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Basic psychological process ---learning

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  • 1. Basic psychological process: Learning & Remembering Learning Objectives: •Learning as a deliberate effort in acquiring knowledge •Classical conditioning approach •Operating learning: Cognitive & Social learning •Types of learning curves •Principle of reinforcement in learning process •Various schedules of reinforcement •Limitations in learning and behavioural modification.
  • 2. Introduction • Learning is “ any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience” • Learning can’t be observed or seen, it can only be seen in the change in behaviour Now learning can be :- Behaviour potential (Drugs) Permanent (word processing) Natural (Child) Direct (Typing course) Indirect (out of other’s experience)
  • 3. Theories of learning Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Cognitive learning Social Learning
  • 4. A) Classical Conditioning • • It’s a ‘Cause n Effect’ relationship between ‘one stimulus and one response’. The most well known experiment were conducted by I.P. Pavlov with dogs and he established stimulus-response (S-R) connection or habbit. Food Unconditioned stimulus Bell Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Response Food Unconditioned stimulus Bell Conditioned stimulus Conditional response
  • 5. • Under certain situations, classical conditioning does • • • explain human behaviour. For ex: if someone is always reprimanded by his boss when asked ‘to step in the boss’s office’, he may become nervous whenever asked to come to the office of his boss, because of this association. Since classical conditioning relates to involuntary responses, it does not explain situations where people rationally and objectively choose a course of action. Also, managers are more interested in voluntary and free responses from their workers rather than involuntary and reflex responses.
  • 6. B) Operant Conditioning • An alternate approach to classical conditioning was proposed by • B.F Skinner, known as Operant Conditioning in order to explain more complex behaviour of humans. It includes voluntary change in the behaviour and learning occurs as consequence of such change. It is a relationship between consequence-behaviour. Behaviour is a function of its consequences (results or outcomes) It is also known as Reinforcement theory. Behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts, feelings, emotions or perceptions but Is keyed to the nature of the outcome of that behaviour. If it is positive, employee feel motivated and vice-versa. For ex: working hard and getting the promotion will probably cause the person to keep working hard in the future.
  • 7. C) Cognitive Learning • Cognition is the act of knowing an item of information • • • • and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. Based on the experience of Tolman. Using rats in his laboratory shows that they learned to run through a complicated maze towards their goal of food. It was observed that rats developed expectations at every choice point in the maze. They learned that this cognitive cues will ultimately lead to food.
  • 8. • In organisational setting, Tolman’s ideas , some training • programs were designed to strengthen the relationship between cognitive cues such as supervision, job procedures and worker expectations such as monetary and other rewards. It was believed that worker would learn to be more productive by building a relationship between following directions and procedures and expectancy of monetary rewards for these efforts.
  • 9. D) Social Learning • It integrates the cognitive and operant approaches to • • • • learning. It recognizes that Learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical or operant) or individual determinism (cognitive) but is a blend of both. It also emphasize that people acquire learning the behaviors by observing or imitating others in a social setting. In addition, learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control. Inner desire to acquire knowledge irrespective of external rewards or consequences.
  • 10. Implications for performance/learning Importance for a manager: A) Ability: to get the able fit for the job there are various steps to get : • Effective selection process. • Promotion and transfer decisions affecting individuals already in the organisation’s. • It can be improved by fine-tuning the job to better match an incumbent’s abilities. B) Biographical characteristics C) Learning
  • 11. Motivation
  • 12. Motivation • Motivation is derived from motive that is defined as an active form of • desire, craving or need that must be satisfied. All motives are directed towards goals. MEANING OF MOTIVATION : Motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘movere’ which means ‘to move’ or ‘to energize’ or ‘to activate’. NATURE OF MOTIVATION: Based on motives Affected by motivating Goal directed behavior Related to satisfaction Person is motivated in totality Complex process Unsatisfied need Tension or disequilibrium A need is Action, movement and internal state that or behaviour makes certain Goal outcomes attractive. Feedback, possible modification of unsatisfied need
  • 13. Sources/Concepts of motivation 1. Positive motivation: • Praise and credit for work done. • Sincere interest in the welfare of subordinates. • Delegation of authority and responsibility to subordinates. • Participation of subordinates in the decision making process. 2. Negative motivation • Use of force, power, fear and threats. • Punishments.
  • 14. 3. Extrinsic (external) motivation • Primarily are of financial nature • It includes higher pay, fringe benefits such as retirement plans, stock options, profit sharing schemes, paid vacations, health and medical insurance. 4. Intrinsic motivation • It stems from feelings of achievement and accomplishment and is concerned with the state of selfactualization. • The satisfaction of accomplishing something motivates he employee further so that this motivation is selfgenerated and is independent of financial rewards.
  • 15. Classification of Motives:  Primary Motives  General Motive  Secondary Motives
  • 16. Primary Motives:  A motive is termed as a primary motive when it satisfies both the criteria : it is learned as well as it is physiologically based. It is not earned, and it is physiological based.  all human beings have same primary motives  Example: Hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain
  • 17. General Motives:  A motive is considered to be a general motive if it is not learned, but is also not based on physiological need. general motives stimulate tension within the individual. They are also called “stimulus motives”  The motives of curiosity, manipulation and motive to remain active  The affection motive
  • 18. Secondary Motives:  It is a motive that has been learned or acquired over time      The power motive The achievement motive The affiliation motive The security motive The status motive
  • 19. The Power Motive  The person’ drives to gain power and prove himself superior to others.
  • 20. Achievement Motive  The achievement motive is a person’ desire to  perform excellently or to handle complex or competitive situations successfully. David C. McClelland Profile of High achievers:  Moderate degree of risk  Need for precise feedback  Satisfaction with accomplishment  Total dedication towards task
  • 21. Affiliation Motive  Employees especially those at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy, have a strong desire to belong to and be accepted by other employees or the whole group
  • 22. Security Motive  Security motive is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented i.e., people try to avoid insecurity rather than attempt to achieve security
  • 23. Status Motive  Status is defined as the rank a person holds relative to others within a group. The status motive is extremely important
  • 24. Theories of Motivation:Categories of motivation theories are:A group of theories that A group of theories that places emphasis on needs places emphasis on needs that motivate people that motivate people A category of theories A category of theories that explain how that explain how employees select employees select behaviours to meet their behaviours to meet their needs needs
  • 25. Content Theories of Work Motivation • • • • • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs McGregor’s X Theory & Y theory. Herzberg’s Two-factor theory McClelland’s Acquire needs theory Alderfer’s ERG theory
  • 26. Maslow’s Motivation Theory
  • 27. Maslow theory – the explanation • Lower-end needs are the priority needs, which must • • • be satisfied before higher-order need are activated. Needs are satisfied in sequence. When a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next need becomes dominant. To motivate an individual one must know where that person is in the hierarchy and focus on satisfying at or above that level.
  • 28. Implications of Maslow’s theory in the workplace • Not everyone is motivated in the same way. • Motivation and need satisfaction are • anticipatory in nature. Managers must seek to guide and direct employee behaviour to meet the organizational needs and individual needs simultaneously.
  • 29. McGregor’s X & Y theory • Theory X : This theory assumes that most people prefer to be directed, are not interested in assuming responsibility & want safety above all. Accompanying this philosophy is the belief that work is inherently distasteful to most people & people are motivated by money & the threat of punishment. Managers who accept Theory X assumptions, attempt to structure, control & closely supervise their subordinates.
  • 30. • Theory Y: This theory assumes that people are not by nature lazy & unreliable. Man can be self-directed & creative at work, if properly motivated. Managers who accept this theory, attempt to help their employees mature, by exposing them to progressively less control, allowing them to assume more self-control. Employees are able to achieve the satisfaction of social esteem & self-actualization needs with this kind of environment.
  • 31. Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory Hygiene Factors Hygiene Factors ••Workingconditions Working conditions ••Payand security Pay and security ••Companypolicies Company policies ••Supervisors Supervisors ••Interpersonal Interpersonal relationships relationships Motivators Motivators ••Achievement Achievement ••Recognition Recognition ••Responsibility Responsibility ••Workitself Work itself ••Personalgrowth Personal growth Satisfaction No satisfaction Motivation factors Motivation factors Hygiene factors Hygiene factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction
  • 32. Herzberg’s theory - explanation • Hygiene factors involve the presence or absence of job • dissatisfiers. When the hygiene factors are present, the individual is not dissatisfied; however when they are absent the individual is dissatisfied. In any case hygiene factors to not motivate. Motivators are factors that influence satisfaction and consequently motivate the person from within as he or she achieve the higher-level needs of achievement, recognition, and personal growth.
  • 33. Implication of Herzberg’s theory • Providing the hygiene factors will eliminate employee dissatisfaction bur will not motivate workers to high levels of achievement. Recognition, responsibility, and the opportunity to achieve personal growth will promote satisfaction and employee performance. • The benefit of this theory has implication for the effect of company systems and job design (how work is arranged and how much employees control their work) on employee satisfaction and performance.
  • 34. Alderfer’s ERG Theory:     Clayton Alderfer : proposed a continuum of needs rather than a hierarchy Existence needs – These are associated with the survival and physiological wellbeing of an individual. Relatedness needs – These needs emphasize the significance of social and interpersonal relationship. Growth needs – These needs are related to a person’s inner desire for personal growth and development.
  • 35. • Acc. To Alderfer : a person’s background or • • • cultural environment may cause the relatedness needs to predominate over unfulfilled existence needs. It is also possible that intensity of growth needs will increase in the degree to which they are satisfied. Limitations of content theories : They do not explain the complexities involved in the process of motivation.
  • 36. Self-actualization and fulfillment Motivation factors The Relationship between Maslow,s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s TwoFactor Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Needs Esteem and status Work itself Achievement Possibility of growth Responsibility Advancement Recognition Status Relations with supervisors Peer relations Relations with subordinates Quality of supervisions Safety and security Physiological needs Hygiene factors Belongings and social needs Growth Company policy and administration Job security Working conditions Pay Relatedness Existence
  • 37. The Porter-Lawler Model  Porter and Lawler tried to explore the complex relationship between motivation, satisfaction and performance, and pointed out that efforts put in by an employee did not directly result in performance.  it gives a comprehensive explanation of work motivation.
  • 38. • Acc to porter Lawler model performance is dependent on three factors : – An employee should have the desire to perform i.e. he must feel motivated – Motivation alone cannot ensure successful performance of a a task: he should have the necessary skills and abilities. – The employee should also have the clear perception of his role in the org. and accurate knowledge of the job requirement.
  • 39. 8. Perceived Equitable Rewards 4. Abilities & Traits 1. Value of Reward 3. Effort 7.a Intrinsic Rewards 6. Performance 9. Satisfaction 2. Perceived Effort Reward Probability 5. Role Perception 7. Extrinsic Rewards
  • 40. • Effort: the amount of energy expended by an individual to perform a specific task. Effort depends upon the attractiveness of the reward and the probability that his efforts will lead to the reward. • Performance : it is not necessary that the effort will result in performance. Performance in turn is depended on the abilities and skills and the way the individual perceives his role.
  • 41. important variables in the model • Reward : employee is rewarded acc. To • performance. Reward can be intrinsic or extrinsic. – intrinsic rewards : are those a person grants to himself for having performed a task well – Extrinsic rewards : are the rewards given to the employee by the organization Satisfaction: depends upon whether the actual reward offered fall short of, match or exceed what the individual perceives as an equitable level of reward.
  • 42. The Process Theories of Work Motivation  The process theories of motivation deal with “How” of   Motivation. It deal with the cognitive antecedents (preceding factor) that go into motivation or effort, and more specifically, with the way the cognitive antecedents of an individual relate to one another. The theories are  Vroom's’ Expectancy Theory of Motivation  Equity Theory  Goal-Setting Theory
  • 43. The Vroom’s Expectancy Theory • A process theory simply states that people are motivated to work when they believe that they can achieve things they want from their jobs. • Such expectation depend on their ability to perform the task, given their effort and the attractiveness of the reward. • Or, • it is based on the belief that motivation is determined by the nature of the reward people expect to get as a result of their job performance.
  • 44. Theories of Work Motivation Instrumentalities (performance-reward relationship ) Expectancy (hard work) First level outcomes Outcome 1 Motivational Force F Second level Outcomes Outcome 1 a Outcome 1 b Outcome2a Outcome2 Outcome2b Outcome2c
  • 45. Equity Theory : J. Stacy Adams  This theory states that the degree of equity or inequity perceived by an employee with reference to his work situation plays a major role in work performance and satisfaction.  Employees generally compares their output – input ratio with that of others. If they perceives the ratio of their outcomes and inputs are equal to that of their peers and others , it will result in equity
  • 46.  Equity theory represented schematically as: Person’s Outcomes = Other’s Outcomes Person’s inputs Other’s inputs  Inequity is represented as follows: Person’s Outcomes < Other’s Outcomes Person’s inputs Other’s inputs (or) Person’s Outcomes > Other’s Outcomes Person’s inputs Other’s inputs
  • 47.  Various referent comparison used by employees:  Self-inside - comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holding a similar position in same org.  Self-outside - comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holding a similar position in another org  Other-inside- comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holding a a different position but belonging to the same org.  Other-outside - comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holding a different position in another org
  • 48.  After comparing his position with that of his referent, if an employee perceives an inequity, he will make certain choices. The choices that an employee is likely to make are as described below:  Change in inputs: he may reduce the effort he puts in a particular job  Change in outcomes: the employee may act an in a manner that brings about change in the outcome or end result.  Distort perceptions of self : the employee may distort the perception he held about his own performance  Distort perception of others : an employee may change the way he perceives others jobs, positions and productivity.  choose a different referent  leave the field
  • 49. Motivating Performance Through Goal Setting: • A goal can be defined as the desired consequence of an action. Performance enhancement through goal setting: • Goals should be specific • Goals should be difficult and challenging • Goals must be owned and accepted • Goals must have a specific time frame • Goals should be measurable
  • 50. Barriers to Effective Goal Setting  Lack of top management-support  Lack of Communication  Content of the goal  Technical incompetence
  • 51. Application of Goal Setting to Organizational System Performance  The theory of goal setting is usually implemented through a system called Management by Objectives, popularly known as MBO.  MBO refers to the process of setting goals and objectives through the participation of the management and the workers.
  • 52. The Process of MBO  Consensus on key goals and objectives  Sketch a plan of action  Control of behavior  Periodic appraisal and reviews