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Organic Macromolecules
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Organic Macromolecules


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Introduction to organic macromolecules

Introduction to organic macromolecules

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  • 1. Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules BIO 101 Southwest Virginia Community College Kevin Stilwell Assistant Professor of Biology BIOLOGY 7th edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece and Chris Romero
  • 2.
    • Macromolecules “macro” = large
      • Are large molecules composed of smaller molecules
      • Are complex in their structures
      • 4 Major categories of macromolecules are Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
  • 3.
    • For each of the 4 major groups of macromolecules know the
      • Elements they are composed of
      • Know their chemical structures
      • Know specific examples within each group and each subgroup. For example
        • Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
        • Phospholipids
        • Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structures of proteins
  • 4.
    • Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
    • A polymer
      • Is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers
    • Three of the classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers
      • Carbohydrates- consist of three elements: C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio such as C 6 H 12 O 6 or C 12 H 22 O 11
      • Proteins – consist of the elements C, H, O, N
      • Nucleic acids – consist of the elements C, H, O, N, P
  • 5. The Diversity of Polymers
    • Each class of polymer
      • Is formed from a specific set of monomers
      • Large carbohydrate polymers are made of monomers called monosaccharides (simple sugars)
      • Large polypeptide and protein polymers are made of monomers called amino acids
      • Large nucleic acid polymers (DNA and RNA) are made of monomers called nucleotides
    1 2 3 HO H
  • 6.
    • Although organisms share the same limited number of monomer types, each organism is unique based on the arrangement of monomers into polymers
    • An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers.
      • Variation is accomplished by rearranging the order of the monomers within the polymer. (scrambling the components that make up a polymer creates a different polymer with different biological and chemical and physical properties)
  • 7. Carbohydrates
    • Carbohydrates serve as fuel (energy source) for metabolism and serves as a building material
    • Carbohydrates - Include sugars and their polymers
    • Monosaccharides – Are Simple Sugars , such as glucose, fructose and galactose
        • Are the simplest sugars (have about 3 to 7 carbon atoms in their chemical structure)
        • Can be used for fuel (energy) Glucose is the most important energy source for cells
        • Can be converted into other organic molecules
        • Can be combined into polymers
  • 8. Polysaccharides
    • Polysaccharides or Complex Carbohydrates
      • Are polymers of sugars
      • Serve many roles in organisms
      • Examples of polysaccharides are:
        • Starch
        • Cellulose
        • Glycogen
        • Chitin (pronounced “Kite – in” )
  • 9.
    • Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules consisting of the elements C, H, and O, ( not a 1:2:1 ratio) because there is less oxygen in Lipids than in carbohydrates
    • Lipids
      • Are the one class of large biological molecules that do not consist of polymers
      • All types of lipids share the common trait of being hydrophobic
      • Insoluble in water – They do not dissolve in water due to their nonpolar, hydrophobic properties
      • Contain twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates or proteins
  • 10. Phospholipids p 76
    • Phospholipids
      • Have only two fatty acids
      • Have a phosphate group instead of a third fatty acid
      • Make up an important component of the plasma membrane (called the phospholipid bilayer) of cells
  • 11. Enzymes, Polypeptides, and Proteins
    • Enzymes p 78
      • Are a type of protein that function as catalysts, speeding up chemical reactions
    • Polypeptides
      • Are polymers of amino acids (containing fewer than 100 amino acids)
    • Proteins
      • Consist of one or more polypeptides
      • Are large polymers of amino acids with more than 100 amino acids, usually several hundred to over 1000 amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
  • 12. Amino Acid Monomers
      • Are organic molecules possessing both carboxyl (COOH) and amino groups (NH 2 )
      • Differ in their properties due to differing side chains, called R groups (the R part of an amino acid may consist of a single element or a much larger group of elements)
      • The carboxyl group and amino group are always found on opposite ends of an amino acid
      • R
      • HOOC C NH 2
      • H
    • 20 different amino acids make up proteins p. 79
      • Each shares a similar structure, but each varies in the R group which gives each amino acid its own characteristic physical and chemical properties
  • 13. Determining the Amino Acid Sequence of a Polypeptide
    • Amino Acid sequences within a cell are determined by the cell’s genetic information (DNA)
    • In the laboratory, the amino acid sequences of polypeptides
      • Were first determined using chemical means
      • Can now be determined by automated machines
  • 14.
    • Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information
    • Genes – segments of DNA on a chromosome
      • Are the units of inheritance
      • Contain the program (or genetic code) that sets the amino acid sequence of polypeptides
      • Are made of nucleic acids and are located on chromosomes
  • 15. The Roles of Nucleic Acids
    • There are two types of nucleic acids
      • Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA )
      • Ribonucleic acid ( RNA )
  • 16. RNA
    • Is synthesized in the nucleus
    • Is single stranded and contains the pentose sugar called ribose
    • Plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins
      • By transporting the genetic information encoded in DNA to other parts of a cell where the protein is actually synthesized
    • DNA transcription RNA translation Protein
  • 17. DNA
    • Stores information for the synthesis of specific proteins
    • Directs RNA synthesis
    • Contains the instructions for protein synthesis through RNA
    • The double helix structure of DNA is illustrated to the right 
    • Source: search engine; file from Uploaded on June 12, 2007 by ynse file retrieved June 19, 2009.
  • 18. The DNA Double Helix
    • Cellular DNA molecules
      • Have two polynucleotides that spiral around an imaginary axis
        • Often referred to as being “double stranded”
      • DNA exhibits a structure called a double helix
        • The double helix structure of DNA is often compared to a spiral staircase