? Creativity and Innovation Management, 18(4), pp.256-68. 6. Consterdine, G., 2009. Guy Consterdine Advertising In A Recession: It pays to maintain marketing pressure. [Online] Available at: http://www.consterdine.com/articlefiles/79/ppai_adv_in_rec.pdf [Accessed 12 Augustus 2012]. 7. Crawford, I.M., 1997. FAO Document Repository| Sampling In Marketing Research. [Online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e08.htm#quota%20sampli ng [Accessed 12 September 2012]. 8. Ensor, J., Cottam, A. & Band, C., 2001. Fostering knowledge management through the creative work environment: a portable model from the advertising industry. ournal of Information Science , 27(3), pp.147-55. 9. Farmer, M., 2012. 25 Years of Changing Agency Economics. [Online] Available at: http://www.farmerandco.com/pdf/FarmerWhitePaper.25YearsOfChangi ngAgencyEconomics.pdf [Accessed 11 May 2012]. 10. Gennaro, S., 2009. J. Walter Thompson and the Creation of the Modern Advertising Agency. Advertising & Society Review , 10(3). 11. Greffe, X., 2006. Managing Creative Enterprises|WIPO. [Online] Available at: http://www.wipo.int/ip- development/en/creative_industry/pdf/938.pdf [Accessed 23 April 2012]. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 34
  35. 35. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 12. Hackley, C. & Kover, A.J., 2007. The trouble with creatives: negotiating creative identity in advertising agencies. International Journal Of Advertising, 26(1), pp.63-78. 13. Hackley, C. & Tiwsakul, A.R., 2008. Comparative management practices in international advertising agencies in the UK, Thailand and the USA. In Remaking Management Between Global and Local. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.380-403. 14. Hirschman,  .E.C., 1989. Role-Based Models of Advertising Creation and Production. Journal of Advertising , 18(4), pp.42-53. 15. Jugenheimer, D.W. & Kelley, L.D., 2009. Advertising Management. 1st ed. New York: M.E. Sharpe. 16. JWT, 2007. All about the King of Planning| Coffee & Donuts. [Online] Available at: http://coffeeanddonutswithjwtplanning.blogspot.co.uk/2007/12/allabout-king-of-planning.html [Accessed 13 September 2012]. 17. JWT, 2012. JWT | About US | History. [Online] Available at: http://www.jwt.com [Accessed 11 September 2012]. 18. Kothari, C.R., 2004. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. 2nd ed. Delhi: New Age Publishers. 19. Kover, A.J. & Goldberg, S.M., 1995. The Games Copywriters Play: Conflict, Quasi-Control, a New Proposal. Journal of Advertising Research , 35(4), pp.52-62. 20. Krohe, K., 1996. Managing Creativity. Across the Board , 33(8), pp.16-21. 21. Krueger, D., 1998. Ethics and values in advertising: two case studies. Business and Society Review, 99(1), pp.53-65. 22. Kumar, R., 2005. Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. 1st ed. London: Sage Publications. 23. Lockhart, L., 2011. Want to Retain Talent? Time to Appoint a Chief Culture Officer. [Online] Available at: http://adage.com/article/guest- columnists/ad-agencies-appoint-a-chief-culture-officer/149476/ [Accessed 19 September 2012]. 24. Moeran, B., 2008. Embedded Structural tensions im the organisation on Japanese 1002105 advertising. [Online] Swetha Sureshbabu Available at: 35
  36. 36. SBMG6009 Management dissertation http://openarchive.cbs.dk/bitstream/handle/10398/8148/x656557124. pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed 12 august 2012]. 25. Moeran, B., 2009. The organization of creativity in Japanese advertising production. Human Relations, 62(7), pp.963-85. 26. Mullen, J.X., 1995. Creative Management of Right-Brain Types. Advertising Age , 66(15), pp.15-16. 27. Mullins, L.J., 2005. Management and organisational behaviour. 7th ed. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. 28. Mullins, L.J., n.d. Essentials of Organisational Behaviour. 3rd ed. Portsmouth: Financial Times Press. 29. Nachum, L., 1996. Winners and Losers in Professional Services: What Makes the Difference?. Service Industries Journal , 16(4), pp.474-90. 30. Pazarzi, E.N., 2007. The advertising creations network : implications to society and organizations. Spoudai Journal of Economics and Business , 57(1), pp.17-35. 31. RadioInfo News, n.d. Sales versus Creative And the state of Production at SCA. [Online] Available at: http://www.radioinfo.com.au/news/11299 [Accessed 11 August 2012]. 32. Reja, U., Manfreda, K.L., Hlebec, V. & Vehovar, V., 2003. Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web Questionnaires. [Online] Available at: http://mrvar.fdv.uni-lj.si/pub/mz./mz19/reja.pdf [Accessed 13 September 2012]. 33. Rojek, L., 2009. The Importance of Agency Culture. [Online] Available at: http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/importanceagency-culture-98494 [Accessed 12 September 2012]. 34. Shirley, D., 1997. Managing creativity : A Practical Guide to Inventing, Developing and Producing innovative Products. [Online] Available at: http://www.managingcreativity.com/pdf/mc_chap1.pdf [Accessed 12 May 2012]. 35. So, S.L.M., 2005. What Matters Most in Advertising Agency Performance to Clients: Implications and Issues on their relationship in Honkong. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising , 27(2), pp.83-98. 36. Solomon, R., 2008. The art of client service. New York: Kaplan Publishing. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 36
  37. 37. SBMG6009 Management dissertation 37. Srivastava, A. & Thomson, S.B., 2009. Framework Analysis: A Qualitative Methodology for Applied Policy Research. Journal of Administration & Governance , 4(2), pp.72-79. 38. Stein, M.I., 1991. Creativity is People. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal , 12(6), pp.4-10. 39. The Economic times, 2011. JWT's new creative structure explained by CEO Colvyn Harris. [Online] Available at: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-1130/news/30458732_1_ceo-colvyn-harris-jwt-ceo-chief-creative-officer [Accessed 11 May 2012]. 40. The Times of India, 2009. TOI wins India its first Gold Film Lions at Cannes. [Online] Available at: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/200906-28/india/28159732_1_jwt-india-agnello-dias-taproot-india [Accessed 13 September 2012]. 41. Townley, B., Beech, N. & McKinlay, A., 2009. Managing in the creative industries: Managing the motley crew. Human Relations, 62(7), pp.93962. Available at: http://www.swetswise.com/FullTextProxy/swproxy?url=http%3A%2F %2Fhum.sagepub.com%2Fcgi%2Freprint%2F62%2F7%2F939.pdf%3Fx data%3D194080179001&ts=1343832893276&cs=1633754487&userNa me=5642817.ipdirect&emCondId=5642817&articleID=41394194&yevoI D=2522657&titleID=94589&referer=4&remoteAddr=194.80.179.1&host Type=PRO&swsSessionId=hKgyt4tsXTFNBK488BjFXg__.pasc2 [Accessed 16 June 2012]. 42. VIC Brand, 2002. Superbrands case studies: J Walter Thompson. [Online] Available at: http://vicbrand.com/detail/superbrands+case+studies+j+walter+thomp son/7519.html [Accessed 12 May 2012]. 43. Zinkhan, G.M., 1993. Creativity in Advertising: Creativity in the Journal of Advertising,. Journal of Advertising , 22(2), pp.1-3. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 37
  38. 38. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Appendices Appendix 1: The acknowledgement letter stating that I had conducted my research at JWT has been included as follows: Appendix 2 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 38
  39. 39. SBMG6009 Management dissertation The initial proposal without any modification, approved by the university, is attached as follows: University of Wales Trinity St.David Management Dissertation SBMG6010 A1 : Dissertation Proposal Submission Deadline: 1st june 2012 Swetha Sureshbabu 1002105 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 39
  40. 40. SBMG6009 Management dissertation Table of Contents TOPIC TITLE: ........................................................................................................................... 40 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 41 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................... 41 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................... 42 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ................................................................................................. 43 OUTCOMES ............................................................................................................................... 43 TIME TABLE ............................................................................................................................. 43 BIBLIOGRAPHY (WORKS CITED AND INDICATIVE) ................................................... 45 Topic title: 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 40
  41. 41. SBMG6009 Management dissertation A study of the management approach adopted in the creative industry – a case of JWT India Introduction This case intends to review the management approach, followed in a thriving the creative industry, the advertising industry. This is done through taking the case of JWT, a reputed global advertising agency. The research intends to fulfill the following objectives and understand: How the management approaches the employees? How the employees perceive the management approach? How the management influences the creativity This research intends to fulfill the above-mentioned above objectives. This research neither intends to review nor critically analyses the pros and cons of the adopted approach. Literature review Creative enterprises are companies that harness the talent; skill and creativity of individuals to potentially create wealth and job opportunities by utilizing intellectual property. This definition of creative enterprises clearly states the emphasis on personnel management as the means to the entire framework in creative industries. Here the increase in performance deals with the expertise showed by the creative personnel in these enterprises.(Greffe, 2006) An effective management approach is required for the success and the sustainability of any organization. Studying the approach of management adopted, helps us to understand the future course of action for management and also helps it assess opportunities. For this the management must have an effective approach that would help achieve increased performance of their core resources. (Mullins, n.d.) There are several different views to personnel management in context to creative enterprises. Some theorist believe orthodox management of human resources through training, development and reward management does not succeed in creative enterprises. They argue that people with such innovative abilities take pride in their work than pay attention to substantial income. However, the other theorists argue that incentive and training adds to the creative process.(Greffe, 2006) Shirley explains that every organization has a stable legitimate side and a „creative‟ dynamic and rebellious side. To survive the enterprise has to strike a balance of both and must operate at the edge of chaos. If each side tries to overpower the other, the company would tip toward chaos. (Shirley, 1997) In the case of JWT, the company‟s structure is primarily divided into two, each depicting the opposite ends of a pole. The creative are dynamic and chaotic while the account servicing is structured and collaborative. JWT is structured in such a way that it has a regional head quarters with offices at various cities of the specific country. These head quarters house the executive heads of the agency which supervise the working of their respective departments in the subsidiary offices. (VIC Brand, 2002) While all the internal departments such as HR are centralised, the city specific offices have three major departments in addition to the administrative department. These are the account services, account planning and creative departments. Like every other advertising agency, the working primarily depends on the Creative, with inputs about the consumerism from the account-planning team. The account services coordinate 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 41
  42. 42. SBMG6009 Management dissertation the working between the clients and the creative department in the agency. The administrative unit supervises the operational costing and accounting for the company‟s sales and purchases. Based on this structure of JWT, creativity is greatly influenced by the working of these departments together. Thus it is important to manage them in the most effective and efficient way to maximize the creativity element of the agency.(The Economic times, 2011) Thus the issues addressed above primarily questions the relevance of: The Management Approach • How the management approaches the employees? Influence on the Creative process • How this approach affects creativity? Employee perception • How employess percieve the management approach? Methodology Major part of the data collected is Primary data through one-to-one interviews conducted at one of the regional offices of JWT. Two sets of interviews are to be 1st set of interview with staff – helps assess employee perception 2nd set of interview with managers – helps assess management approach conducted: Each of these interviews intends to address the specific research objective as mentioned. The interviews are structured and intend to span about 10-15 minutes. In addition to this, Secondary data about the structure of the organisation, management policies, professional details about executive heads and news articles pertaining to the management approach adopted are also to be used for analysis. The Qualitative analysis of the primary data and the secondary data will therefore help us address the final research objective – assess the management influence on creativity. The research objective clearly points out the human element involved in the entire process. This warrants an understanding of how the employees comply with the management approach and how the management manages their subordinates thereby influencing the creative process. A one-to-one structured interview is the best methodology to be employed, as this will enable the investigator to understand the relevance of the approach adopted in reality. 1002105 Swetha Sureshbabu 42

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