Controversial issuesThere are many controversial issues in the 1960’s:The Pentagon Papers.Civil Rights Marchers.Kennedy Assassination.The Vietnam War.Johnson v. Goldwater election and their campaign ads.Medi Care bill .The War on Poverty.The KKK Church Bombings in the south that killed 3 little girls.The Gulf of Tonkin Incident.68 Democratic Convention in Chicago, and its riots.The Chicago 7.Woodstock.Peoples Park Demonstrations in Berkley.The Free Speech Demonstrations early 60s Berkley.Height Ashbury scene 66- 67, known as The Summer of Love.Monterrey Pop Festival.Martin Luther King Assassination.Ted Kennedy and Chappaquiddick.Assassination of Bobby Kennedy.Charles Manson.The Tet Offensive in Vietnam, and Walter Cronkites analysis of same, known as the turning point.The secret expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia.The murder of Black Panther Party members and cover up of same by Chicago Police.Cuban Missile Crisis.CIA Cuban invasion known as The Bay of Pigs.The Watts Riots.The Altamont Speedway Festival, Known as the death of the 60s - 1969.
1960’s countercultureIn the 1960s, young people questionedAmericas materialism and cultural and politicalnorms, much as theyve always done. Seeking abetter world, some used music, politics, andalternative lifestyles to create what came to beknown as the counterculture. Americans in thatera faced many controversial issues-from civilrights, the Vietnam War, nuclear arms, and theenvironment to drug use, sexual freedom, andnonconformity.
• The counterculture lifestyle integrated many of the ideals and indulgences of the time: peace, love, harmony, music, mysticism, and religions outside the Judeo-Christian tradition. Meditation, yoga, and psychedelic drugs were embraced as routes to expanding ones consciousness.• The movement, greeted with enormous publicity and popular interest, contributed to changes in American culture. A willingness to challenge authority, greater social tolerance, the sense that politics is personal, environmental awareness, and changes in attitudes about gender roles, marriage, and child rearing are legacies of the era.
Many members of the counterculture saw theirown lives as ways to express political and socialbeliefs. Personal appearance, song lyrics, andthe arts were some of the methods used tomake both individual and communalstatements. Though the specifics of the debateswere new, arguments for personal freedom, freespeech, and political reform go back to thefoundations of American society
In North America, Europe and Oceania, thedecade was particularly revolutionary in termsof popular music, as it saw the formation andevolution of rock. At the beginning of the 1960s, pop and rock and roll trends of the 1950s continued; nevertheless, the rock and roll of the decade before started to merge into a more international, eclectic variant known as rock.By the mid-1960s, rock and roll in its purest formwas gradually overtaken by poprock, beat, psychedelic rock, blues rock and folkrock, which had grown in popularity.The country and folk-influenced style associatedwith the latter-half of 1960s rock musicspawned a generation of popular singer-songwriters who wrote and performed theirown work.Towards the decades end, genres such as baroque pop, sunshinepop, bubblegum pop, progressive rock and heavy metal started to growpopular, with the latter two finding greater success in the followingdecade.
Furthermore, the 1960s saw funk and soul music rising in popularity; rhythm and blues in general remained popular, and this style was commonly associated to girl groups of the time, whose fusion of R&B and gospel with rock and roll enjoyed success until the mid-part of the decade.Aside from the popularity of rock and R&B music in the 1960s, Latin American aswell as Jamaican and Cuban music achieved a degree of popularity throughoutthe decade, with genres such as bossa nova, the cha-cha-cha, ska, and calypso being popular.From a classical point of view, the 1960swere also an important decade as theysaw the developmentof experimental, jazz and contemporaryclassical music,notably minimalism and freeimprovisation
The Billboard Top Ten songs of the year 1960 were: 1.) "You Talk Too Much" by Joe Jones 2.) "Cathys Clown" by The Everly Brothers 3.) "The Twist" by Chubby Checker 4.) "Save the Last Dance for Me" by The Drifters 5.) "Running Bear" by Johnny Preston 6.) "Sweet Nothins" by Brenda Lee 7.) "Handy Man" by Jimmy Jones 8.) "Walk, Dont Run" by The Ventures 9.) "Alley-Oop" by The Hollywood Argyles 10.) "Stay" by Maurice Williams & The ZodiacsThe song that won "Song of the Year" at The Grammys was "Theme From Exodus". RayCharles took two honors home "Best Pop Single Artist" and "Best Pop Male Vocal" for hishit "Georgia on My Mind". Ella Fitzgerald won the "Best Pop Female Artist" with "Mack theKnife". The "Best Pop Duo or Group" went to "We Got Us" by Eydie Gormé and SteveLawrence
The Beatles are the best-selling band informed in Liverpool in 1960. They became perhapsoneThe Beatles were an English rock band history, with EMI Records estimating sales of over themost commercially successful andnumber-one albumsact in the history of popular music. Thebillion units.[They have had more critically acclaimed on the British charts and sold more singlesbandsUK than any other act. AccordingJohn Lennon, as of McCartney. George Harrison, unitsin the best-known lineup consisted of to the RIAA, Paul 2012 they have sold 177 millionand Ringo more than any other artist.1950s rock and roll, the group later utilisedlist of the all-in the US, Starr. Rooted in skiffle and In 2008, they topped Billboard magazines several genres,ranging from pop ballads to psychedelic rock, often incorporating classicalmostother elementstime most successful Hot 100 artists. As of 2012, they hold the record for and number-one hitsin innovative ways. Inwithearly 1960s, their enormous popularity firstfrom the American Nationalon the Hot 100 chart the 20. They have received 7 Grammy Awards emerged as"Beatlemania", but as their and Sciences, an Academy Award for Best Original Song Score andAcademy of Recording Arts songwriting grew in sophistication, they came to be perceived bymany fans and cultural observersBritishembodiment Songwriters, Composers and Authors. They15 Ivor Novello Awards from the as an Academy of of the ideals shared by theerassociocultural revolutions in Time magazines compilation of the 20th centurys 100 mostwere collectively includedinfluential people Who were ‘The Beatles’?
The rise of soft/rock and pop/rock and further rise in popularity for R&B withartists such as Stevie wonder & Jackson 5.The mid-1970s also saw the rise of disco music, which dominated during the lasthalf of the decade with bands like the Bee Gees, ABBA.
Towards the end of the decade, JamaicanReggae music, already popular in theCaribbean and Africa since the early 1970s,became very popular in the U.S. and inEurope, mostly because of reggae superstarand legend Bob Marley. His music touchedon topics such as slavery and was veryinspirational.
People were starting to incorporate social issues and motivating messages withintheir music as controversial issues were mounting:Cher – Gypsy’s , tramps and thievesJackson 5 – I’ll be thereBill Withers – Lean on meBob Marley – Buffalo soldier
BEEGEES Dolly Parton Diana RossElton John Cher Barbra Streisand
• The Me decade ( individualism)• Ken state shootings ( protest about Vietnam war, National Guard goes on shooting spree)• Economic recession• Cold war still remained• Major conflict between capitalist and communist forces in multiple countries• Soweto Uprising when more than 700 black school children were killed by South Africas Security Police.• Distrust between the revolutionaries and Western powers (Iran hostage crisis)• Rise in the use of terrorism by militant organizations across the world• Richard Nixon resigns as President in 1974 while facing charges for impeachment (Watergate scandal)• significant number of women as heads of state outside of monarchies
Increasing political awareness and political and economic liberty of women,continued to grow. The hippie culture, which started in the later half of the1960s, weakened by the early 1970s and faded towards the middle part ofthe decade, which involved:• opposition to the Vietnam War,• opposition to nuclear weapons,• the advocacy of world peace,• and hostility to the authority of government and big business.• The environmentalist movement began to increase dramatically in this period.
Family size dropped due to uncertain economy and unemployment.Woman in the workplace gave woman a different priority other thanparenthood.There was new freedom for women, homosexuals, the elderly, thehandicapped, and other minorities.With the new wave of social equality, social events became extremelypopular, people were now going to Disco’s and ‘ doing it big ‘.Everything was big from shirt collars, to belt buckles, clown shoes to Afrosand the ‘Farrah Mane’.Sex, Drugs and rock & roll (influenced by the hippie movement)
By 1973, the music business had become a $2 billion/year industry(approximately the size of the film and sports industries combined).Virgin records (Richard Branson) was established in the early 70’s as anindependent label.Labels such as Motown (1960) became increasingly popular because of itsstyle of soul music with a distinct pop influence.(Marvin Gaye, Stevie wonder, Boyz II Men, Smokey Robinson)CTI records – Jazz label now owned by Sony music entertainment.Atlantic records- missed out on signing Elvis but later became well knownfor signing artists such as Cher, The rolling stones, Bee Gees whose musicrocked the 1970’s.