Unit 1 ( Studying in English )
English as Your Language
1- English is the language of your instruction
because it is not your native language.
2- The purpose of this book is to teach you how
to use English effectively as a language of
Motivation is the need of desire to achieve a certain
goal. It can make the difference between success and
1) Inside – hopes and expectation , individual and
various. SET A GOAL for yourself.
2) Outside- grades (Short-range) motivation for
study. Don’t make it a goal itself, don’t make it the
This book will give you good study habits *More done
in less time* *Not how much you study but how well
Concentrate : means to focus your attention clearly
and completely on a purpose. *When you are
What if you are not interested? Try to develop
1) Think of how and why the subject is important to
your general education e.g. Biology anatomy of
2) Think of how the subject is related to other
subjects. E.g. math economics and business.
3) Interest depends upon understanding. *Ask
Distraction is something such as a sudden
noise, or someone such as unexpected visitor
that takes your attention away from what you are
Eliminate some distractions by choosing place
and time of study carefully.
Good health is important to good study habits.
Your Place of Study
A place that is always and only used for studying.
*Your own desk in your private room*
Desk should be neat, tidy and cleared of
anything that distracts your attention. Such as
radio and magazines.
All materials should be within easy reach
Good lamp *no shadows*
Your Time of Study
Plan your work and work your plan.
There are enough hours to study, relax and have
Don’t let your homework accumulate.
Make a realistic schedule.
8 steps to study well
1- Be realistic, schedule for leisure time.
2- For recitation courses such as English, plan a
study period before class. Read the
assignment, check your comprehension, record any
vocabulary you don't know and review. This will give
you confidence in class and increase your interest in
3- For classes that depend on lecture, plan a study
period after the class. Also read before the class to
make it meaningful.
4- IF courses are both lectures and recitation, plan
your schedule accordingly.
8 steps to study well
5- Distribute your study hours. Three separate
one-hour study periods are better than three
hours at one time.
6- don't cram before exam. Review weekly to
refresh your memory.
7- plan to spend 2 hours on outside preparation
for each hour in class.
8- When something interrupt your
study, rearrange your schedule.
Chapter 2 – Using an
What is a dictionary?
It shows you how English speakers
define, pronounce, spell and use the words of
-- Dictionaries are valuable only if they are used
correctly and efficiently. So, we want to learn how
to use a dictionary.
There are many English dictionaries. A few are
British and American
A good dictionary will show you the difference
between British and American pronunciations,
spellings or meaning. These differences are not
important. No worries!!
To success in your study You will need the
small desk dictionaries that contain more than
100,000 words and their useful references and
Be sure to get the most recent edition!!
See your book page 7 for a list of good
Dictionaries to Avoid
1 - New words come into the language and old
meanings change Get a recent published or
2- Small paper-covered have only a limited
value for your study needs. Don’t get the pocketsized dictionary.
3- Native language to English dictionary They
are poorly edited and out of date. There is no
one-for-one correspondence between the words.
What a Dictionary will tell
You can learn from a dictionary :
1- Spelling (irregular, singular and plural).
2- Pronunciation (American or British and stress).
3- Syllable division (where should the word be
4- Derivation (history of each word)
5- Meaning ( every word has more than one
What a Dictionary will tell
6- Part of speech ( N, V, S, Adj, Adv, conjunction
7- Usage (formal, casual, poetic, slang).
8- Synonyms and antonyms.
9- General information. (e.g. location).
Words are arranged in alphabetical order in the
Let’s do exercise 2-1 ( 3 minutes)
Let’s do exercise 2-2 ( 3 minutes )
Le’s do exercise 2- 4 ( 2 minutes )
Personal names are arranged according to
“directory style” which means they are arranged
by last name followed by a comma and the first
Example: Brown, Robert. Alsailhi, Norah
Let’s do exercise 2-5 (group work)
Finding Words Quickly
Look at the top of any page of your dictionary.
You will find two words in heavy black type.
Left is the same as the first word on the page
Right is the same as the last word on the
We call them “Guide Words”
Exercise 2-6 (number 1 +2 +3)
English spelling is confusing for second
language learners as for native speakers.
85% of the words in English have a regular
We have rules for spelling :
Rule 1 : Add a suffix to a one-syllable word with
a single vowel followed by a single consonant,
double the final cononant. E.g. run + ing =
running . Sad + -est = saddest. Fat + -er =fatter
Rule 2: more than one syllable, double the final
consonant of the last syllable (only if it has vowel
then consonant) e.g. begin + ing =
beginning, prefer + ed = preferred
Rule 3: Drop the final e before adding a suffix
beginning with a vowel e.g. take + ing
taking, write + ing writing
But keep the e (when you have soft C or G
Rule 4: In words with a long e sound (as in me)
, I comes before e (Except after c). Believe, chief
Rule 5: Words that end with y (after a
consonant), we change the y to i . E.g. Happy + est = happiest / beauty + ful = beautiful.
When the word is plural we change the y to ies .
E.g. Sky + s = skies.
Rule 6: Vowel + y keep y and add suffix
E.g. Play + s plays, boy + s boys
A 1+ 2+ 3+4
B 5 + 6 + 7+ 8
C 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 + 13
D 14 + 15 + 16 + 17 + 18
Me 19 + 20
In order to
Notice the difference
Advice / advise
Hear / here
Profit / prophet
Accept / except
Lose / loose
It’s / its
Their/ there / they’re
Let’s do exercise 2-8 ( Skillful, Judgment, catalog) Also number 3.
Your dictionary indicates separate syllables
usually by heavy black dot in the first entry. For
Let’s do exercise 2-9 (each group will take 2)
Syllable division at the end of a line of
writing, English words can be divided only at the
syllable division ( by placing a hyphen - ) to show
that the word has been broken.
Let’s do exercise number 2-10 ( professor
, language, coming, engineer)
How can you pronounce the word :
laboratory, either and forest?
Different pronunciation may sound strange and
may identify the speaker as being from different
geographical area but there is seldom any real
difficulty of understanding. English people can
communicate without any serious
Your dictionary will show you the alternative
Pronunciation Key: Your dictionary will show you
symbols that are used to indicate each of the
sounds in a word.
In a word of two syllables, one syllable is
pronounced with more force (loudness) than the
other e.g. teach-er.
So, what is stress? It is the difference of
Dictionary will indicate the stress by mark like `
Words of 3 or more syllables may have two
Let’s do exercise 2-15 (1-10) in class , (11-14)
Definitions of Words
Be sure to read the introduction to your dictionary to
find out the order of the definitions.
This is the most feature of your dictionary!!
Most words in English have more than one meaning.
See the example on page 19 (Drop).
So the real meaning depends on the sentence,
However, the word “whale” has one meaning and can
be translated to another language safely.
This is true only if the word is technical or very
Exercise (2-16 )
Exercise (2-17) H.W (take home quiz).
Never read the first meaning and depend on it!!
Always remember to read all the meanings of a