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LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY TERM PAPER OF MEC-208NAME: SWAMI MRITYUNJAYROLL NO.: B34REGD NO.: 11005363SECTION: M2R13TOPIC: Write a report on Plastics importance in engg products
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I WANT TO ACKNOWLEDGE MY GUIDE MR ANUJ SIR FOR HIS GENEROUS SUPPORT,ANDFOR GIVE ME AN OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE MY KNOWLEDGE BY THIS TERM PAPER.THISPROJECT BEARS AN IMPART OF MANY PEOPLE.I ACKNOWLEDGE THE MAGNANIMOUS SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE OF THESE RESOURCES INCARRYING OUT THIS PROJECT WORK,I ALSO WISH TO EXPRESS MY HEARTFUL GRATITUDETO ALL L.P.U. STAFF WHO ENCOURAGE ME AND HAVE RENDERED THEIR ASSISTACE.TABLE OF CONTENTS:1) INTRODUCTION2) WHAT IS ENGG PLASTIC3) EXAMPLES OF ENGG PLASTICS4) PLASTIC IMPORTANCE IN ENGG PRODUCTC5) REFERENCES
1)Introduction:-Engineering thermoplastics are sold in much lower quantities and are thus more expensiveper unit weight. Despite this, they are widely used in everyday products. For example ABS isused to manufacture car bumpers, dashboard trim and lego bricks, polycarbonate is used inmotorcycle helmets and polyamides (nylons) are used for skis and ski boots.Typically, an engineering plastic is chosen for its range of enhanced physical properties e.g.polycarbonate is highly impact resistant and polyamides are highly resistant to abrasion. Inthese types of applications, designers are looking for plastics that can replace traditionalengineering materials such as wood or metal. The advantage gained is the inherent‘formability’ (ease of manufacture) of plastics as opposed to metal-working or fabrication.Other properties exhibited by various grades of engineering plastics include high heatresistance, mechanical strength, rigidity, chemical stability and flame retardency.2) WHAT IS ENGG PLASTIC:-Engineering Plastics:Engineering plastics provide performance superior to ordinary plastics under a wide rangeof conditions. By improving existing technologies and developing new, advanced materials,Idemitsus petrochemical R&D division has further pushed the boundaries of engineeringplastics to produce a new lineup of enhanced, high-end products. Behind our developmentare three types of high-performing resins: polycarbonate (PC), a resin with excellenttoughness and transparency, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), for extraordinary dimensionalstability; and syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), a new, highly-functional material well-suited fora wide range of applications.Idemitsus R&D network combines core technologies with our years of practical experienceand knowledge, allowing us to develop new products and materials, and write importantpatents protecting our innovative ideas. In this way, we secure the future growth of ourbusiness, enabling Idemitsu to meet the demands of emerging fields based on newtechnologies and highly valuable products.TARFLON Polycarbonate:TARFLON Polycarbonate is an amorphous engineering plastic produced in our unique,integrated petrochemical complex in Chiba, Japan. It offers superior impact strength,transparency, heat resistance and dimensional stability. Produced from phenol andbisphenol A, the halogen-free fire retardant grade of TARFLON is of particular importancebecause of its low environmental impact with all of its extraordinary qualities.XAREC Syndiotactic Polystyrene:
After years of extensive research and development, XAREC is the first syndiotacticpolystyrene (SPS) produced by Idemitsu. XAREC boasts remarkable heat and chemicalresistance, as well as superior dimensional stability, making it the preferred SPS in manyfields. As a result, XAREC has been endorsed by the automobile industry for use in criticalelectrical parts and components. XAREC is often applied to lead-free reflow soldering tocomply with current environmental regulations such as RoHS.Polyphenylene Sulfide:Our original compounding technology has made Idemitsus Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) thechoice for superior mechanical strength and high heat resistance. This remarkable materialis widely used for optical pickups, semiconductor packages, fiber-optic communications andother cutting edge fields.Engineering Plastics from Idemitsu:TARFLON Natural GradeTARFLON Glass-fiber Reinforced GradeTARFLON Halogen-free Flame Retardant GradeTARFLON Special GradeXAREC Natural GradeXAREC Glass-fiber Reinforced GradeXAREC Glass-fiber Reinforced Alloy GradeXAREC SPS / PS Alloy GradeIdemitsu PPS Glass-fiber Reinforced GradeIdemitsu PPS High Precision GradeIdemitsu PPS Special Grade3) Examples of engineering plastics: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Polycarbonates (PC) Polyamides (PA) Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Polyphenylene oxide (PPO) Polysulphone (PSU) Polyetherketone (PEK) Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Polyimides Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
Polyoxymethylene plastic (POM)Commodity plastic:The more commonly used thermoplastic materials are known as commodity plastics as theyare traded and used in great quantities. Examples are polystyrene (PS), polyvinylchloride (PVC),polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE).Typical applications for commodity plastics are high production volume products such as‘polythene’ bags (made from polyethylene), vacuum-formed food packaging (low densitypolyethylene), disposable drinking cups (high-impact polystyrene) and window frames/wireinsulation (PVC).4) Plastics importance in engg products:Egg products are processed in sanitary facilities under continuous inspection by the USDA.Shell eggs are processed into egg products by automated equipment that removes the shelleggs from flats, washes and sanitizes the shells, breaks the eggs and separates the whitesand yolks. The liquid egg product is filtered, may be mixed with other ingredients, and isthen chilled prior to additional processing. The resulting egg products liquid then receives alethality treatment such as pasteurization or is heated in the dried form.The plastics are very important to make the egg products like pasta,noodles and manymore.Plastics are "one of the greatest innovations of the millennium" (on the cover of Newsweek)and have certainly proved their reputation to be true; it has been the most used material inthe United States since 1976. There are a myriad ways that plastic is and will be used in theyears to come. The fact that plastic is lightweight, does not rust or rot, helps lowertransportation costs and conserves natural resources is the reason for which plastic hasgained this much popularity. Plastics are everywhere and have innumerable uses! Plasticsare durable, lightweight, and reusable. Also, the are used in packaging many goods. Did youknow that researches are trying to make a cover of eggs (made of plastic) that will roll up inall over the world? In the following paragraphs, I will discuss some of the countless numberof ways that plastics change your life.Manufacturers are dependent on plastic to save them money on packaging, as they use one-third of the total United States production. They choose strong and lightweight plastics todeliver the same amount of product with less packaging than other materials,such as eggproducts,bottles and many more. The building and construction industry uses vinyl sidingfor homes because of its appearance, durability, ease of installation and energy efficiencyand they are the second largest consumers of plastics. The automotive industry chooses
plastic for their durability, corrosion resistance, ease of coloring and finishing, resiliency,energy efficiency and lightweight. The auto, appliance, and construction industries also usesplastic, for plastic reduces energy consumption. Plastics certainly are a great gift for theseindustries, and certainly cuts a chunk out of their production costs.Although plastic has many positive influences in everyday lives, there have been instanceswhen plastics have posed some health and environmental hazards. Most plastics do notpose any health or environmental hazards, but some monomers that are used inmanufacturing plastics, have been proved to cause cancer. Also, benzene, a raw materialused in the production of nylon, is a carcinogen (something that causes cancer). Eventhough recycling continues to reuse plastics, most plastics do not rot and can not be reused.Unfortunately, this will soon become an environmental problem: Where will the plastic bedisposed? But, many researchers hope to find a solution to this dilemma in the future.When every plastic can be broken down, plastic will truly become the most useful product!Plastic used in engg cartoons:The plastic egg cartons are made from up to 50% recycled PETE (#1) plastic. Themanufacturer recycles all waste back into the product in a closed loop system andconsumers can easily recycle the cartons.It is always best to check with your countys recycling department to see if they are able torecycle the containers. To locate facilities that offer #1 plastic recycling, This site will directyou to recycling centers for all types of packaging in your region. Simply enter your zip codeand the type of material you want to recycle.The plastic used for Organic Valley Stringles consists of layered plastic, and is thereforeconsidered a #7 for recycling purposes. The plastic packaging does not contain pthalates,BPA (BisphenolA), or PVC (polyvinyl chloride).The processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending,pasteurizing, cooling, freezing or drying, and packaging.Plastics are used in various activities in egg products, such as filtering, pasteurizing,blending, cooling, freezing or drying. Frozen Egg Products- up to1-year shelf-life Whole eggs,whites or yolks Scrambled egg mix Salted whole egg or yolks Sugared egg yolks Whole eggsand yolks with corn syrup Whole eggs with citric acid Whole eggs with corn syrup.Frozen Egg Products Whole Eggs or Yolks To freeze whole eggs or yolks crack them into abowl and gently stir to break up the yolk somewhat. Try not to incorporate air into the eggs.To inhibit the yolks from getting lumpy during storage, stir in a 1/2-teaspoon salt per 1-cupof egg or yolks. Whites No salt or sugar is needed. Simply pour into trays and freeze untilfirm. Use up extra egg whites in boiled frostings (i.e., 7-minute frosting), meringue cookies,angel food cake, white cakes.there is a lot of contributions of plastic in human lives, itprovides many equipments that are used in hospitals, and also as an alternative cheapersource of raw materials. it is very important because plastics are part of our daily lives.
Perhaps the greatest technological advancements in human society have evolved throughthe medical professions. Over the years technology has prolonged the average life span ofan adult human by offering preventative vaccines, diagnostic tools, and comprehensivetreatments. But smaller advancements — such as the materials and tools used by medicalprofessionals on a daily basis — are often overlooked. Plastic is a prime example of atechnology that fails to receive the credit it is due for changing the way medicine ispracticed and creating a better experience for all involved.Plastics, however, can be molded to any shape or size. They are easily sterilized and moreflexible than metal, allowing for greater maneuverability and precision. The cost ofproducing a plastic tool is much less than a stainless steel model, allowing a hospital ordoctor’s office to adjust their budget for other technologies such as digital imagingsoftware.But the use of plastics in the medical field is not confined solely to medical tools. Anincreasing amount of hospital devices are now being manufactured from plastic, enablingmaximum cleanliness and efficiency. Additionally, plastics are the leading component inmost replacement limbs, providing advancements in prosthetics that could never beaccomplished with aluminum or other materials.5) References:1. Plastics Product Design and Process Engineering, Harold Belofsky, Hanser/Gardner, (1995)2. Moldflow Design Guide by Jay Shoemaker (Ed.)3. Plastics Part Design for Injection Molding by R.A. Malloy, Hanser/Gardner4. Mechanical Properties of Polymer and Composites, L.E. Nielsen and R.F.Landel, Mercel Dekker,Inc.19945. Design and Manufacture of Plastic Parts, R.L.E. Brown, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 19806. Principles of Polymer Engineering, by N.C. McCrum, C.P. Buckley and C.B. Bucknall.