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    Peter Peter Document Transcript

    • l|t.cknowledgements-ntroduction for studentshroduction for teachers)iagnostic Tests:ection AbrvelsI i: (sheep)2 r (ship)3 e (pen){ a (man)5 .r (cup)6 q: (heart)i Review8 o (clock)9 cr (ball)i0 u (book)l1 ur (boot)12 g: (girl)13 e (a camera)14 Review15 er (male)16 ar (fine)17 cr (boy)18 au (house)19 au (phone)20 ra (year)2L ee (chair)22 ReviewSectionBConsonants23 P (Pen)24 b (baby)25 t (table)26 d (door)27 k (key)28 s (girl)29 Review30 s (sun)3I z (zoo)32 J (shoe)33 S(television)34 tJ (chip)35 dS(Ianuary)36 Review37 f (fan)38 v (van)39 w (window)4o j (Yellow)4l h (hat)a2 0 (thin)43 6 (thefeather)44 Review45 m (mouth)46 n (nose47 4 (ring)48 I (letter);(bdl)49 r {rain)50 ReviewOverviewMaskKeylvviiix798185899397101105t07110l14tt7t20t24L28l3l135139r43t4715I155159r62165168L72176180183185186I371115192327293336394348525457606366707376
    • tvIn the preparationof this new edition I would like to thank:SallyMellersh(formerlyof HammersmithandWestLondon College)for updating andexpandingthe lisr of likelyerrorsto accompanythe new editionsof Shipor Sheep?andTleeor Three?byits inclusion on the website(http:/ /www.cambridge.org/elt/eltprojectpage.asp?id=2500905).David McCreathfor IT assistanceand contribution to my computerliteracy.SandraTurnerfor help with typing.My editorsN6irin Burke,FrancesAmrani andYvonneHarmer,aswell asthe followingteachersfrom all overtheworld who commentedduring developmentand gavemesuchpracticaladvice:MicheleChartrand-Hirsch,France;Ian Chitry UK; DavidDeterding,Singapore;SylvieDonna,UK; ElizabethDowney,NewZealand;LyndaEdwards,UK; LauraHancock,UK;DavidHill, Australia;Kip Kelland,Italy;KathyKeohane,UK;AndreaPaul,Australia;GordonFrancisRobinson,Singapore;Iulietta Ann Schoenmann,UK; RogerScott,UKPeterHobbsand otherteachersof InternationalHouseSydney,who allowedme toobserveand co-teachtheir classes;ShdnIones,for classobservationat Blacktor,rrnTAFECollege.I would like to continue to thankAmir Pirouzan,IeanCrockerandIohn Lipscombfortheir adviceand encouragementduring the preparationof the original edition of Shipor Sheep?NsoPhilippaLipscomband otherteachersof the British Council,Teheran,who helpedwith the first classtry-outs.Thepublisherhasuseditsbestendeavoursto ensurethat theURLsfor externalwebsitesreferredto in this book arecorrectand activeat the time of goingto press.However,the publisherhasno responsibilityfor the websitesand canmakenoguaranteethat a sitewill remainlive or that the content is or will remain appropriate.Illustrationsby:JohannaBoccardo,PatMurray,FelicityHouseandTonyWilkinsCoverdesignby PentacorBookDesignDesignedandtypesetby HartMcleod
    • oaSevenof the 50unitsin thisbookarereviewunits.Eachof the otherunitsintroducesa differentEnglishsound,aswellasotheraspectsofpronunciation(e.g.stress,intonation)which arealsoimportantforsuccessfulcommunicationin English.Youcanusethisbookeitherworkingaloneor with a class+ teacher.Youwill need:- equipmentto listento the CD,andequipmentto recordyourvoice- a smallmirror to compareyourlip positionswith thepictures-Your mask(cutit out from page185).Youwill useit at thebeginningofmostunits (butnot Unit l). Youcanalsouseit for extrapracticeofsoundsthat aredifficult for you.First,find out which units aremostimportantfor you.Todo this:- If possible,checkyour mothertonguein the Lisrof likelyerrors(seewebsite:http://r,r"wwcambridge.org/elt/elt_projectpage.asp?id=2500905)andmakea printout of that part of thelist.- Do at leastoneof theDiagnosticTests(seepagesix-xi).If you areworkingalone,doTestA.TestB needsthe helpof a teacher,nativespeakeror near-nativespeaker.If you areworkingwith a teacher,he/shewill decidewhetheryou do thetests.Decidewhetheryou wantto:- work firston the mostimportantunits for you,or- beginat the beginningandworkthroughthebook,spendingmoretime on themostimportantunitsfor you.Youcanchooseto worksimultaneouslyon SectionA (vowels)andSectionB (consonants).Youcanalsodo the sevenreviewunits.Read,MaktngEnglishsoundsbeforebeginningeachsection(seepagesI-2, 79-80).This introducessomeessentialvocabulary.Symbolsusedin thebook:meansthis materialis recorded.meansthe answersarein the Key(seepages186-224).meansthisexerciseis suitablefor a groupor pair of students.If you area studentworkingalone,you couldtry it by usingyour imagination,e.g.by imagininganotherstudent.meansusethemask(seepagevi).meansvisitthewebsiteto practise.Othersymbolsused:Intonation is shownwith arrows:Themainword stressis shovrrnin bold,e.g.pronunciation,student.Sentencestressis shownwith underlining,e.g.Sentencestressis shournwith underlining, or sometimeswith big and small circles:OoOoOoooOo(Sentencestressis shorvrmwith underli4ing).
    • vl Phonetic symbols used in this book are the International PhoneticAlphabet (IPA)(the contenrs page shows all the symbols used).you canuse this book without knowing these symbols, but it is useful to learnthem so that you can check the pronunciation of new words in adictionary. The Cambridge Aduanced Learners Dictionary uses thesesymbols.. In most units (but not in Unit l), Exercise2 Minimal palrs givesyoupractice in contrasting two sounds in words and sentences.If you donthave one of the two sounds in your language,practising the pairs ofsounds can sometimes help you to hear - and then produce - theEnglish sound. Dialogues are recorded.You can backtrack on the CD to repeat them asmany times asyou want. If you dont like backtracking, listen to thedialogue after you have done the dialogue tasks.TheMaskThere are two ways in which you can use the mask (which you cut out frompage I85):I At the beginning of the minimal pair exerclsesHere,you are instructedto use the mask in most units after Unit l. The mask symbol at thebeginning of the exerciseindicates usethe mask.you can start theminimal pair practice with the mask covering the written words, justIooking at the pictures and listening to the pair sounds (first in wordsand then in sentences).This will help you to focus on really listening tothe sounds first. After you have listened for the first time, you canbacktrack on the CD to listen again and repeat.2 Extra practice of dfficult sounds You can also use the mask, for exampleat the end of a unit, to enjoy extra practice of sounds that are difficult foryou. Here,your task with the mask is to try to produce the contrastingsounds correctly while trying to remember the words and sentences.(e.g.I Mask on - listen and repeat. 2 Mask off - read aloud. 3 Mask on _remember and say aloud. 4 Mask off- read aloud to check.)Otherwaysof havingextrapracticeof difficultsoundsI Make playrng cardsby photocopying rhe minimal pair charts (e.g.fourcopies) and cutting out the pairs.you can then play some of the cardgames described in the review units. If working alone, play pick up pairs,Unit 7, page27 or Pick up samesounds,Unit 14, page52.2 Check on the website(http: / i www.cambridge.org/ elt/ elt_projectpage.asp?id=2500905)to seeif there is any extra practice material for this sound.
    • vilotPleasereadthe Introductionfor Studentson pagesv-vi.Level Thisbookiswritten for intermediatestudents,but previouseditionshavealsobeenusedbystudentsat otherlevels.TreeorThree?iswritten for beginner-elementarylevel.Class/Studentworking alone Theinstructions arewritten for a studentworkingalone,but canbeusedfor classroomteachingaswell.Seethesymbolsin the studentsintroduction,especially tDiagnosticTestsYoucanusetheseif you needto assessstudentsdifftculties.But ifyou alreadyknowthisfor your class,you canchoosetoskipthetestsanddecidewhetheryouwant the studentsto workthroughthebookor focusonly on someunits.Studentsworking alonecanself-administerTestA with or without yourinput.ToadministerTestB,studentscanbe askedto recordtheirindividualperformancesfor your assessment.Oryou maypreferto dothiswith them sothatyou canimmediatelycheckpossiblereadingratherthanpronouncingmistakes,by askingthem to listenandrepeattheitem.Listof likely errors Thisis on thewebsitesothat it canbe addedto. Itcanbe found athttp:/ /www.cambridge.org/elt/elt_projectpage.asp?id=2500905.It would be usefulfor eachstudentto haveaprintout of the relevantpart of thislist.Minimal pairs In thisbook,thesearepairsof words/sentenceswhichdifferby onlyonesound,e.g.BilI boughta sheep.lBillboughta ship.Thesesometimeshelp studentsto hear- andthenpronounce- soundsthat aredifficult for them.Youmaywant to extendstudentsclasspracticeof particular minimal pairsby inventing gamesor playingthefollowing:- CardgamesThesearedescribedin Exerciset of the reviewunits.Makemorecopiesif usingpairsfrom only oneunit.Thisbookiscoplright,but permissionis grantedto makea singlecopyof thecardsdescribedin the reviewunits, for the solepurposeof playingthecardgamesoutlined.- FingersForeachpair,saywordsrapidly at random,e.g.sheepsheepsheepship ship sheepshrp.Studentsshowwith oneor two fingersiftheyhearsoundI or sound2.Studentspractisein pairsandthenbackto back.
    • vllt- Mingling Eachstudenthasoneof the minimal pair cards.Studentsmingle (movearoundrandomly),not showingtheir cardsbutrepeatingtheir word to find the otherswith the samesound.Theyform a group,which checkscorrectmembership.Thefirst group tocompletetheirsetof wordswith the samesoundwins.Studentsswapcardswithin theirgroupandcheckpronunciationof newwordsbeforeall mingling againto find the personin the other groupwiththe otherhalf of their minimal pair.Studentschangecardswith thatpersonandcheckeachotherspronunciation.Thenstarttheminglinggamefrom the beginningsoboth soundsareused.Themask (SeeIntroduction for Students.)Thepurposeof the maskistwofold:- to allowstudentsto listen to and practisethe minimal pair soundsfirstin wordsandthenin sentenceswithout beingdistractedby thewritten word- for extrapracticeof soundsthey find difficult.
    • txDTAGNOSTICTESTSAll students should do TestA.TestB requires the help of a teacher,native speakeror near-native speakerof English.The tests are not to give you a mark. They may help you to find out whichsounds and other aspectsof English pronunciation could be the mostdifficult for you. You should also check this in the llsf of likely errors orthewebsite:http://wwM.cambridge.org/elt/elt_projectpage.asp?id=2500905.TESTASectionI Sounddiscriminationaz Do not stop the recording or repeat. In each item you will hear two words.Sometimes the two words are the same.Sometimes they have one soundthat is different. Listen once only to each item and tick the S (same)columnor the D (different) column. If you are not sure, tick the question mark (?)column.EXAMPLE If you hear,sheep sheeptick the Scolumn.If you hear, sheep ship tick the D column.If you are not sure, tick the ?column.S D 2S D 2 S D ? S D ? S D ?la 6a 12a 17a1b 6b r2b 17b2a 7a l3a l8a2b 7b 13b 18b2c 7c I4a l9a3a 8a r4b 19b3b Bb l4c 20a4a 9a r4d 2Ia4b 9b l5a 22a5a 10a 15b 22b5b r0b 16a 23a5c lla 16b 23br1b l6c 24a
    • xSection2 lntonationes Do not stop the recording or repeat. Listen to Lucy talking to Lesley on thetelephone. In some items her voice goesup ( ) at the end. In someitems her voice goesdown ( . ). Tick the or column for eachitem. If you are not sure,tick the ?column. Listen to the example first.EXAMPLEa) ThatsLesley,i#t itab) ThatsLesley,isntit?Section3 Wordstresse+ Do not stoptherecordingor repeat.In eachitem,tick the onewordthat isdifferentfrom the others.EXAMPLEitems column number alone/ listenI nowhere birthday mistake toilet postcard2 guitar eighteen today machine English3 away brother breaKast frightened valley4 comfortable vegetables photograph lemonade minimal5 telephoning supermarket conversation exercises helicopter2 ?I 623 84 95 l0
    • xiIESTB(Note:This test requires the help of a teachel native speaker,or near-native speakerof English.)Ask the student to read each test item, and record the grading on the resultsheet (pagexii).A studentsperformance can be recorded, or the student can be askedtorepeat an item as many times as necessaryto record a result,The reasonsfor mispronunciation are many, and some may be causedby readingdifficulty. To check this, say the mispronounced word correctly and ask thestudent to repeat it. If the student can then say it correctly, add the symbolR to your grading on that item, indicating that tfie student can pronouncethis sound but may have difficulty when reading it.Suggestedsyrnbolsfor grading: / no difficultywith this soundX difficulty with this soundR may have difficulty reading this soundShoppinglist1 some cheese(cheap cheese);some tea (Chinesetea)2 titty biscuits; four fish3 ten eggs(big eggs)4 jam; apples and oranges;a cabbage5 ten tomatoes (largetomatoes)6 five kilos ofveal (verygoodveal)7 some strong string (long string)8 four forks (small forks); spoons; cups; small paper plates9 some good sugar;milk; coffee;a cake10 pick up Iudesblue shoesat the shoe shop; two kilos of brown rice; agrapefruit1l nuts; honey; half a dozen hot buns12 one lemon; nine brolrm onions; flowers for the house13 some paper for my mothers letters; collect Grandfathersleather jacketfrom the cleaners14 a girls shirt and skirt (sizethirteen); cold drinks (dont get dry ginger);some good bread15 eight small cakesand paper plates; some sausagesfor supper16 some yellow rosesfor your sister17 white wine (sweetwine); some lce18 beer for Bob (buy it from the pub near here)19 some shampoo for Claireshair; some pears20 some tins of New Zealand peas, or frozen beans21 fresh English fish from the fish shop22 atoy for the little boy (a blue or yellow ball)23 something for Mr Smith (its his birthday on Thursday)24 a small cheap television for the garage
    • RESULTSSHEETANDFINDINCSfromListof likelyerrorsIn any of the three columns, place a crossagainst the sound where there may be difficulty.SOUNDS/t"[i(ctri r203 /e/ (pen)1014 le,l(man)1245 /qr/ (heart)/t/ (table)6 /v/ (van)7 /o/ (clock)1688 /crl (ball) 1749 /u/ (book)l0 /ur/(boot)/r/ (rain)1l /,ri (cup)/h/ (hat) 14712 /n/ (nose) 165/aui(house)13 /e/ (camera)/d/ (the feather) 15514 lstl (girl)/d/ (door)L5 letl(male)/s/(sun) 10716 laul(phone)/w/ (window) 1391435717 larl (ftne)l8 /re/ (year)19 leal(chair)/m/ (mouth) 16220 lzl (zoo) 1102r /f/ (shoe) 114/l/ (letter) 17223 /0/(thin)(DiagnosticTest B)FindingsfromListt31111513s8I97176t9l4a, l4b, I4c15124 ftl(television) Il7
    • SectionAVowelsMakingEnglishsoundsUsevour voiceto makeall vowels.short vowels(makea short sound)A/ (ship)/e/ (pen)/u/ (book)/a/ (man)h/ (cup)/o/ (clock)/a/ (camera)longvowels(makealong sound)/c:/ (ball)/u:/ (boot)/irl (sheep)/c:/ (heart)/s/ (girl)diphthongs(twovowelsounds)/eu/(phone)/rel (year)lctl(boy)/aul (house)/e/ (male)/arl (fine)/eel(chair)
    • $ rur,urSpotthe different sound.EXAMPLE lal lel lul leal ltlAnswer:Thefourth soundis a diphthong.All the othersareshort vowels.I leullul lrl lal ltl 2 lcrl lel lrcl latl laul 3 lol li.|lczl lszllgzlMatch thesewordswith the picturesbelow.a the backof the tongueb thelipsc the tip of the tod the front of theMatch the pictures(1-9)in A with the instructions (a-i) in B.Anguetonguet--,C€It_-,IOpenyour mouth.Closeyour mouth.Put your tongue forward.Openyour mouth alittle. Thenopenmouth a little more.Putyour tongueback.Putyour tonguedown.Putyour tongueup.Putyour tongueforward andup. Practiselill: eat,easy,he,she,we.Fut your tonguedown and back.Practise/ol/: ask,are,arm,car.Ba)b)c)d)e)f)Ih)i)
    • lul sheep- Dovou like your teasweet?- l-es.Threesugars,please.Targetsound/irl5 Open your mouth very little to makethe target sound ir. /irl is a long sound.Listen and repeat:/irl.c2 Sound/irl,6rr.-d," t:.1--tsheepLookoutforthatsheep.cheeksWhatlovelycheeks!beanThrowoutthatbean.Stop it leakinglThis pcels got vitamin C in it.Hesgoing to leave."€6lIrf,&,&ffi,sfl w.t&Sound/i:/wordseo a Listen and repeat the words.Sound/irl sentencesez b Listen to the sentences.r;c SentencestressNotice that the most important words for the meaning of a sentencearepronounced more LOUDIy and s I o w Iy .The lessimportant words are said more quietly and quidd5lListen to the sentencesagain and this time look at the underlinedsyllables below. Notice that they are louder and slower.Look out for that sheep.Mhat lovely cheeks!Throw out that bean.leakStopit leaking!PeelThispeelsgotvitaminC in it.leaveHesgoingto leave.nz d Listenagainand repeatthe sentences.
    • /D UNIT| /irl sheep5 Dialoguefl a Firstpractisethesound/ill in someof thewordsfrom thisunit. Readthe,/wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto nractise.One-syllablewords: cheese beef tea eat mealthree cheap please meTwo-syllable words: Peter people Edam eveningEastfield biscuit cheesecake(The stressis always on the first syllable.)Two-syllable words: Janine repeat(The stressis always on the second syllable.)Note on word stress:bold is used here to show you which part of theword is strongly stressed,i.e.which syllable is pronounced moreLOUDIy and s I o w ly than the other(s).Word stressdoesnt usuallychange, except in some longer words with stressnear the end. (See4cand 4d.)es b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (1-10) with the correct words from the box.cheese Peter eat please tea beefthree me teas beefIn a caf6:ltscheaperto eatat MargueritesCHRISTINA:Whatwouldyoulrketo eat,t_ ?Thecheesesandwichesarethe cheapest.PETER:Er. . mmm... oh,a 2_sandwich, please,Christina.CHRISTINA:Cheese... mmm Janine?Wouldvoulikea I sandwichor acheesesandwich?JANINE:A cheesesandwich,+_PETER:Whataboutyou,Christina?Wouldyoulikecheeseor s_ ?WAITRESS:Areyou allreadyto order?Whatwouldyou liketo e_ ?CHRISTINA:Er,wellhaveonebeefsandwich,two cheesesandwichesand,mmm,7 for me.JANINE:Teafor8_ too,please.PETER:Yes,makethatthreeg- , please.wAlTRESS:(wr(ingdowntheorder) Onebeefsandwich,two cheesesandwichesandl0 teas.ee c Listento the dialogueagainto checkyour answers.Practisereadingthedialoguealoud,andrecordyourvoiceto compareyour productionofthe targetsoundwith the recording.
    • UNIT1 /irl sheep 5,4 Intonationof questionswithorIntonation is the voice going up or dor,vn.This movement up or dor,rmbegins on the most important word in aphrase or sentence.In questionswithor the intonation usually goesdor,rrnat the end.rs a Listen and repeat.Would you like veal or bcgfiWould you like coffee or tea?Would you like coffee,tea or milk?at b RoleplayUse the menu to practise a conversation in a group of four or five.Youare in a restaurant.Taketurns to be the waiter. Ask each other questions,e.g.Wouldyou like ... or ...?Then one persongivesthe order to thewaiter, who repeatsthe order to check it. If possible,also practise usingother menus. If it is an expensiverestaurant, the waiter or waitresscanbe more formal, sa],lngGood euening before asking for the order.EASTFIELI] RESTAIJRANTMENUSoupleek Soup onP€zlsouPMeatveal onbeefVegetablesbeans oRpeasSweetscheesecake onice cream 0RpeachesDrinkscoffee r-rnteaBiscuitsand CheeseEdam cheese onBrie
    • [unr | /i:/sheepero c Wordstress- nationalitiesendingin eseAsyou listento the sentencesaboutthesenationalities,draw a lineconnectingthe country and nationality in the two listsbelowCountries Nationalities (Notethe stresson the lastsyllable.)Iapan NepaleseNepal LebaneseVietnam Portugueserrr d MovingstressThestressof theseesenationalitieschangesif the nextword is stronglystressed.Sowe say,Thisbcefislapanesebut, Itslqanese bqf.Listenand respond,like the example.EXAMPLEIs this breadfrom Beirut?Response:Yes,its Lebanese.ItsLebanesebread.5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit at wordswith the targetsound,and write whatyou noticed abouthow to spellthe sound/i:/.
    • T// ship- !hat about this fish? Can I eat it?-Yes. Eat it.- What about this cheese?Can I eat it?- No, dont eat it. Its six weeks out of date.Targetsound/r/Arzaa First practise the sound /ill(seepage 3). Listen and repeat.lrzub Open your mouth a little more tomake the target sound /r/.Listen and repeat.Al2cc Listenandrepeatboth soundstogether./irl islong./r/is short.MinimalpairsSoundIli^lsheePLookoutforthatsheep.leakStopit leaking!cheeksWhatlovelycheeks.i(Sound2ltlshipLookoutforthatship.lickStopit licking!chicksWhatlovelychicks.PillThispillsgotvitaminC init.binThrowoutthatbin.liveHesgoingto live.l:@$x$ t*^,-7ig " r:1-/.ga;4.<€4isFT€1 WaY-&PeelThispeelsgotvitaminC init.beanThrowoutthatbean.leaveHesgoingto leave.
    • 8 UNIT2 /r/ shipMinimalpairwordsAl3aa Listenandrepeatthewords.arsbb Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword,write ,lfor lll (soundl) or 2 for/r/(sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 1,2,2,2,2MinimalpairsentencesAl.lac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.nrrud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lll (sound l) or 2 for ltl(sound2).e SentencestressThe most important words in a sentenceare strongly stressed.They arepronounced LOUDeTand s I o w e r. Look at these examplesfrom theminimal pair sentences.(In the bracketson the right, the big circles arethe strongly stressedsyllablesand the small circles are the weaklystressedsyllables.)Pair l: OUT ... SHIP Look OUT for that SHIP!(oOooo)Pair 2: STOP... LEAK STOPit LEAKing. (OoOo)Pair 3: LOVE ... CHICKS A/hatLOVEIyCHICKS!(oOoO)Pair4: PILLS ... C This PILLS got vitamin C in it. (oOooooOoo)rl4a Listen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the stronglystressedwords in each sentence (on page 7).ars f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.ra)sheepI b)ship tr2a)bean I b)bin I3 a)cheeks! b) chicks!4a)cheaptr b)chip tr5a)heel I b)hill tr6 a)peel I b)pill I3 Dialoguei a First practise the sound /r/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.One-syllablewords: film ill miss kids quick Kim BillTwo-syllablewords: (lst syllable) cricket tickets childrenminutes quickly listen pity(2nd syllable)beginsThree-syllablewords: (Ist syllable) history festival cinemainteresting prize-winning Africa(2nd syllable)gymnastics olympic excitedbeginning terrific gorilla(3rd syllable) chimpanzee
    • UNIT2 /r/ ship 9 b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (1-8) with the correct three-syllable wordsfrom the list in 3a.l-nreeinterestingfilmsBtLL:Coodevening,MrsLeeGINA:ls Kimin?BILL:ls he comingto the cinema,MrsLee?ltsthe ChildrensFilmIMRSLEE:Kimsill.BILL;Herehe is!clNA: Hi,KimlKIM: Hi,CinalHi,BilllBILL:Kim,wevegotthesethreefreeticketsto seethreez filmsforchildren!MRSLEE;Listen,KimKIM: Isit i ?CtNA:l/l/ethinkrtis Firsttheresa shortfilmaboutsorillasand4_ inAfrica,and .BILL: thenthe nextfilmisaboutthe sixbestOlvmpicscompetitions,andthenGINA: then itsthe bigfilm - Ihe 6_ of EnglshCricket.KIM: Cricket!BILL:ltsa7 film.MRSLEE:lf youreill,KimGINA:lt wouldbe a pityto missit.MRSLEE:Nowlisten,youkidsBILL:Andit beginsin fiftyminutes.MRSLEE:KIM!KIM: Quick!Orwellmissthe8_ of the gorillafilml.16 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers.Practisereading thedialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare your production ofthe target sound with the recording.d Perform the dialogue in a group of four and, if possible, record your voices.In your group, first practise speaking with feeling. Mrs Lee is getting moreand more angry.The others are getting more and more excited.In English, if you get more angry,you usually speakmore loudly. if youget more excited,you usually speakmore quickly.
    • lO UNIT2 /r/ ship4 Numbersarz a Word stressStressedsyllablesare in bold. Listen and repeat.three thirteen thirty 3 13 30four fourteen forty 4 14 40five fifteen fifty 5 t 5 50six sixteen sixty 6 16 60seven seventeen seventy 7 17 70eight eighteen eighty t] I t] B0nine nineteen ninety 9 l9 90b MovingstressThe stressin theseteen numbers is different when we are counting.thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen,etc.c Other moving stressThe stressin theseteen numbers is also different when there is a strongstressin the next word.Tim lives at number fifteen.Tim Iives at number fifteen Green Street.Ar8 Practisegiving As reply in the conversationsyou hear,like the example.ExampleA: The dentist is at seventeenMill Street.B: Seventy?A: No, not seventy- seventeen.: d Mini BingogamePlay in a group of 3-5. One person calls out the numbers from 4a but ina random order. (Taketurns to call the numbers.) The others eachchoose one of the boxesA, B, C or D below. Listen to the numbers and ifa number is in your box, cover it with a small piece of paper. When all thenumbers in your box are covered,you arethe wirmer and you shout, BINGO!l 3 .t fi{} (i0 ,{ lti ir l 5 l 6 (i0 {i ts7 Hl 5{i ,.ti} 3{} I.} 7(} L}0 .i {i It f it7 {}{} f} 7{} 5 ti# 4{) 7 tt] t} r}(} 80Selfstudystudent:firstmakearecording,saylngclearlyallthenumbersfrom 4abut in a randomorder.Thenlistenandplayasmanyboxesasyou cansimultaneously.5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /r/.DcBA
    • Itlel pen- Is this milk fresh?Targetsound/e/.reaa First practise the sound /r/(seepage7).arsub Open your mouth alittle more tomake the short target sound /e/.Listen and repeat.Alecc Listen and repeat both soundstogether:ltl andlel.MinimalpairsWherestheSoundI Sound2ltl lelpin penI needa pin. I needa pen.bin BenThatsmybin. ThatsmyBen.tin tenItsa bigtin. ltsa bigten.PegWheresthepeg?Prgpig?chick chequeShewantsa chick. Shewantsa cheque.nimalpairwords.u$aa Listen and repeat the words..,.rt*b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor A/ (sound l) or 2 for /ei (sound 2).HGMPLE Pair1: 2,2,1,I,2
    • 12 UNIT5 /e/penMinimalpairsentencesAzlac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.,rzrt,d Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for ltl (sound D or 2 for lel(sound2).,ulae SentencestressThe most important words in a sentence are strongly stressed.If theminimal pair sentenceswere spoken with only one strong stress,whichword would it be?Readthe sentencesand guesswhich word it might be.Then listen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline thestrongly stressedword in each sentence (on page 11).nzz f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.la)pin I b)pen tr2a)pig I b)peg I3a)tins I b)tens I4a)sit I b)set I5a)disk I b)desk I6a)pickatI b)peckatI5 DialogueO a First practise the sound /e/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Read-the words aloud or visit the website to practise. In words with two ormore syllables,bold is used to show which syllable is strongly stressed.In the brackets,write the number of syllablesin each word before youpractise.EXAMPTES friend (1) terribly (3) Emma (2) expensive (3)jealous( ) help( ) everybody( ) any( ) bench( ) Kevin( )America( ) Mexican( ) Emily( ) Ben( )very( ) breadl l Eddie( )Notice that many words in English have the strong stresson the firstsyllable,but some words have the strong stresson the last syllable.hello Adele again except yourself lemonade.?3b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (l-7) with the correct questions (a-g)below.a) CanI getyou a drink,Adele?b) Is thatbetter?c)Wasit expensive?d)Areyou listeningto the RedHot Chili Peppers?e) How did you spendyour holiday,Adele?f) Areyou a friend of Emmas?g) Haveyou met my friendAdeleyet,Kevin?
    • fundsUN|T5 /e/penffiSADELE:Hi,Emma!Hi,BenlHello,EmilylHello;Eddie!Hi,everybody!EVERYBODYEXCEPTKEVTN:Hi,Adele!EMILY:Niceto seeyouagain,Adele.Kevin,thisisAdele.Adele,thisis Kevin.ADELE:Hi,Kevin.l- ? ltsteniblyloud.KEVTN:Yes .. (turnsthe musicdown) z-? (Adelenodsher head) t-?ADELE:Yes.KEVIN:Emmasaidshehada friendcalledAdele.EDDIE:Helpyourselfto Mexicanfood,Adele.ltson the kitchenbench.EMILY:AndtheresFrenchbreadon the shelf.BEN:4?ADELE:Yes,thanks,Ben.Somelemonadewith a bit of icein it.EMMA: 5 ?KEVIN:Yes.lvejust met her.Shesveryfriendly.BEN:5 ?ADELE:I wentto SouthAmericawith my bestfriendKerrie.EVERYBODY;Well!EMMA:WerealljealousEDDIE:7 ?ADELE:Notvery.ButI spenteverything.I haventanymoneyleft..l,r3c Listento the dialogueagainto checkyour answers.Thenpractisereadingthe dialoguealoud.Recordyour voiceto compareyourproduction of the targetsoundwith the recording.4 lntonationIntonation is the voicegoingufor dOvwnon the strongestsyllableof themostimportantword in a phraseor sentence.Intonation statementsusuallygoesdovflrat the end.Intonation in WH questions(rMho?ltVhat?Why?When?"4rhere?Hownusuallygoesdomrnat the end.Intonation inYes/Noquestionsusuallygoesupat the end.
    • lf uNIr l lel penaz+a Listen and repeat.Ir14:Iquestion: How did you spend your holiday?Statement: I went to America.YeslNoquestion: Was it expensive?Statement: Yes.Verv.No. Not very.nzs b Word stressPractisethe word stressin these place narnes.In many place names thestrong stressis on the first syllable.Denmark Venice Edinburgh MexicoMecca Melbourne LebanonA smaller number of place names have the strong stresson the lastsyllable.Iapm Mumbai Madrid Beirut NewYorkIn longer place names the strong stressis sometimes in the middle ofthe word.the Riviera the Mediterranean Australia America HelsinkiPhiladelphiac Now practise the conversation below using the place names in 4b.A: Howdid youspendyourholiday?B: lwentto..A: Wasit expensive?B: Yes.Very./ Not very.d Dictionarywork: word stress,Vhenyou meet a new word, you cirn check which syllable is stronglystressedin a good dictionary @.g.Cambridge Aduanced LectrnersDictionary). The pronunciation of the word is shown in the InternationalPhonetic Alphabet (IPA),with the symbo| in front of the main strongstress of the word, e.g.electric /rrlektrrk/. Your dictionary will also showthe secondary stress (usually in longer words) with the symbol ,, e.g.electricity /l,lekrtrrseti/.In Ship or Sheep?only the main strong stressin a word is in bold to showyou where the stressed syllable ends, e.g. electric, electricity.Look up some of these words in a dictionary and mark which syllablehas the main strong stress.EXAMPLE execpl or exrceptexcept exercise expect expeditionexpel experiment expenditure expertexpression extend extra extrovert5 5p;eliingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /e/.
    • t5lllnl man- Let s have a chat about that cat.- tr cat?- les ... em ... its too fat.- tl-ell, it is a bit fat. But its ... mm ... a very happy cat.I -argetsoundlrelutlaa First practise the sound /e/(seepage ll). Listenand repeat.r:oo$ Qpsn your mouth a little more tomake the target sound /a/.Listen and repeat.26cc Listen and repeat both sounds together:lelandlal.2 Minimalpairs€=+SoundIlelxPutthexhere.PenCanlbonowapen?menLookatthe men.sendlm sendingthetable.gemItsa lovelygem.breadWehadbreadforlunch.Sound2lnlaxePutthe axehere.PanCanlbonowapan?manLookatthe man.sandImsandingthetable.iarnItsa lovelyjam.BradWehadBradforlunch.,-1*€f:ffi.UL&#lt,,a*J$.(@[-9{6}
    • 16 untr 4 /ieimanMinimalpairwordsA27aa Listen and repeat the words.azzub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write lfor /e/ (sound 1) or 2 for lal (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2,2,1,,I,2MinimalpairsentencesA28ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.ezard Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lel (sound I or 2 for lel(sound2).A2Bae SentencestressListen to the first two minimal pair sentencesagain and look at thecircles on the left. The big circles are the strongly stressedsyllables,andthe small circles are the weakly stressedsyllables.OoOO Put thex here./Put the axehere.ooOooO Can I borrow a pcq?/Can I borrow a pA!!?28a Listen to the rest of the sentencesand underline the sentencestress(thestrongly stressedsyllablesin the most important words in the sentence).OooO Look at the men./Look at the man.oOooOo Im sending the table./Im sanding the table.ooOoO Its a lovely gem./Its a lovely jam.ooOoO We had bread for lunch./We had Brad for lunch.rzs f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.la)pen I b)pan I2a)men tr b)man I3a)end I b)and I4a)feta tr b)fatter ISa)pet tr b)pat tr6a)bed I b)bad tr3 Dialoguei=, a First practise the sound /re/in some of the words from the dialogue.-Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.I Allen salad habit travel Ianet absent sandwich contractscancelled2 animals Africa antelope Annabelle Anthony passengersanchovy3 alligator advertisingtVhichof the list of words (1,2, 3) above have the word stresspatternsbelow?The big circles are the strongly stressedsyllablesand the smallcircles are the weakly stressedsyllables.a) Ooo b) Oooo c) Oo
    • UNIT4 /ie/ rnan t?:Match the sentences(1-3) below with the sentencestresspatterns (a-c).The big circles are the strongly stressedwords and the small circles arethe weakly stressedwords.I He hasnt done the backup. a) ooOooO2 Aaron doesnt have to come back. b) oOoooOo3 The computer has crashed. c) OooooooOb Aaronsrecordedmessagesro Listen to the recorded messages,pa)lng attention to the target sound.Now listen again and complete the sentencesbelow. Each missing wordhas the sound /e/. Number I has been done as an example.I Aaron works atlhe AjoxTrovelAgency.2 Hes on holiday in _ .3 His bossis Mrs4 Aaron left an and on his desk.5 He - to contact Anthony about the of -he on6 Aaron has a _ habit of being _ from work.7 Aaron booked a _to San with three - : ananteater,an _ , and an8 The computer has and Aaron hadnt done the - upfor the programmes. Mrs Allen is very _ .9 The best advertising have been becauseof Aaronsbadl0 Aaron doesnt to come to the - agencybecausehesbeenA3l Listen to the complete sentencesand check your answersthen practisereading the sentencesaloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.j Sentencestress:the rhythmof EnglishA3za Practisefirst with the names Annabelle and lanet. Notice how theimportant words are strongly stressed- we saythem LOUDeTands I o w er. Listen and repeat.Question: How do you shorten Annabelle and Ianet?Answer: Ann and lan.Listen to sevenpossible answersto the next question (seepage 18).AtJ3 Notice that when we add more weakly stressedwords or syllables tothese sentences,we still say them in about the same length of time. Wedo this by saying all the weakly stressedwords more +dddyand quietlv:Question: Mho works with Aaron?Answers:I OO Ann,Ian.2 OoO Ann and lan.3 Oooo0o Annabelle and Tanet.
    • tB uNtT4 lnl man4 oOooooOo TheresAnnabelle and theresIanet.5 ooOoooooOo Well theresAnnabelle and then theresTanet.6 oooOoooooooOo Well first theresAnnabelle and then theresalso Ianet.7 oooooOooooooooooo Well first of all theresAnnabelle and then youknow theres also lanet.(Note that although sometimes native speakersof English do speaklikethis with a lot of weakly stressedwords, at other times they may usemore strongly stressedwords, e.g.Well, first of all theresAnnabelle andthen you know theresalso lanet. Both are correct. Both have the samerhythm of strong and weak stress.)as+b Listen to the sevenanswersin 4a again and try to say them all in thesame length of time. Try a few times. First practise putting your energyinto the strongly stressedwords. Next practise saying the weakly stressedwords with lessenergy,so that you saythem more quietly. Then practisesayingthe weakly stressedwords more and more quickly. Recordyourvoice and compare this with the recording.c Match the questions (f -3) with the pairs of answers(a-c) below. (In thebrackets,the big circles are the strongly stressedsyllablesand the smallcircles are the weakly stressed svllables.)Questions:I fhat kind of animals did Aaron book on the SanSalvadorflight?2 rffhat were two of the mistakes Aaron made before he went on holiday?3 Mho elseworks at the tlavel agency?Answers:a) Anthony, Mrs Allen. (Ooo,ooOo)Well, theresAnthony, and then theresMrs Allen. (ooOoo,oooooOo)b) An anteater,an antelope, and an alligator. (oOoo,oOoo, oooooo)He booked an anteater, aswell as an antelope, and also an alligator.(oooOoo,ooooOoo, ooooOooo)c) The l1t4p,the backup, (oO,oOo)He lost the map, and he didnt do the backup. (oooO,ooooooOo)Practisereading the questions and answersaloud. Try to say the pairs ofanswersin the same length of time.SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /re/.
    • l,tl cupt9- I m hungry.Howmuch moneysin the hat? J- rhing.- -thing?Im hungry too.- Ohshutup!Everybodyshungry.I Targetsoundtnt35aa First practise the sound /re/(seepage I5). Listen and repeat.r.rit b Put your tongue back a little to makethe short target sound /,r/.Listen and repeat.rssc c Listen and repeat both sounds:lal andrnr.2 MinimalpairsSoundIlnlcaPWheresmycap?hatTheresa hatin the garden.trackSeethetrackson the road.Sound2cuPWheresmycup?hutTheresa hutinthegarden.truckSeethetrucksontheroad.&.€n <?-@ffiLf",^-Vban bunTheresa banonit. Theresa bunonit.bag bugShesgota bag. Shesgota bug.ankle uncleMyanklewasinjured. Myunclewasinjured.dffi
    • 20 UNIT5 /n/ cr,rpMinimalpairwordses6aa Listen and repeat the words.aroub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor lal (sound I) or 2 for /n/ (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 2,1,2,I, IMinimalpairsentencesA3zac Listen to the minimal pair sentences., eszrd Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lnl (sound I) or 2 for lnl(sound2).ffi7ae SentencestressListen to the pairs of sentencesagain and match them with the sentencestresspatterns below.The big circles are the strong syllablesand thesmall circles are the weak syllables.EXAMPLE ooO (Pair 1)Wheres my cap? / Mheresmy cup?a) oooO b) ooOoo c) oooooO d) ooOooOo e) oOooOoNotice that if we put too many strong stressesin a sentence,we maysound angry especiallyif the intonation keeps going down. Practisethesentencesbelow.OOO lVheres my cup?OOooOo IVIyuncle was !4jured.eee f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.1a)cap I b)cup tr2a)har f b)hut I3a)bas tr b)bug tr4a)madtr b)mud tr5a)hang I b)hung I6a)ran tr b)run I5 DialogueQ-aFirst practise the sound i,r/ in some of the words from the dialogue.Listen and repeat.lunch just much one love cousin doesnt funny rubbishenough untrue shutup unhappy understand unattractiveworry lovely honey brother other nothing companywonderful month doesesg b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (l-10) with the correct words from the box.They are all words llke louespelledwith o but pronounced l,rl.worry lovely honey brother other nothing companywonderful month does
    • UNIT5 /,r/cup Sl-i-e doesntlovehimJASMINE:Honey,whyareyouso sad?(Dunconsoyst_ )JASMINE:2_, whyareyouso unhappy?I dontunderstand.DUNCAN:Youdontloveme,Jasmrne.JASMINE:ButDuncan,I loveyouverymuch!DUNCAN:Thatsuntrue,Jasmine.Youlovemy cousin.JASMINE:Justin?DUNCAN:No,his3-.JASMINE:Dud|ey?DUNCAN:No.Stopbeingfunny,Jasmine.Notthatone.The+ brother.Hunter.Youthinkhess and Im unattractive.JASMINE:Duncan!Thatsutterrubbish!DUNCAN:AndHunterlovesyoutoo.JASMINE:No hedoesntDUNCAN:Yeshe eJASMINE:Duncan,justoncelast7_ | hadlunchwithHunter.Youmustnt8_ . I likeyour9_ muchbetterthan Hunters.HuntersDUNCAN:Oh,justshutup,Jasmine!JASMINE:Buthoney,I thinkyoureroDUNCAN:Oh,shutup,Jasmine.JASMINE:Nowthatsenough!Yourejustjealous,Duncan.Youshutup!$e c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers.Then practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 StressandintonationStressand intonation are used to show feelings in English. In the dialoguein 3b, you may have noticed that Iasminesstressand intonation changedat the end when she got angrywith Duncan.
    • 22 uNtr 5 /,,r/cuon+oa Study the sentencesbelow and then listen to the recording.Emotions N (neutral) A (angry)I No, he doesnt. ooOo OOOo2 Yes,he does. ooO OOO3 Now thats enough. oooO OOoO4 I dont understand. ooooO OOOoO5 Oh just shut up. oooO OOOOA4r Listen to the sentencesand write A for angry or ^|yfor neutra-.I2345Complete this statement.If someone speakswith a lot of _ly stressedwords, with theintonation going - all the time, they can sound very angry.,rz b Intonationin a listThe intonation goesup on the last strongly stressedword in eachphrase, and then dor,rmat the end. Listen and repeat.He bought a cup and some nuts.He bought a cup, some nuts and some honey.He bought a cup, some nuts, some honey and a brush.c GameMy uncle (motheri brother/cousin) went to LondonPractisethis game with a group of five people. Choose any words fromthe list below.EXAMPLEA: My uncle went to London and he spent a lot of money. He bought abus comoanv.B: My uncle went to London and he spent a lot of money. He bought abus company and a toy duck.Each player remembers what the others have said and then addssomething to the list.Practisesaying thesephrasesbefore you start.an onion field some sacksof nutsa bus company a toy ducka brusha cupa cuddly monkeysomehoney a lovelv butterflvsomecomfortablegloves a bun shop a hundredbuttonssomesunglasses5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /,r/.Make a list of all the words inthis unit that are pronounced lttlbttt spelt with the letter o,hke loue.Addother words to this list when you seethem.
    • llsul heart- [arvellous cars, arenit they?- onderful... fantastic... sofast...- Theyare...theyare...I Targetsound/or/43aa Firstpractisethe sound/re/(seepage15).Listenandrepeat.rlsub Putyour tonguefurther backanddown to makethe longertargetsound/ori.Listenandrepeat..r3cc Listenandrepeatboth soundstogether./e/ is short./or/islong.2 MinimalpairsA .tiza--:.,>-o:,lnimalpairwords+4aa Listenandrepeatthewords.l++ub Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.For eachword write lforlal (soundI) or 2 forlstl (sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 2,1,1,2,2....t2&a--d,(r,i(i)_ 5SoundI Sound2le,l lstlcaP carPWhata lovelycap! Whata lovelycarplhatHetouchedhishat.heartHetouchedhisheartcat cartItsa farmcat. ltsafarmcart.ban barnTheresa banonit. Theresa barnonit.pack parklllpackthe car. lllparkthe car.
    • 24 uNlT6 /o:l heartMinimalpairsentencesA4sac Listento theminimal pair sentences.n+sud Listento five of the sentencesandwrite I for lal (soundD or 2 f.orls^l(sound2)..q,45ae sentencestressIn Englishsentences,theimportantwordshavea stronglystressedsyllablethat is LOUDeTand sI o w er.Theunstressedsyllablesarecluieterand quid<erThis givesEnglishits rhythm.Listento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress(onpage23).E)(AMPLElVhat alovelycarp!MinimalpairsBSoundI Sound2l,tl lstlcuP calPWhata beautifulcup! Whata beautifulcar^lcome calmComedown,shesaid. Calmdown,shesaid.Minimalpairwordsrlr,ea Listenandrepeatthewords.rrer b Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword write Ifor /e/(sound1)or 2 forlal (sound2).HGMPLE PairI: 1,2,1,2,2Minimalpairsentences4ia c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.rrzud Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /n/ (sound t) or 2 for ls^l(sound2).t:e e sentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(above).EXAMPLE lVhats in that bun?/@$ffinu,.AaR€;qsENT@ffihutTheresa problemwithmyhut.bunWhatsinthatbun?cut cartHe coveredhiscut. He coveredhiscart.heartTheresa problemwithmyheart.barnWhatsin thatbarn?
    • UNIT6 /r:r/heart 25f tick the words a), b) or c) that you hear in the sentences.la)hat I b)hut tr c)heart I2a)cat I b)cut tr c)cart I3a)cap tr b)cup tr c)carp I4a)bun tr b)barn I5a)come tr b)calm I6 a)Pattys ! bl parties !3 )ialoguefi a First practise the sound /o:/ in some of the names in the dialogue. Readbthe names aloud or visit the website to practise.Remember that whenwe sayboth the first and last names, the last name has the strongeststress.Its Tara. Its Tara Darling.Bart lackson Margaret Markus Marsh AlanaThe sound /qr/ is also in some of the words in your instructions.example answer the target sound the mask the last name,, b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (1-5) with the correct adjectives from thebox.marvellous attractive fantastic fabulous smart:: 3 party(MorgoretondAlonoore ot the bor.Peopleore loughingin the gorden.)ALANA:Whata l_ partythisislImhavingso muchfun,Margaret.MARCARET:Wheresyourglass,Alana?ALANA:Hereyouare.Thanks.Thatsenough.MARTIN:Alana!Margaret!Comeintothe garden.TaraDarlingandMarkusMarsharedancingon thegrass.MARGARET:Inthe darl<?MARTIN:TheyredancingunderthestarsALANA:z I AndBartJacksonis playinghisgurtar.MARCARET:JustlookatTara!Shecantdancebutshelooksvery3-.MARTIN:Lookat Markus.Whata + dancer!ALANA:Whatans coupletheyarelLetstakea photographof them
    • 264UNIT6 /qr/heartn+sc Listento the dialogueto checkyour answers.Thenpractisereadingthedialoguealoud.Recordyourvoiceto compareyour productionof thetargetsoundwith therecording.Intonationin exclamationsWeoften showthe feelingof surprisein an exclamationwheretheintonation goesa longwayup and then down.esoa Listenandrepeat.lVhat afastcar!What afunny dancer!Whata marvellousphetograph!What a fantasticguital!b Usethesewordsto makeexclamationsaboutthepictures.dark dirty fast marvellous smart unusual funny fantasticSpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /ql/.glass
    • 27REVIEWl::d game:Pickup pairstPhotocopyandcut out cardsfrom all minimal pairsin units 1-6.Shufflethe cardsand dealthem facedown all overthe table.-:STTurn over any two cards and read their sentences aloud. If they areminimal pairs, you keep them and you continue playtng.If these two cards arent minimal pairs, turn them face down again and thenext person plays.Collect asmany pairs asyou can in a time limit, e.g.ten minutes.You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont need to understandeveryword to do this test.rsr 1 For eachline (1,2,3,4, 5),first listen to the whole line.Then circletheone word that is said twice. Note that meaning is not important in thisexercise.The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them incontrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everyday English, and thisis shown by an asterisk*.ti^t tU tCJ"l/8,/tetI bean bin Ben ban bun barn2 beal bit bet bat but Bart3 bead bid bed budbad bard*4 peak pick peck pack Puck* park5 peaty* pity petty Patty putty partyScore2 Circle the words withI cupthe samevowel sound as 1-3.done saddoesnt doesmatch combcopy come hotus yes2 heartt(Ii/jump halfam arm cuthome arearent cancarrycant
    • 28 uNtT7 Review3 sheepli^lslip peoplebread piece anythese stick shopshe this needScore3 IntonationjumbleMatch the correct intonation pattern items a-f with the conversationitems t-6. Number I has been done.I Im goingto makesomejelly.-----r, a) (alist)2 Wouldyou likelemonor cherry? b) Sreslnoquestion)3 Cherry. "- c) (statement)4 CanI help? d) (shortstatementr5 I need a spoon, a bowl, some jelly e) (exclamation)crystalsand some hot water.6 A/hata lovelv colour!f) (questionwithor)Score4 WordstressUnderline the main stressedsyllable in thesewords. (Scorehalf a markper item.)advertising understand Lebanon lemonade sandwichexpensive sunglasses fantastic photograph guitarScoreTotal scoreAdditionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfromUnitst-6Unitl23456Target sound litl ltl lel lal l,rl latlsheep ship pen man cup heartFrom the above table, choose any target sounds that you had difficultywith.I Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, listening for the target sound.2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.4 Check your answers in the key.5 Listen to the dialogue again, listening for the target sound.6 Practisereading the dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compareyour production of the target sound with the recording.You can also use this review task as a quick self-test,by doing steps2 and4 only.
    • 29Irar clock- hats wrong?- [ve got a reallybad backache.- Im sorry to hear that.I Targetsound/o/,., a First practise the sound /a/(seepage l5). Listen and repeat.,.::bb Put your tongue slightly back andbring your lips slightly forward to makethe target sound /o/. Listen and repeat.i-2! c Listen and repeat both sounds together:lel andror.2 14inimalpairsn:SoundIlalhatItshatweather.catHesgota whitecat.faxLookforthefax.(. "el ,(f (s-*d?;:t)c--a&qs-rue&S&-sack sockPutit ina sack. Putit ina sock.Sound2lolhotItshot weather.cotHesgota whitecot.foxLookfor the fox.toPTurnthattopslowly.taPTurnthattapslowly.backs boxI canseetheirbacks. I canseetheirbox.
    • lO unr 8/o/clockMinimalpairwordsAs3aa Listen and repeat the words.eseub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor lal (sound I) or 2 for /o/ (sound 2).H(AMPLE: Pair I: 2,2,1,2,1MinimalpairsentencesAs4ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.es,rud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for la,l (sound l) or 2 for lol(sound2).A54ae sentencestressThemostimportantwordsfor themeaningof a sentencearespokenwith a strongstress.Listento the minimal pair sentencesagainandmatchthemwith the sentencestresspatternsbelow.Thebig circlesarethe strongsyllablesandthesmallcirclesaretheweaksyllables.EXAMPLEoOOo(Pair1)Itshat weather./Itshot weather.a)OooO b) oooOO c) ooOoO d) OoOOo e)OoooOnss f Tickthewordsa)or b) thatyou hearin the sentencesIa)cat I b)cot I2a)sack t] b)sock tr3a)tap I b)top tr4a)Pat tr b)pot I5a) baddieE b) body I6 a)black I b) block I5 Dialoguefl a Firstpractisethe sound/o/in someof thewordsfrom the dialogue.Readvthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.soft hot long strong popular horrible wants what wrongsocks job got often sorry washing Mrs Bloggsnsob Listento the dialogue,payingattentionto the targetsound.Thenreadthe dialogueandfill the gaps(l-6) with thecorrectadjectivesfrom thebox.soft hot long strong popular horrible
    • UNIT8 lol clock If;-. aCvertisementfor OnwashVOICEA: Whatswrongwithyou,MrsBloggs?MRSBLOGCS:Whatswrongwithme?| wanta holidayfromthisr_ job ofwashingsocks!VOICEB: Buya bottleof OnwashiMrsBloggs!VOICEC: Onwashissoz andrvOICED: Youdontwantlotsof + waterwithOnwash.VoICEA: ltsnota s _ job withOnwash.VOICEB: UseOnwashoften.VOICEC: Youwontbe sorrywhenyouvegotOnwash.VOICED: EverybodywantsOnwash.EVERYBODY:Onwashisso6 !{56 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers.Then practisereading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Intonationin suggestionsandcommandsIntonation is the voice going qi or dOrim.Sometimes this shows whetherthe speaker is more polite and friendly or less friendly.esz a Listen.Intonation goesup in a Intonation goesdorninin asuggestion,and this sounds command, and this sounds lesspolite and friendly: friendly:Have a holiday, Mrs Bloggs. Have afu4iday, Mrs Bloggs.Stop wdshing, MrWong. Stop washing, MrWong.Dont dfop that pol!, Ms Morris. Dont drep that pe!, Ms Morris.Put it on the box, Miss Iohnson. Put it on the box, Miss |ohnson.
    • S ur.rre/o/clock)tsr assb lntonationdictationListento the intonation in the sentencesbelow.Decideif they aresuggestions(which arepolite and friendly asthe intonation is goinguflor commands(which arelessfriendly asthe intonation is goingtfotryn).Draw an ilrowup or dorrmin the spacebeforethe stronglystressedword. Number I hasbeendone.I Put thesesocksin the top- dfalger,Iohn. commond2 Put it on top of the box.3 Makethe coffee hot, MrsWong.4 Dor/t washthesesocksin the washingmachine,Robin.5 Dont go to the wrong Ofrce.6 Goto the shops,Oscar.7 Dont go to the wrong doctor,Bronwen.AFBc Listenagainand then practisethe sentences.Recordyourvoice tocompareyour production of the intonation with the recording.5 Spelling>r Lookback over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /o/.
    • 5talc^lball- D.rrrn .rlwaysgoesfor a jog in the morning.- Don?Iogging? In the morning?- o, not Don! His daughter-in-law, Dawn. Shesvery sporty.-argetsoundicll, a First practise the sound /o/(seepage29).Listenand repeat.b The back ofyour tongue goesup alittle more to make the long targetsound /c:/. Listen and repeat.c Listen and repeat both sounds together./o/ is short. /c:/ is long..1inimalpairs;€5F.- ThiscodwasinthHewa--4/I_ti I ltsasmallH-z!rtfoxLookfor the fox.-tAspot-/ I dontliketnesespots.r,rimal pairwords. a Listen and repeat the words.,b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For eachword writefor /oi (sound 1) or 2 for lc;l (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: I,1,2,2,1DJi-Sound2DawnlsyournameDawn?cordThiscordwasin the sea.shortHewasshort.PortItsa smallport.forksLookfortheforks.sPortI dontlikethesesports.*-Z--=jy4:="a
    • t{ unlr 9 lctlballMinimalpairsentenceseorac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.aarud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lol (sound I) or 2 for lctl(sound2).A6rae sentence stressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on page 33). Notice that the strongly stressedwords are LOUDeTand s I o w er.The weakly stressedwords are quieter and quidcu.eoz f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)spots I b)sports f2a)pots I b)ports I3a)cod I b)cord I4a)shot I b)short f5a)Rod I b)roared tr6a)whata ! b)water f5 Dialogue$a Firstpractisethesound/crlin someof thewordsfrom rhedialogue.Readthe wordsaloud or visit the websiteto practise.Laura morning walking towards airport awful alwaysreporter report sports York fault (/fcrlt/ or /folt/)A footballmatcha footballer has fallen over a forwardaoeb Listen to the dialogue, paying particular attention to the target sound.SportsreportfromRadioStation4ANNOUNCER:Thismorningthe Roarersfootballteamarrivedbackfromyorr.LauraShortis our sportsreporter,andshewasat the airport.LAURAsHoRT:cood morning,listeners.Thisis Laurashort.Allthefootballersarewalkingtowardsme.HeresCeorgeBall,the goalkeeper.Coodmorning,Ceorge.cEORcEBALL:Coodmorning.Areyou a reporter?
    • UNIT9 /cr/ball 55LAURAsHoRT:Yes.Ceorse.lm LauraShortfromRadioStation4. Tellusaboutthe footballmatchwithYorkcEoRcEBALL:Well,it wasawful.We lost Andthe scorewasforty-four,four.Butit wasntmv fault.LauraLAURASHORT:Whosefaultwasit,Ceorge?CEORCEBALL:Theforwards.LAURASHORT:Theforwards?cEORcEBALL:Yes.Theforwards.Theywerealwaysfallingoveror losingthe ball!c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 rtonationIntonation is the voice going up or dornrn.We can show a feeling ofsurprise with an intonation that goesa long way up.-.r a Listen to the speakersexpressingsurprise.A: Mr Shortalwaysplaysfootballinthe morning.B: Inthernorning?C: Mr Short?D: Football?e: fways?In this conversation B, C, D and E are all surprised by what A says.B issurprised that he plays in the morning. C is surprised that Mr Short plays.D is surprised that he playsfootbal/. E is surprised that he always pIays.roi b Listen and then expresssurprise about the part of the sentencein italics,like the example.EXAMPLE I sawVictoriaat the qilport.Response:At the airport?I Ive put the ball in the drawer.2 lts too warm ro go walking.3 Georgiawas looking gorgeousthis morning.4 Morganhasboughtprty-ftuefotks,5 Im goingtobuy a horse.6 Yououghtto getup atfuurin themorning.7 I sawOrlandowhen I wasin NewYork.8ltsyoutfault.s SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /crl.
    • 56il lu t book-We should put all these books in that boxnow, shouldnt-Yes, we should.I Targetsound/u/,6roa First practise the sound /o/(seepage29).Listen and rePeat.{6br,b The back of your tongue goesforwardand up a little more to make the target .-:)sound /o/.(-")bh(c Listen and repeat both ofthese shortsounds: lol and lul.2 Minimalpairsr*hl.fffi r,,rocky Kyouup..A rock rookThewindblewaroundthe rock. ThewindblewaroundtheMinimalpairwords{i:4 a Listen and repeat the words.,; bb You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write lfor /o/ (sound 1) or 2 for lal (sound2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 2,2,1,2, IMinimalpairsentencesr,., 6 lislsn to the minimal pair sentences.r,-r,d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /o/ (sound l) or 2 for lul(sound2).
    • eUNITl0 /u/ book SISentencestressAny word in a sentence can become the most important word, and havethe strongest stressto give the sentencea specialmeaning. Listen to theminimal pair sentencesagain and write the word which has thestrongeststressin each pair in the table. Then read the specialmeanings.Strongest stress Special meaningPair I IN Not just anywhere, e.g.near or beside it.Pair 2 Evervbodv else has a different answer.Pair 3 Nobody elsewould do that,Pair 4 But not under it or above it.Pair5 Dont trust anvbodv else., r f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences:I a)cock tr b)cook I2a)lock I b)look tr3a)god I b)good I4a)cod I b)could If ialogue$IaEirstpractisethe sound/u/in someof thewordsfrom thisunit. Readthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.good book foot cook look took should could would fullsugar football bookshelf cookery shouldnt couldnt wouldnt.i b Listento the dialogue,payingattentionto thetargetsound.I :st bookMRCooK: Couldyoutellme whereyouveputmy book,Bronwen?MRSCOOK:lsntit on the bookshelf?MRCooK: No,Thebookshelfisfullof yourcookerybooks.A4RSCOOK:Thenyoushouldlookinthe bedroom,shouldntyou?MRCooK: lvelooked.Youtookthatbookandputit somewhere,didntyou?MRSCOOK:Thelivingroom?MRCOOK:No.lvelooked.lm goingto putallmy booksin a boxandlockit!MRSCoOK:Look,John!ltson thefloornextto yourfootMRCOOI(:Ah!Cood!Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.
    • ffi urrrto/u/book4 Intonation:downtagsE)(AMPLEWeshouldput all thesebooksin that box now,sheuldnt we?Theintonation in most questiontagsis goingdown.This meansthat thespeakerexpectsagreement.Sodoumtagsareuseda lot in conversationstocreateagreementand rapport betweenthe speakers.azza Listenand repeat.shauldyou? shquldnt you? cerld you? eoraldntyou? wo{rldhe?weldnt he?He couldnt cook,cotrldhe? Shecould play foatball,eogldntshe?Youwouldnt look.wauld vou? Thevwould like suear.worldnt thev?il .rzsb Practisein pairs.Listenand respond,like the example.**-:,= rE)(AMPLEShecouldnt cook.A: Shecouldntewk, eErld she?B: No,sheco*rldnt.I Wecouldnt cooka cakewithout sugar.2 Goodfootballersshouldnteattoo much pudding.3 Youshouldlook at somegoodcookerybooks.4 Youwouldntput your foot in it*.(*idiommeaningsayor do thevwongthing)5 Theywouldntcook thebooks*.(*idiom meaningchangethe accountsto stealmoney)5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit atwordswith the targetsound,andwrite whatyou noticedabouthowto spellthe sound/u/.
    • 59-:getsound/ur/-- a First practise the sound /u/(seepage 36). Listen and repeat.-- b Put your tongue up and back a littlemore to make the long targetsound /ur/. Listen and repeat.-. c Listenandrepeatboth soundstogether./u/ is short. /ur/ is long.I "nimalpairslutl boot- , :n full of goodfood.- >uchbeautifulpuddings!- 3urtoomuchsugar...- . hrada hugeservingof chocolatemoussewith stewedfruit.- ""tradthe blueberry souffldandthe rhubarb strudel.- ."ir€6very foolish.I had servingsof gooseberryfool.- -!hata foolyou are!(Note:pol hastwo meanings:I a stupidperson;2 mousse,souffl6,strudelandfool aredesserts)d..u4ffit6d*lr i*;=l/i%i(--PUILt€_*_rhf>!l4vSoundI Sound2lul lu^llook LukeLook,a newmoon! Luke,a newmoon!could cooedThebirdcould. Thebirdcooed.would wooedHewould,Julie, HewooedJulieatthefullmooni atthefullmoon.(Note: proolhas two meanings: I evidence that something is true;2foolproof - made so that it cant be damaged, even by a fool)PullThesignsaidPull.fullThisisntreallyfullproof.PoolThesignsaidPool.foolThisisntreallyfoolproof.
    • 40 uNlr| | /ulrboorMinimalpairwords8rr d List€fl and repeat the words.t rr b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor /u/ (sound 1) or 2 for lw,l(sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 2,2, ).,2,IMinimalpairsentencesIilr c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.tut, d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /u/ (sound l) or 2 for lu;l(sound2).sr e Listen to the strong and weak stressesin: oOoooo a foolproof compllter.Then listen and underline the strong stressesin:OooO waterproof boots oOoOo a wind-proof jacketOooOo childproof containers oOooO an ovenproof dishoOooO a waterproof coat oOooO a bullet-proof vest.rk, f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.r a)look I b)Luke tr2 a)full I b) fool3 a)pull I b) pool-4 a)fullish tr b) foolish !5 a)would E b) wooed I5 Dialoguefl a First practise the sound /ur/ in some of the words and phrasesfrom the-dialogue. Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.who school soup threw unit rudeness rudest studentcontinue computer chewing gum excuseme good afternoonit was you!n; b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and guesswhich words are strongly stressed.The numberin brackets tells you how many strong stressesthere are in that line. Thefirst line has been done.sz c Listen to the dialogue again and underline the strong stresses.Checkyour answers.
    • UNITll /ur/bootffi-re two rudeststudentsin the schoolMlSsLUKE:(l) Coodafterngengirls.GIRLS:(2) Coodafternoon,MissLuke.MISSLUKE: (a) Thisafternoonweregoingto learnhowto cooksoup.(5) Turnon yourcomputersand lookat unittwenty-two.LUCY:(2) Excuseme,MissLuke.MISSLUKE:(l) Yes,Lucy?LUCY;(2) Theressomechewinggum on yourshoe.MISSLUKE: (5) Whothrewtheirchewinggum on the floor?Wasit you,Lucy?LUCY:(2) No,MissLuke.lt wasSusan.MISSLUKE:(l) Who?LUCY:(2) SusanDuke.SUSAN:(3) lt wasntme,stupid.lt wasJulie.JULIE:(1) lt wasyou!SUSAN:(8) lt wasntme!My mouthsfullof chewinggum.Loo( MissLuke!JULiE:( ) Stoppullingmy hair,Susan.lt wasyoulSUSAN:(l) YOU!JULIE:(1) YOU!MISSLUKE:(11) Excuseme!lf youtwo continuewiththisrudeness,youcanstayafterschoolinsteadof goingto the pool.{ Sentencestressna a Listen to this conversation. Notice how the strongly stressedwords areLOUDer, and the weakly stressedwords are said very quiddy.A: Excuseme.B: Yes?A: Couldyoutellme whereI cangetsome(1) shoelaces?B: Yes.Theresa shopnextto the (2) supermarketthatsellsvsrygood(l) shoelaces.lm goingtheretoo.
    • b use the wordsbelowto makemore conversationslike the one in 4a.Trvto saythe unstressedsyllablesquickly.Ishoelacesherbalshampootoothpastetoolsfootball bootstunachewing gumfresh fruit juice2supermarketswimmingpoolcomputer shopnewspaperstandschool5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit atwordswith the targetsound,andwrite whatyou noticed abouthow to spellthe sound/u:/.
    • /*3lst^lgirl- {l my co- rkers have started ... er ... walking:o rr-ork... er ... very early in the morning.- lh. -{nd do yoz walk to rk? -:getsound/sr/* a First practise the sound /crl(seepage 33). Listen and repeat.-r-tb Put your tongue forward and up alittle more to make the target sound/sll. Listen and repeat..-c c Listen and repeat both oftheselong sounds together: lctl and lstl.: ,iinimalpairsA :#ftSoundI Sound2lctl lslfour furShesgotfour. Shesgotfur.torn turnItsa tornsign. ltsaturnsign.uvarm wolmI wouldntlikewarmsoup. I wouldntlikewormsoup.walker workelHesa fastwalker. Hesa fastworker.malpairwords"ruaa Listen and repeat the words.rrrrrb You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor lcll (sound L)or 2 for lstl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 1,2,I,1,2,"f"tV-51rt *a--_-sifenq*93i<g,+*t#,ru
    • 44 UN|T12 l:;l girlMinimalpairsentencestrrra C Listento theminimal pair sentences.nrrud Listento four of the sentencesandwrite 1 for lctl(soundl) or 2 for lstl(sound2).Bllae sentencestressListento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress(onpage43).EXAMPLEI wouldnt like warm soup.MinimalpairsBSoundI Sound2lel ls^lten turnThesignsaysten. Thesignsaysturn.Ben burnLookatit,Ben. Lookatit burn.bed birdItsa colourfulbed. ltsa colourfulbird.west wolstItsthewestwind. ltstheworstwind.MinimalpairwordsErrda Listenandrepeatthewords.Hl;l b Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword write lfor /e/(soundl) or 2 forlsl (sound2).EXAMPLEPairI: 2,2,2,I, IMinimalpairsentencesBlJac Listento the minimal pair sentences.nreud Listento four of the sentencesandwrite I for /e/(sound1)or 2 for ls.^l(sound2).Bt.rae SentencestressListento the minimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress(above).EXAMPLEItsthe westwind.6)fAh,HwL/rviltY.,4LR
    • UN|T12lstl g,irl 45Q et- nalpairsC :iu.btlSoundI Sound2Itl l3llfun fernFabulousfun! Fabulousfern!bun burnLookatthatbun. Lookatthatburn.w6ti-qJlGH5-#,Si.[tbud birdThatsa tinylittlebud. Thatsa tinylittlebird.-O ll girl$ Theresa gullontheb :h. ih.,., a girlonthebeach.- nal pairwordsa Listen and repeat the words.b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor /,r/ (sound l) or 2 for ls.^l(sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: 1,2,1,2,I-"ralpairsentencesc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.d Listen to four of the sentencesand write I for /n/ (sound l) or 2 for lll(sound2).e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(above).EXAMPLE Fabulous fun!f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences:t a)bed I b) bud I c) bird I2a)Bens tl b)buns f c)burns tr3a)ward tr b)word I4a)walk I b)work I5a)short tr b)shirt I6a)or I b)er Ii I alogueo a First practise the sound /srl in words from the dialogue below. Readthewords aloud or visit the website to practise.were werent nurse worst world shirts hurts thirstvThursday dirty Sir Herbert Colonel Burtonb Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the rarget sound.
    • $. UN|Tl2 lstl girlTheworstnurseSIRHERBERT:NUTSe!COLONELBURTON:Nurse!lmthirstylSIRHERBERT:Nurse!My headhurts!COLONELBURTON:NurseShermanalwayswearssuchdirtyshirts.SIRHERBERT:He neverarrivesat workearly.COLONELBURTON:Heand er ... NurseTurnerwerentat workon Thursdav,werethev?SIRHERBERT:No,theywerent.COLONELBURTON:NurseShermanistheworstnursein theward.isnthe.SirHerbert?SIRHERBERT:No,he isnt,ColonelBurton.Hestheworstnursein theworld!c Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 lntonation:up or downtagsBls a Theintonationof questiontagsisusuallygoingdown.Thismeansthespeakerexpectsagreement.Down tagsareuseda lot to createagreementandrapportbetweenthe speakers.EXAMPLEA:Wewereatwork early,werent we?B:Yes,wewere.Sometimestheintonationgoesup.Thismeansthe speakeris not sureifthe information is correctand is askingthe listenerto checkit. Beforeanup tagthereis oftena slightpause..EXAMPLEA:Thenurseswereatwork on Thursday,werent they?B:Yes,thevwere.
    • UNIT12/sr/girl S. r b Up or down?Listenand mark intonation arrowson the tagsSlexpects agreement)orI (notsure).NumberI hasbeendone.I Theywerent walking to work, rqdrethey? notsure2 Thosedirfy shirtswereNurseTqlners,werent they?3 ThewardswererttdtW, werethey?4 Theywerent speakingGelman,werethey?5 Thosenurseswerethirsw, werentthev?6 TheColoneland SirHerbertwerethe worst patientsin theward,wererlt they?c Practisereadingthe questionsabovewith the sameintonation. Recordyour voiceto compareyour production of the intonation with therecording.5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit atwordswith the targetsoundand write what younoticedabouthow to spellthe sound/srl.
    • lel acamera48- Remember to telephone your sisterthe day after tomorrowfor her birthday.- And dont forget to send a letter to your brother.- Shall I send you a letter?- Of course.But dont forget to telephone as soon asyou arrive.I Targetsound/a/B20aa First practise the sound /sl/(seepage 43). Listen and repeat.szoub Make the same sound but very veryshort to make the target sound /e/.Listen and repeat.Bzocc Listen and repeat both sounds together:/srl is long. /e/ is very short.3 e pair ef binoculas4 e photegraph efhemother end fathe5 a book eboutSouth americeCover the words on the left and practise questions and answers.EXAMPLE A: Mhatsin picture two?B: e glassef wate2 lel in unstressedwordsandsvllablesepil rllt"ggggrca photograph ofhermother and fathera book aboutSouth AmericaBzraa Listen and repeat.The spelling has been changed in the words on theright to show you when to use the sound /e/.*@ I e photegraph efBarberea glassof water 2 e glassaf wate(.-) --------..t;1r@
    • Tellingthe timeListen and repeat.Look at the clock.Mhatsthe time?Its six oclock.Its a quarter to seven.Now practise these.EXAMPLE A: /hats the time?B: Its e quarte te twelve.UNIT15 /e/ a carnera 4!fLook et the clock.Mhatsthe time?Its six aclock.Its e quarte ta seven.oot,3 ;eadingooeoooo@aloudQa Readthis story aloud or visit the website to practise.The spelling hasbeen changed to showyou when to make the sound /e/. Recordyourvoice to listen to your production of the target sound.Barberespent Satedayaftenoon Iooking et e beautifal book ebout Southemerice.I want te go te South emerice, she said te heself.The next morning, when Barberewoke up it wes six eclock, end hebrothes end sisteswe still esleep.Barberelooked et them, end thenclosed her eyesegain.Then she quietly got out af bed end started te pack he suitcase.Shetook same comfeteble clothes out ef tha cupbed. Shepacked epair ef binocules end he sistescamera.Shepacked e photegraph efhaselfend one ef he mothar and fathe.I musnt fegette have same breaKest, she said ta haself.Bet then shelooked et the clock. It wes e quarte to seven.Ill jest drink e glassef wate, she said.e glassef wate, she said.Wate,she said, end opened her eyes.Shewes still in he bed, and he brothes end sisteswe laughing et he.Tell eswhat you we dreaming ebout, they said te he.Bat Barberedidnt answe.Shewes thinking ebout he wondefuliourney te South americe.
    • f unrrtt latacameraszzb WeakformsListento the exampleof the weakform and the strongform of uras.H(AMPLEWesshedreaming?This is the sound/a/.This is the weakform of uas.Yes,shewas.This is a different sound.This is the strongform of urasThenlisten and repeat.Wesshethinking about SouthAmerica? Yes,shewas.Waher brothersand sistersasleep? Yes,theywere.Dethey like reading? Yes,theydo.Heveyou readabout SouthAmerica? Yes,I have.Dasyour friend like reading? Yes,he does.eweworking hard? Yes,we are.Hasyour friend beento SouthAmerica? Yes,he has.Canyou swim? Yes,I can.nzs c Tick the wordsa)or b) that you hearin the sentences.la)has f b)hes I2a) can I b) cen I3a)was I b)was I4a)does I b)das I5a)am I b)em I6a)them tr b)them I
    • ,U,NITl5 /e/a cameraffi- - 3rOgU€a Readthis dialogueand circlethe soundlal.The first line hasbeendonefor you.ltr:COlfl$A: tm going6thd libr&y.B: Canyou buysomethingfor me at the newsagents?A: Butthe newsagentsis a milefromthe library.B: No.Notthatnewsagents.Notthe onethatsnextto the fishandchipshop.I meanthe onethatsnearthe butche/s.A: Oh,yes.Well,whatdo youwant?B: Somechocolatesanda tin of sweetsandan addressboor.ir:r b Listen and check your answers, then practise reading the dialoguealoud. Record your voice to compare your production of the targetsound with the recording.t SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /a/.
    • 52TIREVIEWCardgame:Pickup samesoundsTESTPhotocopy and cut out cards from all minimal pairs in Units B-13.Shuffle the cards and deal them face down all over the table.Turn over any two cards and read their sentencesaloud. If they are thesame vowel sound you keep them and you continue playing.If those two cards arent the samevowel sound, turn them face down againand the next person plays.Collect as many same sound pairs asyou can in a time limit, e.g.tenminutes.You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont have to understandevery word to do this test.nz-,I Foreachline (I,2,3,4),firstlistentothewholeline.Thencircletheoneword - or part of a word - that is said twice. Note that meaning is notimportant in this exercise.The purpose is to review the sounds byhearing them in contrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everydayEnglish, and this is shown by an asterisk*.Incomplete words have therest of the word written in brackets, e.g.foll(ow).lvl/uttDtI Poll(y) Paul pull pool Pearl2 foll(ow) fall fooltull furl*3 cod cord could cooed curd*4 wad ward would wooed* wordScore2 Circle the words with the same vowel sound as 1-4.I birdt3^/bed wererude burnearly board shirtworst shot2 ball,torn watergirl all glassfour logtalk nurse
    • 3 boot/u"l4 bookhv,lUNIT14 Review 55full boxcook wholock threwwould looktool goodIookshoe twocouldthoughmornrngsuper doclockscoref -l-z-ol3 Listento the sentencesandmarkwhichkind of questiontagisbeingused:agreement(expected) unsure(socheckingthe information)I You can buy bootlaces at the shoeshop,cantyou?2 That carpet shop sellscushions too, doesnt it?3 Suebought her flute at the music shop, didnt she?4 Youdlike a new cookerv book, wouldnt Vou?5 The bookshopsnext to the newsagents,isnt it?6 You do want your birthday presentsto be a surprise,dont you?score| 7b]Total score [- ]:- :ionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfromUnits8-12Unit I I 10 ll L2 13Target sound lol lc;l htl lutl lrtl lalclock ball book boot girl a cameraFrom the above table, choose anytarget sounds that you had difficultywith.1 Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, Iistening for the target sound. Ifyou have chosen the target sound /e/,listen for that sound in any of thedialoguesfrom Units 8-12.2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.4 Check your answers in the key.5 Listen to the dialogue again, Iistening for the target sound.6 Readthe dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the CD.You can also use this review task asa quick self-test,by doing steps2and 4 only.
    • 54letl male- Im afraid Ive made a mistake on this form.Is your name spelt C-K?My occupation. Im not a wine taster. Im a food tester.Targetsound/erlB2zaa Firstpractisethesound/e/(seepageI 1).Thenpractisethe shortsound/r/ (seepage7).Listenandrepeat.szzub Ioin the two sounds:/eeer/.B27cc Listenandrepeatthe targetsound/erl.Thesecondpart of the soundis shorter.2 MinimalpairsSoundI Sound2lel lerl,I.4<fure-PenWhatanawfulpenlshedThedogsintheshed.edgeItsa difficultedge.wetJustwet.ParnWhatanawfulpain!shadeThedogsintheshade.a8eItsa difficultage.waitJustwait.ome&,^@ffit*7.Itest tasteTestthisfood. Tastethisfood.FAtpIlr Ilt000ual pairB28a tlnzsrbPePPer PaPelThatstoomuchpepper. Thatstoomuchpaper.wordsListenand repeatthe words.Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.For eachword, writefor /e/(sound1)or 2 forletl (sound2).EXAMPLEPairl: 1,I,2,2,1--->F#Minim
    • UN|r t5 /er/male 55: latr sentences. c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.- d Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lel (sound l) or 2 for letl(sound2).e SentencestressFirst read the minimal pair sentencesand try to guesswhich words willbe stressed.Notice which words are nouns, adjectivesor main verbs.Theseare often important, and the most important words for themeaning of a sentenceare stressed.Then listen to the sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(onpage54).EXAMPLE VVhat an aryful pcn! / iVhat an awful paiu!f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences,1a)pen tr b)pain I2a)shed tr b)shade I3a)pepper! b)paper tr4a)ler tr b)late tr5a)letter I b)later tr6a)get I b)gate II - : loguea First practise the target sound /erl in some words from the dialogue.Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.made late changed may say train waiting eightGrey timetable April station ages Baker eighteenafraid mistake todayb Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.- -: railwaystation(Mr Creyis woiting ot the roilwoy stotion for o troin.)MRCREY:Thistrainslate!lvebeenwaitinghereforages.PoRTER:Whichtrain?MRCREY:The8.l8 to BakerStreet.PORTER:The8.l8? lm afraidyouvemadea mistake,sir.MRGREY:A mistake?Mytimetablesays:BakerStreettrain- B.lBPoRTER:Oh no.TheBakerStreettrainleavesat B.OB.MRGREY:At 8.08?PoRTER:Theychangedthe timetableat the end of April.ltsthe firstof MaytodayMRcREY:Changedit?MayI seethe newtimetable?Whatdoesit say?
    • 55 UNITl5 /erlmalePORTER:lt says:BakerStreettrain- 8.08.MRGREY:Oh no,youreright.Thetrainisntlate.I am.c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 lntonationB3za In a conversation we can show surprise by repeating the other personswords with the intonation going up. Listen.EXAMPLESA: Im afraid youve made a mistake, sir. B: A mistake?A: They changed the timetable. B: Changed it?osr b Write Bspart in the conversation below by repeating the part in italics.Note that number 7 needs a different word in the answer.Drawintonation arrows following the example in l. Check your answersbyIistening to the recording and then practise the intonation. Recordyourvoice to compare your production of the intonation with the recording.1 A: Itstheeighth of May. B: rheeighth?2 A: Yes.ItsMrs Greysbirthday today. B:3 A: Yes.Sheseighty-eight. B:4 A: Yes.And shesgoingawayfor a holiday B:5 A: Thatsright.And shesgoingbyplane. B:6 A: Yes.Shewantsto go toSpain. B:7 A: Thatsright.,Vhydontyou gowith her? B:s SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about spelling the sound /erl.
    • 57rIllr.,larl tme- er ... Hr! ... Are you all riglrt?... er ... ,t ,uld vou like a ride in mv cart?- .,rhanks. Im fine. Im just flring mv kite.*:d enjoying the sunshine.- )h ... er ... alright! Havea nice time!I Targetsoundiarla Firstpractisethe long sound /oll (seepage23).Then practisethe shortsound /r/ (seepage7).Listenand repeat.b loin the two sounds:/orqro:r/.c Listenand repeatthe targetsound /arl.The secondpart ofthe sound is shorter.IMinimal:o (z)tj"-.-r,a./r_-(sGfue*iV:ParrsSeundE Sound2iUi allbar buyThatwasa goodbar. Thatwasa goodbuy.bark bikeWhata noisybark. Whata noisybike.Pa pieHe loveshisPa. He loveshispieeyeItsgottwo Rs. lts8oi tvvoeyes.cart kiteItsa cart. ltsa kite.heart heightCheckthe heart. Checkthe height.,fi,qA,*fl-,tK(Y..r-.r,q|--!:^J@Vv&/,5/<>-(t,c)..*T{-?l*i2-{
    • .5S uNtT 16/arl fineMinimalpairwordssss a Listen and repeat the words.eso b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor la,^l(sound I) or 2 for latl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 2,2, I,I,7MinimalpairsentencesB37ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.sszud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for latl (sound l) or 2 for larl(sound2).B3zae SentenCestreSSListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress (on page 57). Strongly stressedwords are LOUDeT and s I o w er.Weakly stressedwords are quieter and qufu*erEXAMPLE That was a good buy.nsa f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a) cart I b) kite I2 a) darning! b) dining I3a)star tr b)sW tr4a)laugh tr b)hfe I5a)hard tr b)hide tr6a)Pa I b)pie trHeidi,Carolineand Nigel(Heidi ond Corolineore both typing)HEtDt:(Stopstyping.Shessmiling.)Hi,Nigel.NTCEL:Hi,Heidi.Hi,Caroline.Yourelookingl_ , Caroline(Silencefrom Coroline.Shekeepstyping)NTGEL:Wouldyou likesome2_ coffee,Caroline?5 Dialogue*a Firstpractisethe targetsound/a/ in wordsfrom the dialogue.Readthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.hi right ride smile five nine drive Miles Heidi RileyNigel Caroline bike nice type iced mobile climbingspider Friday library tonightssg b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps l-f 0 with the correcr words from the box.bike nice type iced mobile climbing spider Fridaylibrary tonight
    • CAROLINE:NIGEL:CAROLINE:NIGEL:CAROLINE:NIGEL:CAROLINE:NICEL:HEIDI:CAROLINE:HEIDI:UNITl6 /ari fine 51I(Keepson typing.)No thanks,Nigel lm busytyping.I have99 pagesto 5_ by Friday.Nevermind.Doyoulikemotor riding,Caroline?Sometimes.(Mobilephonerings.)... My s_ ! . Hello...(Sniles.)...Hi,Riley!Mmmm!... (Loughs.). ldlikethat..Mmmm ... at five... atthe .. its19 HighStreet . byebyel (Corolineputs owoy her mobile ond stortsVping)Wouldyou liketo comeridingwith me 7_ , Caroline?Nottonight,Nigel.lm goingfor a drivewith Riley.(Smilesto herselfond keepsAping)Whatabout8 ?Friday?lm goings_ with Miles.Allrightthen.Bye.Caroline,Nigelsputsomethingbehindyourcomputer.ls it somethingnice,Heidi?No.ltsa loc Listen to the dialogue to check your answers. Then practise reading thedialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare your production of thetarget sound with the recording.,.lrdstressa Listen and repeat.flyrng ice skating sky diving driving horse riding wine tastingkite flying climbing cyclingi b Use the words above to practise this conversation.A: I think is quiteexciting.Do you likeit?B: Yes.Wouldyou liketo come with me on Friday?R: ld reallyliketo Butlm busyon Friday.Wouldsomeothertimebe allright?! rellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /all.
    • 50lctl boy- I put all this oil in the rice?-Yes,all the oil, and then let it boil.Targetsound/crlnrrr a First practisethe sound /crl (seepage33).Then practise the short sound /r/(seepage 7). Listen and repeat.rrrrtb Ioin the two sounds: lctc.c..r|.nrr, c Listen and repeatthe targetsound /cll.The second part of the sound is shorter.2 MinimalpairsSoundIlttlallItsallthere.ballItsaballonhishead.cotnLookatthatgoldencorn.J:.r <-:=>#ri3t@MffiRoyHeartheEVAnn.{i{+-.rUVs-toalHeartheengineroar. engine,Roy.MinimalpairwordsIr.r a Listen and repeat the words. Then listen and repeat.nr:t b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, writefor ltl (sound L) or 2 for lctl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 1,2,I,2,2MinimalpairsentencesB{rac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.u.r*, d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for lctl (sound l) or 2 for ltl(sound2).Sound2IttloilItsoilthere.boilItsa boilon hishead.coinLookat thatgoldencoin.tore toyThepapertore. Thepapertoy.
    • UNIT17hrl bov 6*t..e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and notice that the mostimportant words for the speakersmeaning are LOUDer. The lessimportant words for the meaning are r4i.iir:t*r.Underline the mostimportant words in the sentences(on page 60).EXAMPLE Hear the engine, Roy.. f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a) corn f b)coin Iz a) bawling I b) boiling !3a)all tr b)oil I4a)aw I b)oi tr5a)bore tr b)boy tr6a)all tr b)oil tr3ogueI a First practise the target sound /crl in words from the dialogue. Readthe-words aloud or visit the website to practise.boy toy noise voice spoilt pointing destroyed employedappointment annoying disappointinglntonationin namesThe main stressis on the last name.JoyceRoyal Roy Coyne Rolls Royceb Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.RoyalsRollsRoyce(JoyceRoyoltokesher noisy RollsRoyceto the mechonicemployedot thegoroge,o young boy nomed RoyCoyne.Royloves RollsRoyces)ROYCOYNE:Whata terriblenoise,MrsRoyallJOYCEROYAL:lsntit annoying,Roy?Itsoutof oil.ROYCoYNE:A RollsRoyce!Outofoil? . Andlookl(pointing)...Thewate/sboilinglPerhapsyouvespoiltthe motor.Or evendestroyedit.Howdisappointing!ltssucha beautifulRollsRoycel (oising hisvoicd ANDA ROLLSROYCEISNTA TOY!JGYCEROYAL:Howdisappointing!lllbe latefor my appointment.
    • ffi unr fl lctlboyc Practisereadingthe dialoguealoud.Recordyour voiceto compareyourproduction of the targetsoundwith the recording.4 Wordstresssaoa Guessthe main stressedsyllablein eachword in this list. (Theyallcontainthesamesound.)Thenlistenandcheckyour answers.annoying unemployment oyster employer appointmentenjoy poisonous destroyer ointment moist embroidery toiletdisappointed joinb Dictionarywork:secondarystressln Shipor Sheep?the main stressin aword is shonmin bold,e.g.employment.Whenyou meeta newword,you canchecktheword stressin a gooddictionary @.g.CambridgeLearnersDictionary).Most dictionariesusethe symbolrin front of themain stressedsyllable,andthe symbol,toshowanysecondarystress(usuallyin longerwords),e.g./nnrmrplcrment/.Choosefour of thelongestwordsin thelist in 4aanduseyour dictionaryto checkifthere is anysecondarystress.5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /crl.
    • Nlaui house ; rour cow?:r":er norIm takingit to RoyCoyne.Itsrunning: :rt askaboutyour car!I saidhowsyour cow?- Know,your br cow!:et sound/aul- a First practise the sound lel (seepage 23).Then practise the sound /u/(seepage36).Listen and repeat.-- b Ioin the two sounds: lna,r;al.- c Listen and repeat the target sound /aul.The second part of the sound is shorter. ^imalpairsSoundI Sound2la;l laolcar cowItsthe bestcar. ltsthe bestItwasa longbowItwasabrowarch ouchArch!he saidloudlv. Ouch!he said-al pairwords:a3 Listen and repeat the words.,,b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor latl (sound l) or 2 for laul (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: 2, l,1,2,2barDar. longbow.TheresbeautifulbraHerbrawaswrinkled. Herbrowwaswrinkledgrass glousegrasshere. Theresbeautiful
    • ffi urrrr18/aulhouseMinimalpairsentencess"rgac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.nlsbd Listen to five of the sentences and write I for latl (sound l) or 2 for laul(sound 2).B4sae SentencestressFirst read the minimal pair sentencesand notice which words areadjectivesor adverbs.These are often important for the meaning of asentence (aswell as nouns and main verbs).Then listen to the sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on page 63).EXAMPLE Its the best car.aso f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.la)car I b)cow I2a)grass I b)grouseI3a)bra tr b)brow I4a)ha5a)ah6a)tarn I b)tourn tr! DialogueI b)how trI b)ow! IO a Firstpractisethe sound laulinwords from the dialogue.Readthe wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.ow! now how shouting house mouse couch loudly towndor.tm frovrm brovrm round found lounge ground somehowmountain around pronounce upsidedownasr b CorrectionTherearesixitems to changein the dialogue.Readthe dialogueandlistento therecordingatthe sametime.Makethewordsthesameastherecording,mouseinthehouseMR BROWN:MRSBROWN:MR BROWN:MRSBROWN:MR BROWN:MRSBROWN:MR BROWN:(shoutingloudly)lYEFOUNDA MOUSE!Ow!Youreshoutingtoo loudly.Sitdownanddontfrown.(sittingdown) lvefounda mousein the house.A town mouse?Yes.A littleroundmouse.ltsrunningaroundin the lounge.On theground?Yes.ltsunderthe couchnow.
    • UNITl8 /ailrhouse 55MRSBROWN:Well,getit out.MRBR0WN:How?MRSBROWN:Turnthe couchupsidedown.Cetit outsomehowWedontwantamousein ourhouse.Oursisthe cleanesthouseinthetownlc Practisereading the corrected dialogue. Recordyour voice to compareyour production of the target sound with the recording.Stressin phrasalverbsir;: a EXAMPLE f Sit dor,r,n.Listen and repeat.I Hessitting dolrm.2 Heslying down.3 Hesstanding up.4 Hesturning round.5 Hesshouting out.6 Hesrunning around.4 Turn it down.5 Work it out.b Match these oictures with the correct sentencesin 4a.d Match these pictures with the correct sentencesin 4c.SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /aul.a),.| e)e)a(( (:B;.r C EXAMPLE 2 Get it out.Listen and repeat.I Put it dornm.2 Take it out.3 Throw it out.
    • 66lleurphone- Are you going to go to the boat sh- Mmm ... dont know ... Maybe Ill go with Bert.- Does Bert have a boat?-No.-oh.1 Targetsound/eu/Bs4aa First practise the sound /sr/ (seepage 43).Then practise the sound /u/(seepage36).Listen and repeat.ss+nb Join the two sounds:/slsrsru/.Bs4cc Listen and repeat the target sound /au/.The second oart of the sound is shorter.3: ---:: -_::---u z-:-fern phoneItsa greenfern. ltsa greenphone.Bert boatThatsmyBert. Thatsmyboat.work wokeI workearly. I wokeearly.flirt floatHelikesflirting. HelikesfloatingMinimalpairwordsBssaa Listenandrepeatthewords.essub Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword write Ifor lc^l(soundI) or 2 forleul (sound2).E)(AMPLEPair1: 2,I,I,2,7#mSoundI Sound2ls^l laulburn boneItsa largeburn. ltsa largebone.
    • UNIT19 laal ohone 67- 3 Pairsentences--- c Listen to the minimal pair sentences. d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for lcrl (sound l) or 2 for leul(sound2).e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and notice the strong stresson the pair words.EXAMPLE oooO/oooO Its a green fern.i Its a green phone.Notice how all the other words in the sentence are said more quiddyandquietly. Underline the sentence stressin the sentences(on page 66).-al pairsBiaw JoeItsmy jaw ltsmy Joe.ball bowlCivemetheball. Civemethebowl.-.al pairwords- a Listen and repeat the words..: b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word vwite Ifor lcll (sound l) or 2 for laul (sound 2).HGMPLE Pair1: 2,2, I,L,2-al pairsentencesrac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.-qt,d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /crl (sound I) or 2 for leul(sound2).ffirqn"6ller&:,-!Ejj@wI*-lftt/ I --t-f}-iie/tS,t/, ltl lfSoundIl;, IcaughtCinoscaught.noughtItsa nought.boughtWehada boughtpicnic.Sound2leulcoatCinoscoat.noteItsa note.boatWe hada boatpicnic.
    • ffi ur.rrrt9 /eu/phoneBssae SentencestressListento the minimal pair sentencesagainand underline the sentencestress(onpage67).EXAMPLEGinoscaught., 860 f Tick the words a),b) or c) that you hearin the sentences.I a)fern I b) phone I2a)or I b)oh I3a)ball I b)bowl I4a)burn I b)bone tr5a)walk I b)work tr c)woke f5 Dialogueu Eitrt practisethe targetsound laulinwords from the dialogue.Readthewordsaloudor visit thewebsiteto practise.oh go no know Ioe sno/ throw coat woke nose closeddont Iones only window over going snowball jokingOctober helloser b Listento the dialogue,paylngattention to the targetsound.Snowin October(JoeJonesis sleeping,but Joonno woke up a few minutes ogo.)JoANNA:JoelJoelJOEIHello,wakeup,Joe!toE: (groons)Oh!Whatis it,Joanna?JOANNA:Lookout of the window.JoE: No.My eyesareclosed,andlm goingto goto sleepagain.JOANNA:Oh!Dontgoto sleep,Joe.Lookat the snow!JoE: Snow?ButitsonlyOctober.I knowtheresno snowJOANNA:Comeoverto the window,Joe.JoE: Yourejoking,Joanna,Theresno snow.JOANNA:OK.lllput my coaton andgo out andmakea snowballandthrowit atyournose,JoeJones!c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.
    • UNITl9 iaoi phone 69I RhymingNotice that laal may sound different when followed by the letterl.a Listen and repeat.old hole bowl cold hold stole sold told goldIn the list above five words rhyme vlr.thold, and two words rhyme withhole.Nhich words are they?EXAMPLE gold rhyrnes withold.b Rhyming crosswordThe clues are words which rhyme with the answer but do not have thesame meaning.CluesAcross:I only2 dont3 know-1 Joe5 billowSpellingDown:I slow2 Iohn3 snow4no5 helloLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatr-ounoticed about how to spell the sound /eu/.
    • 70I rlel vear- Theresa beein your beer.- I cartthear.- I said htrtJsto you, my dt ar.- Chters,dtar! Ive beenht aring that joke abouta beein my btt-rfor nearly sixty-threey(rars.t TargetsoundirolRriraa First practise the sound /r/ (seepage 7).Then practise the sound /e/(seepage 48). Listen and repeat.Irii.]lb Join the two sounds: /tIta/.rr,,,.c Listen and repeat the target sound /lel.2 MinimalpairsJ-SoundI Sound2t:,,IirE ealThatEstoobig. Thatearstoobig.beeItsa smallbee.teaThisteatastessalty.beerItsa smallbeer.tearThisteartastessalty.Pea PrelItsanoldpea. ltsanoldpier.bead beardHe hasa blackbead. He hasa blackbeard.Minimalpairwordsrp.l,a Listenandrepeatthewords.n,i4r,b Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword,write lfor lill (soundl) or 2 for lrcl(sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 2,l,1,2,2
    • UNIT20 irel vear 7Irr- -ndlpairsentences.. c Listen to the minimal pair sentences. d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /i:/ (sound l) or 2 for lrcl(sound2)..--. e SentencestressFirst imagine how the minimal pair sentenceswill be spoken if the onlystressis on the pair word.EXAMPLE He has a black beard.Imagine this word being said more LOUDIy and s I o w ly, and all theother words more quiddyandquietl1,.Then listen to the sentencesagainand underline the sentencestress(on page 70).. f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)bee tr b)beer tr2a)tea I b)tear I3a)bead tr b)beard I4a)pea I b)pier tr5a)Es I b)ears tr6a)Dee I b)dear tr5 Dialogue-na First practise the target sound /re/ in some words from the dialogue.wReadthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.dear Lear here nearly bearded idea Austria windierdisappear atmosphere beer clear year hear cheers beardmountaineer beert r: b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fitl the gaps f -B with the correct words from the boxbelow.beer clear year hear cheers beard mountaineer beerAbeardedmountaineer(Mr ond Mrs Leorore on holrdoyin Austrio.)MRLEAR:Letshavea t _ here,dear.MRSLEAR:Whata goodidea!Theyhaveverygoodbeerhere.We cameherelast2MRLEAR:Theatmosphereherersvery3_ .MRSLEAR:Butitswindierthanlastyear.MRLEAR:(speokingto the woiter)Twobeers,please.MRSLEAR:Look,dear!Lookatthat4_ drinkingbeer.
    • 72 uNfT2o lrcl vearMRLEAR:Hiss isin hisbeer.MRSLEAR:Hisbeardhasnearlydisappearedintohis6_ IMRLEAR:ShlHemight7_WATTER:(binging thebeer)Hereyou are,sir.Twobeers.MRLEAR:Thankyou.(drinkinghisbee) CheerslftIRSLEAR:8 | Heresto the beardedmountaineerl 867 c Listen to the dialogue and check your answers.Then practise readingthe dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare your production ofthe target sound with the recording.4 Theletterr- pronouncedor silent?When there is no vowel following it, /r/ is silent. Thisrule only applies tosome speakersof English, e.g.in south-east England, South Africa,Australia. But many native speakersalwayspronounce lrl, e.g.in south-west England, Scotland,America. Soyou may chooseto omit this exerciseif you are learning a variety of English where /r/ is alwayspronounced.868a Listen and repeat.rnot pronounced rpronounced (before a vowel)Here they are. Here_are_all the books.Heresthe beer. The beer_is here_on the table.aosb Readthese sentencesand decide which words have r oronounced.Then listen and check.I can hear Mr Lear. He can hear us too.Mr Lear calls herdear. Dear old Mrs Lear is here in the kitchen.Hesa mountaineer. A mountaineer always spendssome time eachyear in the mountains.5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /rel.
    • 7Tleel chairtrtr,rihr--.s rhe rredding? Here?....": ir(rrrnrrhdr? ... And ... Oh, my dear, I wouldnt dare!-r-i=: soundieelFirstpractise/e/ (seepagell).Then practise /e/ (seepage 48).Listen and repeat.Ioin the two sounds: leeeel.Listen and repeat the target sound /eel.Jai ri- ral pairsF:"a@Howdo youtear tearThatsa tear. Thatsa rear.Cheers! chairsThreecheers!he said. Threechairs!he said.pairwordsa Listen and repeat the words.b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor lrcl (sound l) or 2 for leel (sound 2),EXAMPLE Pair1: 2,2,1,I,2€w,.swi:€LfrSoundI Sound2ltol lealeal airTheearisntgood. Theairisntgood.beer bearItsa sweetbeer. ltsa sweetbear.PrerThatsanoldpier.hearspellhea/?PealThatsanoldpear.hairHowdo youspellhai/?(-ta,
    • 74. uxr 2l /ea/chairMinimalpairsentencesB:2ac Listento theminimal pair sentences.n;zud Listento sixof the sentencesandwrite I forlrcl (soundl) or 2 forleel(sound2).e;zae sentencestressListento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress(onpage73).EXAMPLEHowdo you spellhear?szs f Tickthewordsa)or b) thatyou hearin the sentences.I a)cheers E b) chairs trZa)beer I b) bear I3a)pier tr b)pear I4a)here I b)hair tr5 a)dear I b) Dare I6 a)clear I b) claire !5 Dialoguefl a First practise the target sound leel inwords from the dialogue. Read the- words aloud or visit the website to practise.where there theyre pair hair chair Claire square Maryupstairs dovrrnstairs every"wheresz+ b Listen to the dialogue, paying particular attention to the target sound.A pairof hairclipsMARY:lvelosttwo smallhairclips,Claire.Theyrea pair,CLAIRE:Haveyou lookedcarefullyeverywhere?MARY:Yes.Theyrenowherehere.Theyiustarentanywhere!CLAIRE:HaveyoulookeduPstairs?MARY:(geftrngimpotient)UpstairslDownstairslEverywhere!Theyiustarentthere!CLAIRE:Hm!Aretheysquare,Mary?MARY:Yes.Why?CLAIRE:Well,yourewearingoneof themin yourhairlMARY:OhlThenwheresthe otherone?CLAIRE:ltsoverthereunderthatchair.MARY:Hm!c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.
    • UNIT2l/ee/chair ?$i. --: ietterr - pronouncedor silent?Vhen there is no vowel following it, /r/ is silent. Thisrule only applies tosome speakersof English, e.g.in south-east England, South Africa,.ustralia. But many native speakers always pronounce lrl , e.g.in south-rvest England, Scotland, America. Soyou may choose to omit this exerciseif you are learning a variety of English where /r/ is always pronounced.a Listen and repeat.r not pronounced rpronounced (before a vowel)Claire Claire_and Marya pair a pair_of shoesa square chair a square_envelopeb Readthesesentencesand decide which words have r nronounced.Then listen and check.Its there. There it is.Theyre here. Theyre under a table.Ive looked everywhere for them. Ive looked everywhere in the house.: j ::,lingLookbackoverthis unit atwordswith the targetsound,andwrite whatvounoticedabouthowto spellthe sound/eel.
    • 76REVIEWCardgame:Pairssnap**, Photocopy and cut out cards from all minimal pairs in Units 15-21.ari;Shuffle the cards and deal them face dovrrnto make a pile of cards in frontof each player.Take turns to quickly turn your top card face up and put it on top of a ner.tpile in the middle of the table.,Vhenyou seetwo cards together that are aminimal pair, quickly saySnapl and put your hand on the pile. Then youcan add all those cards to your pile.Collect as many cards asyou can in a time limit, e.g.ten minutes.TESTYou can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont have to understandeveryword to do this test.B;z I For each line (1,2, 3,4, 5), first listen to the whole line, then circle theone word, or part of a word, that is said twice. Note that meaning is notimportant in this exercise.The purpose is to review the sounds byhearing them in contrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everydarEnglish, and this is shornrrwith an asterisk*. Incomplete words have therest of the word written in brackets, e.g. Woy(Woy).IAUI/)v/auletlboyI bay2 hayoh!OwlIwhybuy bow (v) bow (n) beer bearhigh Hoy!* how here hairaIrHo!3A4 weigh5 thy*^--,--SCOreI / 5I paperteuWoy(Woy*)Wow!oy!*welrtie toy Tao* toe tier2 Circlethe wordswith the samevowelsoundas1-5.2 shinetalledge bargepage voyagepercentageweight frightpain poppiespeppermachinesing noiseshy spoiltfrightenedstars darnsigh shorn
    • 3 houselaulUNIT22 Review 7f4 noseteu/horse howshose harmsgrass owl alltour foundgooseclassannoys homesoup mouse snowserve gnawsthough through5 pearIeelpea beerpier theirtheyre starepain closedagain earsScorePronounced/silentrShowwhere the letterr is pronounced. (ScoreI for each correct line.)EXAMPLE Are Amber and Roger architects?I Were looking for a builder or an architect, Adler and Anderson.2 iVhereare their offices?3 Theyre over there, arent they?4 Are you an engineer or an architect, Mr Adler?5 Im a structural engineer and this is Blair Anderson, our architect.ScoreWordstressUnderline the stressedsyllablein thesewords or phrases.(Scorehalf amark per item.)timetable today cycling horse riding appointment snowballatmosphere nowhere work it out turn it dor,rmScoreTotalscoreI oi
    • ffi utrr 22ReviewRdditionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfrom Units15-21Unit 15 16 17 l8 l9 20 2lTarget sound let/ larl lttl laul laul lrcl leelmale fine boy house phone year chairFrom the abovetable,chooseanytargetsoundsyou had difficulty with.I Listenagainto the dialoguein that unit, listeningfor the targetsound.2 Circlethe targetsoundin anywordsin the dialogue.5 Listento the dialogueagainand checkyour answers.4 Checkyour answersin the key.5 Listento the dialogueagain,listeningfor the targetsound.6 Practisereadingthe dialoguealoud,and recordyour voiceto compareyour production of the targetsoundwith the recording.Youcanalsousethis reviewtaskasa quick self-test,by doing steps2 and 4only.
    • wtionBC-onsonants.artg EnglishsoundsUseyour voicefor someconsonantsounds:bl ldl lgllvllzl lwl lrl lUlmlnl lql $ing) ldsl (jari /j/ (yes)/ (vision) 16l(the feather)I lpl _z ltl3 lzl4MVOICE NOVOICEThese arevoiced. Theseareunvoiced.I Aretheseconsonantsvoicedor unvoiced?Write(v.)or (unv.).6 lfl8 t6tI tgt5lgl-Match thesewordswith the numbersin the pictures.a) the nose b) the backof the tongue c) the top teethd) the top lip e) the roof of the mouth f) the sidesof the tongueg) th" throat h) the front of the tongue i) the tip of the tonguej) the sideteeth k) the bottom teeth l) the bottom lipDont useyour voicefor someconsonantsounds:lpl ltl lWltl ls/lil (shoe)/tfl (cherry) /e/ (thin)
    • DT 5 Match the pictures(l-A inAwith the words (a€ in B.HowareEnglishconsonantsoundsmade?Touchyour sideteeth with thesidesofyour tongue.U e) Touchthefrontoftheroofofyourmouthwith the front of yourtongue.g) Pushair forward in your mouth.Ba) Closeyour lips.,b) Openyourlipsc) Closeyour lips hard.fricadvesstops or plosivesaffricates apprc:dmants lateral
    • 8llpl pen,*-- me. Pleasecouldyou help me?o,n,:an I help you? ... Oh, ... you want"- arcel up there?- ur it on top of that pile of newspapers,."i;te... Thankyou.-:<et sound /p/ Ia Listen to the sound /p/. This is anunvoiced sound. -b To make the louder sound /p/ at the h ,beginning of a word, first closeyourlips hard. Then push air forward invour mouth. **Then quickly open yourlips to releasethe air suddenly.**Dontuseyour voice. Listen and repeat:/p/.c Noticethat sometimes/p/is quieterbecausethe air isntreleasedsuddenly.Listen.up top help helps help me.Omit from *xto x*aboveto makethisquietersound.- -:-nd pllplPinr+,- ^ , ,-^F, ,1 ^i-rISa u5eTurPrn.PenPen,pleaselPealLookattheyellowpear!caPr+r^-^ ^l-l --^rt > or I uru LoP.PUPWhata livelypup!PoPPyDoyoulikePoppy?
    • 8il unn 2! tpt penBTsaa In thewordson page81,noticethat thetargetsoundis quieterin capand at the end of pup. Listenand repeatthe words.szsrb Listento the sentences.szgrc sentencestressThemostimportantwordsfor the speakersmeaningarestronglystressed.Thismeansthat theyarepronounceda little moreLOUDIyandsI o w Iy thantheotherwordsin thesentence.Practiselisteningfortheseimportantwords.Theyareunderlinedhere.Itsa usefulpiu.Look at the yellowpcar.What a livelv oun!Pen,please.Itsan old cap.Do you like Poppy?ezgrd Listen again and repeat the sentences.I Dialogue$ a Firstpractisethetargetsound/p/in wordsfrom thedialogue.Readthe- wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.Thesound/p/is louderbeforeavowel,andfairlyloudbeforel orr.One-syllablewords: pot pie piece spoon plate plane pleaseTwo-syllablewords: pencil Peter pepper pocket Poppypostcard pulling Paris airport stupid practise plasticpeople apple(Thestrongstressisalwayson the firstsyllablein thesewords.)TWo-syllablewords:surprised perhaps(Thestrongstressis alwayson thesecondsyllablein thesewords.)Three-syllablewords:passenger newspaper potato impatientpepperpot.Noteon word stress:Wordstressdoesntusuallycfrange.Bold is usedtoshowyouwhich part of theword is stronglystressed,i.e.which syllableis alwayspronouncedmoreLOUDIyandsI o w I y thantheother(s).Noteon sentencestress:Sentencestresschangeswith the speakersmeaning.Underliningisusedhereto showyouwhichwordsin thesentencearebeingstronglystressed,i.e.whichwordsarepronouncedmoreLOUDIyand sI o w I y than theothers:Itsapieeeof potato plc on ap.lasticplate.Peteris surpdsed.Thesound/p/isoftenquieteratthe endof a word.an envelope with a stamp Help! a plpe.Vhathappens to the quiet sound if the next word begins with a vowel?a cup_of tea Help_us!
    • UNIT25 lpr pen 8iIThe sound /p/ is usually quiet and sometimes almost silent before aconsonant. Listen and repeat.empty upstairs dropped help mehelpful perhaps Mr Tupman stop shoutingstop talking stop pullingb Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Notice thatit is sometimes louder or quieter. Then read the dialogue and fill thegaps (1-6) and (a-f) with the correct words from the boxes.Numbers Iand a) have been done as examples.Words 1-6 have a louder /p/ sound:past pocket passports policeman pepper potatoWords a-f have a ouieter /p/ sound:upstairs stop envelope cup dropped help: : *-s,Please(Mr ond Mrs Tupmonore ot the oirport.Theyhove justgot off theplone from Poris)OFFICIAL:Passports,please!MRTUPMAN:Poppy!Poppy!I thinklvelostthe t possporfs!MRSTUPMAN:Howstupidof you,PeterlDidntyouputtheminyourz- ?MRTUPMAN:(emptyinghispockets)Heresa pen ... a pencil . my pipe. . apostcard... ana)envelopewitha stamp . a pinMRSTUPMAN:Oh,b)_ takingthingsout of yourpockets.Perhapsyouputthemin the plasticbagMRTUPMAN:(emptyingtheplosticbog) lleresa newspaper an apple. . apear.. a plasticc)_ . aspoon.. somepaperplates.:;::." i,url" o. - uouooon;i"MRSTUPMANi,Oh,stoppullingthingsout of the plasticbag,Peter.Thesepeoplearegettrnglmpatrent.MRTUPMAN:Well,d)_ me,Poppy.MRSTUPMAN:(to officiol)Wevelostour passports.Perhapswe e)_ themon the plane.OFFICIAL:Thenletthe otherpassengers5- , please.MRTUPMAN:Poppy,whydontyouhelp?Youarentbeingveryhelpful.Putthethingsin the plasticbag.OFFICIAL:Yourname.please?MRTUPMAN:Tuoman.oFFtCtAL:Pleasego0_ withthis6_ , MrTupman.
    • &[ utr 2t lpl pennao c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers.Then practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Stressandintonationcar a StressListenandunderlinethestressedsyllables.Thefirstonein eachcolumnhasbeendoneasan example.Checkyour answers,thenlistenandrepear.apiua pena pearsome soap a carpet a pranoa plpe a puppy an expensivepresentfor Poppya spoon an applesez b Intonation Intonation usually goesdown on the last strongly stressedword in asentence.In a list, the intonation goesup with each item but down onthe last item. Listen and repeat.He bought a pen.He bought a pelt and a pencil.He bought a pen and a pcacil and a piu.c Practisethis game in a group of four or five.You must remember whatthe others have said and then add something to the list.EXAMPLE A: Peterwent to Parisand he bought a pipe.B: Peterwent to Parisand he bought a pipe and a picture.C: Peterwent to Parisand he bought a pipe, a picture and aplano.ape[cil a paperpla@a postcard apepperpota picture a plasticspider5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /p/.
    • 85ll lbtbabyfe those people backpackers?... Theyve.- l packson their backs.- rt they arent ... trauelling. Theyve just been.:.opping and theyre waiting for a bus or a cab.- S-,does that mean they arent backpackers?-nerre just ... er ... people with backpacks.- lm.1 Targetsound/bi- . a First practise the unvoiced sound /p/(seepage8l). Listenand repeat.,,b Useyour voice to make the targetIsound /b/. Listen and repeat.- r c Listen and repeat both soundstogether./p/ is unvoiced. lbl is voiced.:o d Notice that sometimes /b/ is quieterbecausethe air isnt releasedsuddenlv.Listen.job jobs cab cabs verb verbs2 MinimalpairsSoundItptPinItsa usefulpin.Pen BenPen,please! Ben,please!-{1-Sound2tbtbinItsa usefulbearLookattheyellowbear.tvotcen"@;.:-..1-,-:"ffi@6€ffiffiffibinPealLookattheyellowpear.caP GabItsan oldcan. ltsan oldcab.PUP PubWhata livelypup! Whata livelypub!Poppy BobbyDoyoulikePoppy? DoyoulikeBobby?tu
    • & unrr24/b;babvMinimalpairwordsBs4aa Listen and repeat the words. Notice that the target sound is quieter incab and pub.nslt b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor /p/ (sound 1) or 2 for lbl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 2,2,L,2,MinimalpairsentencesBssac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.nasrd Listen to six of the sentencesand write 1 for lpl (sound I) or 2 for bl(sound2).B85ae sentence stressListen and underline the strongly stressedwords in the minimal pairsentences(on page 85).Notice that when an important word has morethan one syllable,Ike yellow, the sentencestressis only on the strongsyllable.EXAMPLE Its a useful bin.nae f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.ra)pin tr b)bin Iz a)PoppyE b)Bobby tr3a)pup I b)pub I4a)pig I b)big I5a)pack tr b)back6a)peachtr b)beach-3 Dialogue6 a First practise the target sound /b/ in words from the dialogue. Readthewords aloud or visit the website to practise./b/ is LOUD before a vowel and fairly loud beforel andr.One-syllablewords: big but been book birds blue blackblouseTwo-syllablewords: better busy cabbie Ruby brother buttonsbirthday (first syllable stressed)Two-syllablewords: about (secondsyllable stressed)Three-syllablewords: somebody beautiful Barbara butterfliesterribly remember/b/ is often quiet before a consonant or at the end of a word.a cab Bob pub a proverb Bobsjob.Is it louder when the next word beginswith a vowel?the cab_over there the pub_on the corner the job_is interestingsaz b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Notice thatit is sometimes louder or quieter.
    • UNIT24 hi babv 87-itcl,"r*BirthdayB0B: Hi,Barbara!BARBARA:Hi,Bob.ltsmy birthdaytodayaoB Oh,yes! Yourbirthday! . er Happybirthday,Barbara!SARBAI{A:Thanks,Bob.Somebodygaveme thisblousefor my birthdayBoB: Whata beautifulblouse!ltspot . , mm . er bluebutterflieson it.BARBARA:Andbigblackbuttons.BoB: Did er mm Rubybuyit foryou?BARBARA:Yes.Andmy brothergaveme a bookaboutbirds.BOs: I didntrememberyourbirthday,Barbara.lmterriblysorry.lvebeensobusywithmy newjob.I leftmy oldjob.Theonein the pub.Cuesswhat?lm drivinga cab.BARBARA:A cabbielCongratulations!Dontworryaboutthe birthdaypresent,BobBut,rememberthatproverb:Betterlatethannever.c Find five words in the dialogue where the sound /b/ is quieter.d Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.Wordstresstrusa In compound nouns, the stressis on the first word. Listen and repeat.I a shelf2 a brush3 a card4 a ball5 abag6 amana bookshelfa hairbrusha postcarda footballa handbaga policemana paintbrusha birthday carda ping pong balla shopping baga postmansss b Talk about these pictures. Follow the example. Listen and respond.EXAMPLE lts a bookshelf.:o3 ball1 bag 2 ball 4 bag
    • €8,,unr 24 tbtbabyI0 manStop soundsThe sounds lpl, lbl, ltl, ldl, lkl, lgl are stop sounds.If they come at theend of a word, stop - dont add another sound.Match these compound words.EXAMPLE shopkeeper (Remember to stressthe first word.)Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /b/.shop ----.---r._ ballpet keeperhip boardblood shopblack pocketbeach bankNowlistenandcheckyour answers.bookbusbathbackbasepeppermintrobeshopballstoppack5 Spelling
    • 89Itl table- Lrcuse me. Could you tell me the time, please? fr,%t-tes. Its exactly nty minutes to ten.- [hankyou.I Targetsoundltl, a To make the target sound /t/, first putyour tongue behind your top teeth.Then push air forward inside your r.mouth. **Then quickly move the tipof your tongue away from your teeth^r._+-to releasethe air suddenly.**Dont use iyour voice. Listen and repeat:/t/., ,:rb Notice that sometimes /t/ is quieter ---becausethe air isnt releasedsuddenly.Listen.what forget doesnt breakfast minute minutes its exactlyOmit from *x to xxabove to make this quieter sound.2 Sound/t/sentYousenttheemails?cartls hersthe redcart?writeCanhewritewell?Doesthistraintrunklstherea trunkhere?ItltooYoutoo?4-,-..Bffi.a6-T;lfo66llli.+ry""4r.rlNffiNEtru-:ll=="trainsmell?r@
    • !10 unr25 rt,tablcBe2ea In the words on page89,notice that the targetsound is quieter in thewords sent,cart and write. Listen and repeat the words.ngzrb Listen to the sentences.nszbc SentencestressListen to the YeslNoquestions again and repeat. Notice how the voicebegins to go u.ton the most important word for the speakersmeaning.This word is spoken with a very strong stress.You t& ? lktu sent the emails? Is hers the red cart?Can he wlite well? Does this train srHell? Is there a trtnk here?5 DialogueC.ni.rt practisethetargetsound/t/ in wordsfromthedialogue.Readthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto oractise./t/ is LOUD before a vowel.One-syllablewords: two to top ten tell tins Thai timeTWo-syllablewords: counter upstairsThree-syllablewords:customer telephone tomatoesFour/five-syllable words: photographer cafeteriaNotice how two /t/ sounds join together.I want_to take the lift_to the top. The telephone is next_to the cafeteria./t/ is often quiet at the end of a word.hat coat skirt shirt first want what get got rightcricket bat opposite supermarketWhathappens if the next word begins with a vowel?I want_a hat_and a coat_and a skirt_and a ...Practisea quiet ltl here before a consonant.hats coats skirts shirts eighth whats restaurantscricket batsSometimes there will be loud and quiet /t/ in the same word. Decide ifthese are loud (L) or quiet (Q).EXAMPLE assistant(L Q)travelagent( ) twenty-two( ) tonight( ) student( )important() departmentstore( ) tomatoes( ) toiletNow look at the words in the box below and decide whether the targetsound is loud (L) or quiet (Q).EXAMPLE to (L), skirts (Q)to ( ) skirts ( ) basement ( ) telephone ( ) cricketbat ( )exactly() cafeteria() tomatoes() fruit() tell() top(Thai() time() next())Check your answersin the key before doing the next exercise.
    • UNn 25 tr tablc 9Ib Readthe dialogue below and guessthe missing words with the sound /t/Number 1 and a) have been done asexamples.l-7 have a louder ltl; a-ghave a quieter /t/. Check your answersby looking in the box of words onpage90,and then by listeningto the dialogue.* n 3eDartmentstoreCUSTOMERl: lwantlto buyaskirt.ASSISTANT:a)Skirts areupstairson the nextfloor.CUSTfJTIER?: WherecanI getsome2 food?A55lSTANI:Thecafeteriais on the firstfloor{U5r0tulf;R:: Wheresthe b) juice,pleaseASS|STAI,JT:Thec)_ counteron yourleftCUSTOMER+: Tinsof IASSISTAT{T:Trythe supermarketin thed)_CUSTOMERs: Couldyou4- me wherethe erm travelagentsis?ASS|STANT:Yesltsrightnextto the e)_ on the thirdfloorCUSTOMIR6: I wantto buya f)_ Howdo I getto the the umsportsequlPmentTASSISTANT:Takethe liftto the soortsdeoartment.ltson the s floorCUSTOMERl: Wherestheo _ , please?ASSISTANT:ltson the nextflooroppositethe photographe/s.CUSTOMERe: Whatsthez _, please?ASSISTANT:ltsg)_ twenty-hruomrnutesto ten.c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.rr..!ra Readthe information and listen to the exampleson the recording.ln YeslNoquestions, intonation usually begins to go up on the mostimportant word for the speakersmeaning.EXAMPLE Could you tell me the time, please?In I4lHquestions, intonation usually begins to go down on the mostimportant word for the speakersmeaning.EXAMPLES tthats the time, please?How do I get to the sports equipment?4lheresthe toilet, please?
    • 92 UNIT25 /ti tableNotice that intonation in I4lHquestions can changewhen we are talkingabout old information. The first time we ask somebodysname, we ask:IVhatsyour name?This is new information. But if we then forget thename and ask again, we ask: tMhatsyour name?becausewe are askingabout old information that has alreadybeen given. Intonation goesupto show that this is something we have already shared.sgs b Listen to customers at the information desk in a department store.Someof them are asking for new information. Some of them want to check oldinformation they have already receivedjust now or in the past.I .A/heresthe fruit juice? (asking for new information)2 Wheres the fruit juice? (checking old information)3 ,Vhatson the next floor? (askingfor new information)4 How do I get to the restaurant?(askingfor new informationl5 How do I get to the restaurant?(checking old information)6 Which floor are computers on? (checking old information)Be6c Listen to more customers at the information desk and decide if they.areasking for new information or checking old information. Numbers I and2have been done asexamples.Inew2old35_ 6 7d RoleplayPractisewith a group of 4-5 people. Taketurns to be the assistantat theinformation desk in a department store.The others ask questions.Youcan sometimes choose to check the information (either straightaway orlater) by asking the same question again with a different intonation.First practise the word stressin thesewords you may use.restaurant telephone travelagents supermarketsports department toilet cafeteria photographers fruit juicecomputers notebooks printers photocopiers cricket batsfootball boots hot water bottles blankets heaters4B5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /t/.
    • 95Nrdl door,. rou want to go out to a restaurant for ,f,::ner tonight?"- . Its too cold and dark. And Im too tiretl.I rather stay at home and read a good book. -argetsound/d1a First practise the sound /t/ (seepage r89).Listen and repeat.b Use your voice to make the targetsound /d/. Listen and repeat. --.-.- *-c Listen and repeat both sounds together. /t/ is unvoiced. /d/ is voiced., d Notice that sometimes /d/ is quieterbecausethe air isnt releasedsuddenly.Listen.good food goodbye friend child bird birds- Minimalpairs$ound2lclldoYoudo?sent sendsenttheemails? Yousendthe emails?2ISoundIItltooYoutoo?cattlsthe redcarthers?writeCanhe writewell?trainDoesthistrainsmell?trunkthereatrunkoutside?caldlsthe redcardhers?rideCanhe ridewell?drainDoesthisdrainsmell?drunkIstherea drunkoutside?
    • 94 ul.|r 25 tli dr;orMinimalpairwordsCra d Listen and repeat the words. Notice that the target sound is quieter inthe words send, card, ride.ceu b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1for /t/ (sound l) or 2 for ldl (sound 2).EXAMPLEPair l: 2,I,2,1,2Minimalpairsentencesc+a c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.c+ud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for ltl (sound l) or 2 for ldl(sound 2)c4a e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagainand underline the sentencestress(on page93).EXAMPLE You send the emails?( 5 f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)wriring! b)riding tr2a) cart t] b)card I3a)bat t] b)bad I4a)senr tr b)send I5a)sight f b)side tr6a)try tr b)dry I, DialogueCu firtt practisethetargetsound/d/in somewordsfrom thedialogue.Readthewordsaloudor visit thewebsiteto practise./d/ is LOUD beforea vowel./d/ is often quiet at the end of a word or before a consonant.stayed repaired It rained. bad cold They played cards.What happens when /d/ at the end of a word is followed by a vowel?They stayed_at home. They repaired_it today. It rained_all day.I had_a bad cold. They played_a game of cards.
    • UNIT26 ictlcloorffiPractisethese words with a louder /d/ at the beginning and a quieter /d/at the end.did decide decided damaged David DonaldLook at the words in the box below and decide whether the sound /d/ isloud (L) or quiet (Q).EXAMPLE bad (Q) Daisy (L)nobody( ) darling ( ) bad ( )date ( ) played ( ) dancing ( )phoned ( ) tried ( ) todayl ;cards() Daisy( )listened() dont( )rained ( )Check your answersin the key before doing the next exercise.b Readthe dialogue below and guessthe missing words with the sounddl.l-7 have a louder ldl. a-ghave a quieter /d/. Number I and a) havebeen done as examples.Check your answersby looking in the box ofrvords above,and then by listening to the dialogue.i.r-eged telephonelineDAISY:Hellofhis is22882228.DAVID:Hello,lDoisy . Thisis DavidDAISY:Oh,hi,z_.DAVID:Whatdid youdo yesterday,Daisy?Youforgotour 3-, drdntyou?DAISY:Well,ita)roined allday,David and .. I hada b)- cold,so Ier deridedto stavat home.Didyou?.. I c)- twentytimesand+ answered.Oh,thetelephonelinewasdamaged.Theyrepairedit sWell Daisy!!What,David?Oh!... e_ worryaboutit! ... Whatdid er Donalddoyesterday?Didhe andDianego 7 ?DATSY:No,theydidntyesterday.Theyjuststayedat homeandd)-e)- .DAVID:Andwhatdidyoudo?Didyouplaycardstoo?DAISY:No . JordanandI 0_ to the radioanddidyou do yesterday,David?DAVID:DAISY:DAVID:DAISY:DAVID:er . studied.WhatDAVID:lvejusttoldyou,Daisy... I s)- to phoneyouhruentytimes!
    • 496 UUr 25/d/doorVerbsendingin edVerbsendingin ed are pronounced:ldl after a vowel orvoiced consonantc; a Listen and repeat.playedcleanedsnowedclosedfilledstayed*crb ed endings:/d/, /t/, /d/Talk about thesepictures.Work with a partner or Iistento the recording. Follow the exEXAMPLE stayed awake/snorA: He stayedawake,didnt he1B: No, he didnt. He snored.cried a lotlaughed a lotItl afteran unvoicedconsonantbrushedlaughedpushedwatcheddancedwalked/rd/ after the sounc.Itl or ldlwaitedpaintedshoutedwantedIandeddepartedemptied his gla-filled itpulledhiscarpusheditrained all darsnowedcombed his hairbrushed itclosed a dooropened it<+ .a_!E*_4>r-g_SP-+-ttL.:rdeparted at noonlandedwalked awaywaited a long timewhispered itshouted itpainted a roomcleaned itwashed theTVwatched itdanced all nightplayed cards5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /d/.
    • 97lkl key-.a-ea couple more of your caramel cookies,*:--e vou can. ... And some of my chocolate cake?- :rrrs. I like cake.But Im allergic to chocolate., - ^.+ soundikla To make the target sound /k/first touch the back ofthe roofof your mouth with the backofyour tongue. Then push airforward behind your tongue.*Then quickly move yourtongue away to releasethe airsuddenly.**DonLuseyour voice.Listen and repeat:/k/.b Notice that sometimes /k/ is quieter becausethe air isnt releasedsuddenly.Listen.make music look book like likesOmit from xxto *x aboveto make this quieter sound.:-"td k/lktcoatItsa hairycoat.cullHesgota lovelycurl.classItsa brilliantclass.backShesgota strongback.clowingItscrowing.wBw,&
    • UNIT27 rk, kevcroaa In the words on page 97, notice that the target sound is quieter in theword,back. Listen and repeat the words.cl0bb Listen to the sentences.i::.*-: croac SentencestressFirst try to guesssome of the answersto these questions about thesentences:Are they all questions or statements?Does the intonation go up or dovun?lVhich sentenceshave an adjective + noun?Mhich is the most important word for the speakersmeaning?Then listen to the sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(otpage97).EXAMPLE Its a hairy coat.cl0ad Listen and repeat the sentences.5 DialogueQa First practise the target sound /k/ in words from the dialogue, plus someothers. Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise./k/ is LOUD before a vowel.Kate cup sky school course coffee cuckoo Karen OKAmerican excuse me/k/ is alsoquite LOUD beforel andr.cream cry crowd Christmas across class clean clearclimb include/k/ is often quiet at the end of a word.look walk ask quick black book work milk Mrs Clarkplastic electric. A/hathappens when the next word begins with a vowel? Do the twowords join together?Is the /k/ louder or quieter?Iook look_up walk walk_alongask ask_anybody work work_outbook book_out Mrs Clark Is Mrs Clark_in?Notice what happens when a quiet /k/ at the end of a word is followed ba louder /k/ at the beginning of the next word. Make the two soundsdifferent. There can be a slight pause between the two sounds.black black cup quick quick questionelectric electric clock plastic plastic containerlike like cooking book book casespeak speak clearly walk walk quickly
    • UN|T27 if<lfreyik/ is quieterbeforemost consonants(exceptl andr). Choosethecorrect heading from this box for each list of consonant clusters (1-5)below.nextexcitingpickedwalkedquietKwokquestionclock cricketclass creamclever screamquickly microwavechocolate incredibleexnensive workedexcuseme asked qualityforks electric quiteIn whichtwo listsl-5 does/k/ soundlouder?Practisesayingtheclusters.Lookatthewordsin the boxbelowanddecidewhetherthetargetsoundisloud(L)or quiet(Q).EXAMPLBlike (Q) coffee(L)milk() cuckoo(/) like() next() Kate1lfork() make() American() carved() call()coffee( I plastic() course() cream()Check your answersin the key before doing the next exercise.b Readthe dialogue below and fill the gapswith the correct words fromthe box above.1-8 have a louder ik/. a-f have a quieter /k/. Numbers Iand a) have been done as examples.Check your answersby Iistening tothe dialogue.. :-ckooclockKARENCOOK:Wouldyoua) like somecreamin your1 coffee , MrsClark?KATECLARK:2_ me Kate,Karen.KARENCOOK: OK Cream, 3KATECLARK:KARENCOOK:KATECLARK:KAREhICOOK:KATECLARK:KARENCOOK:Nothanks,Karen.Butld likea littleb)_ . Thanks.Wouldyou likesomelittle+_ cakes Kate?Thankyou.Didyouc)_ them?Yes.Taketwo.Heresa caked)_ , andheresaExcuseme,KarenButwhatsthate)_ to yourbookshelf?ls it a clock?Itsan electriccuckooclock.lts5KATECLARK:ls rtD_ ?
    • 100 uNrr 27 tktkeyKARENCOOK:Oh no,Kate.ltsa hand6_ woodenclock.lt wasveryexpenstve.KATECLARK:Well,itsexactlysixoclocknow,anditsveryquiet.Doesntit secuckoo?KARENCOOK:Of z it does,Kate LooklCLOCK:Cuckoo!CuckoolCuckoo!CuckoolCuckoo!8 !KATECLARK:FantasticlHowexciting!Whata cleverclock!c Practisereading the diaiogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Sentencestresspatternscr2 a Listen and repeat.(adjective+ noun)I a cleanshelf2 a cleanwhisk3 a blackcup4 a olasticrins5 a dirty bc,ttle6 an electricetack7 an exp€nsiveCakeb Unjumblethesesentences.(adjective + compound noun)a clean beokshelfa clean eggwhiska black gqff:e cupa nlastic kev rinsa dirty cola bottlean electric cEckoo clockan expensive e@colate cake1 an its cuckoo electric clocki /F 2 ringplasricitskeyav3 egg dirty its whisk a4 its bottle dirty a cola@@z--;ffi7-> 5 expensivecakecreaman its*}5fra6 its car comfortable coat a7 book black a its address5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /k/.eil
    • r0!llgl girl-..: -ougetme somegrocerieswhen you go out?,,,,*, *.".,1y - nutmeg?gherkins?yoghurt? : -rsenot! Get me some bagels if theyve got any ...- - .. sugar,eggs,garlic ... and ... mm ... figs andtic,:s. if theyre any good.-:qetsound/g/: a Firstpractisethe sound/k/(seepage97).Thisisanunvoicedsound.Listenandrepeat.-b Useyourvoiceto makethetargetsound/g/.Listenandrepeat.-, c Listenandreoeatboth soundstogether./k/ is unvoiced. lgl is voiced.: d Notice that sometimes /g/ is quieterbecausethe air isnt releasedsuddenly.Listen.big bug fig figs egg eggs example nutmeg rimal Pairs lirrI:.r )"FSoundIlktcoatItsa hairycoat.curlHesgota lovelycur[.classItsa brilliantclass.backShesgota strongback.Sound2tglgoatItsa hairygoat.girlHesgota lovelygirl.glassl+/^ - L-:ll:^-+ -l^^^rL > d Lr ilildt il. Btd55,bagShesgota strongbag.crow SrowItscrowing. ltsgrowing.amnYa.bvo ce
    • lO2 uNtr28/s/girlMinimalpairwords(r {a a Listen and repeat the words. Notice that the target sound is quieter inthewordbag.t:ttt b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor /k/ (sound l) or 2 for lgl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: I,2,I,1,2Minimalpairsentencesclsa c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.crsud Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /k/ (sound l) or 2 for lgl(sound2).crsae sentencestressIn spoken English sentences,the most important words for the speakersmeaning are strongly stressed.Strongly stressedwords are LOUDeTands I o w er.Weakly stressedwords are (luieter and quid<erThis givesEnglish its rhythm.Listen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the stronglystressedwords (on page l0l).EXAMPLE Hesgot a lovely gjrl.cro f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)cold tr b)gold tr2a)back I b)bag tr3a)clock tr b)clog I4a)curl I b)girl I5a)frock I b)frog I6a)clue I b)glue I5 Phonemessages$a First practice the target sound /g/. Some of thesewords are from thephone messagesyou will hear. Readthe words aloud or visit the websiteto practise./9/ is LOUD before a vowel and quite loud before lll and lrl.groups of girls giggling and gossiping togethertaking great photographs of a guy in the garden cutting the grassMaggie isnt in Glasgow.Guessagain.Shesgone to Portugal and Greeceuntil August./g/ is often quieter at the end of a word or before a consonant.This is an example.Another example is fog. Also smog.rugs mugs hugs rugbya jog with a big dog big dogs a big pig big pigs
    • UNIT28 /q/ girl 105a frog frogseggs frogslegsCraig Craigsbig bag Craig has jetlag.that happens when the next word begins with a vowel?Is /g/ LOUDeTOf iilil!iilt?big dogfog smogdialogueGreg CraigTheresa big_old dog_in the garden.Fog_and smog_are what weve got.Readthe dialogue_aloud.Greg_and Craig_and Maggie.Notice how two /9/ sounds join together.Its a big garden. Hes a big guy. Has the fog gone?kl and lglQuickly scan all the words in the box below and underline all those withthe sound /k/.computer Maggie postcard Glasgow beginning gamesweekend Portugal Greece grass catch fJuess cut campAugust girls gossip couple Carol garden CraigCheck your answersbefore going on to 3b. b Closeyour book and listen to Craig and Maggiesphone messagesontheir answering machine, pa)4ng attention to the target sound. Thencomplete the sentencesbelow. Each missing word has the sound /k/ org/, and is in the box above.Number t has been done as an example.=-dMaggiesansweringmachineI Greg and Carol want to stay for a couple of days at Croigan<l Maggie shouse in Glosgow2 Theyre coming to _ at the _ of _ .3 _ is alwaysgiggling.Shewants to _ up on allthe4 The last time they got together, Greg and Craig playedwhile the two _ went shopping.Carol says,I _ youve gone away for theCraig and Maggie sent a _ from _ , but theyre goingto go to Greece.7 Mhile Craig and Maggie are in _ , Gregand Carol are goingto in their8 Greg saystheyll be very grateful and theyll the _ .Listen to the complete sentencesfrom 3b and check your answers.Thenpractise reading the sentencesaloud. Recordyour voice to compareyour production of the sounds lkl and lgl with the recording.56
    • ! unn2E/s/girl4 ConsonantclustersF1 Choosethe correctheadingfrom this box for eachlist of consonantclusters(l-3) below.lql lqzl lgrlt2exam English angryeggs glove hungryexecutive glasses grammarearplugs glamorous grapefruithugs singly grateftrlexactly global congratulationsUseyour dictionary to checkthe word stressand meaningof anywordsyou dont know.gp Now listen to the recordingof the clusters.Do you think the /g/ is quieterinanyof the listsabove?5 Spelling.- Lookbackoverthis unit at wordswith the targetsound,and write whatyou noticed about how to spellthe sound/g/.
    • ,t=r!tr REVIEWgame:Pickup pairsPhotocopyandcut out cardsfrom all minimal pairsin Units24,26 and28.Shufflethe cardsand dealthem facedovynall overthe table.Turn overanytwo cardsand readtheir sentencesaloud.If they areminimal pairs(consonants),you keepthem andyou continueplaying.If thosetwo cardsarentminimal pairs,turn them facedown againand thenextpersonplays.Collectasmanyminimal pairsasyou canin a time limit, e.g.ten minutes.Youcanusea dictionary if you wish,but you donthaveto understandeveryword to do thistest.I Foreachline (1,2,3,4,5),firstlistento thewholeline.Thencircletheoneword that is saidtwice.Notethat meaningis not soimportant inthis exercise.Thepurposeis to reviewthe soundsby hearingthem incontrast.Someof the words arerarelyusedin everydayEnglish,and thisisshownbv an asterisk*.tgltdt/tltbttptI paw bore door core gore*gillkilldilltillBill2 pillgayKaydayTay3 pay bay4P Dee key ghee*5 Pooh!Score2 Circlethe wordswith the samevowelsoundas1-3.Boo! do gooI treehrl2 clocktkudress strongunderstand retrydistrust entertaindrunk entranceelectric dreamingenclosedglass class quitewalked clothesmicrowave chocolateglamorousquickly
    • 106 Ufl|T29 llcvien3 pramlPrtblackapprecrateplace plumbrother impressiveprobably breakfastpresent prawnScore _5 Pickthe different one:-ltl,ldl or lldlUnderline the ed ending that has a different pronunciation.EXAMPLE telephoned rained answered walkedI brushed washed emptied tossed2 walked watched laughed filled3 waited departed combed painted4 pushed snowed cleaned filled5 whispered played rained shoutedScore4 StressUnderline the stressedsyllable in each item. (Scorehalf a mark peritem.)telephone remember cafeteria photographers a policemana postcard a paper plate American somebody a green coffee cupscore--Total scoreAdditionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfromUnits23-28Unit 23 24 25 26 27 28Target sound lpl lbl ltl ldl lkl lslpen baby table door key girlFrom the above table, choose any target sounds that you had difficultywith.I Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, listening for the target sound.2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.5 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.4 Check your answers in the key.5 Listen to the dialogue again,listening for the target sound.6 Readthe dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the CD.You can also use this review task as a quick self-test,by doing steps2 and lonly.
    • r07ll lslsun: creaming! Whats upsetting you?r - rer.Shetakesmybooksoutofmy- r and puts them somewhere else.- :eUher to stop it.- :: course,thats the answer ... but itsr .imple. She makes me so cross!._J.rorrspeak to her?::et sound/s/Tomakethetargetsound/s/,touchyour top teethwith the sidesof yourtongue.Putthe tip of your tongueforwardto nearlytouchtheroofofyour mouth.Dontuseyourvoice.Listenandrepeat:/s/.- -nd/s/s,IllllrAItspronounced/sir/..frh*n@J,-_!.FlslSue busThatSuewasamazing. I hearda bus.C piecesiPSipit slowly.Iwantthebigpiece.priceWhatsthe price?Listenandrepeatthewords.Listento thesentences.SentencestressThemostimportantwordsfor thespeakersmeaningarestronglystressed.Guesswhich two wordswill be stronglystressedin eachsentenceabove.Thenlistento the sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress.EXAMPLEI want the b:igpiece.Listenandrepeatthesentences.a
    • I unnro /s/sun, Dialoguefl a Firstpractisethe targetsound/s/in someof the wordsfrom the dialoguevbelow.Readthe wordsaloudor visit thewebsiteto practise.Sam Sue sand a sum of money Saturday sailing possibleseasideisl in consonantclusterslets thats its six just sleep spend stay star Smithoutside instead sweetie swimming sensible smallest skiingexciting expensive cheapskate** a personwho only spendsthe smallestamount of moneyNoticehow/s/soundsjoin together.lets_stay Six_Star lets_sleepczsb Firstjustlistento the dialoguewithout lookingat yourbook,payingparticularattentionto thetargetsound.ItsexpensivesAM:LetsgototheseasideonSaturday,sweetie.sUE:Yes!Letsgosailingandwater-skiing.Thatsexciting.SAM:ltsexpensive,sweetie.Letsjustsitinthesunandgoswimminginstead.SUE:LetsstayintheSixStarHotelandspendSundaytheretoo.SAM:Besensible,Sue.ltstooexpensive.Letssleepoutsideinstead.SUE:Sleeponthesand?Youneverwantto spendmorethanthesmallestpossiblesumofmoney,SamSmith- youresucha cheapskate!c Practisereadingthe dialoguealoud.Recordyour voiceto compareyourproduction of the targetsoundwith the recording.4 /s/in consonantclustersczl a Usethe promptsbelowto makesentencesaboutSam,Simon,Lucas,Sarah,ChrisandChrissie.Listenand respond,liketheexample.EXAMPLEI hatehats.Response:Samhateshatstoo.Sam Simon LucasSarahChris ChrissieI I hate hats.2 I likecats.3 I get headaches.4 I drink milkshakes.5 I take good photographs.6 I eat chocolate biscuits.at8 I want someinteresting
    • UtrnrOlYsunffib Joining/s/ soundsFindthecorrectendingto thesesentencesandpractisejoiningthe/s/soundsasin the example.EXAMPLEChrissssspeaksssslowly.5 In summerlets sss skiin the snow6 Suelikes sss sailinto the sunset.7 Lucas sss somecats.8 IsChris sss sendslotsof textmessaqes.. Listento checkandrepeat.c Readaloud.Practisethetargetsoundin consonantclusters.Thesmileof a snakeShe speaks slowly, and eats special, expensive chocolates,As shestepsupstairs, her long skirt sweepsover her silver slippers. Sheissmall and smart and sweet-smelling. Her skin is like snow Youhave stolen my heart! I once said stupidly, and she smiled. Butwhen she smiled. she smiled the smile of a snake.. ino, .bLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatr ou noticed about how to spellthe sound /s/.
    • ilolzl zoo- It looks so easy,doesnt it?- It does.But it isnt.- Look at those eyes.Theyre like ice.- He always draws the bodies so well, doesnt he?Look at the arms ... the legs ... those hands.- Hes such an amazing artist.- One of these d ... Im going to buy one ofhis paintings.I Targetsoundlzlczorea First practise the sound /s/ (seepage107).Listen and repeat.czot,b Useyour voice to make the targetsound /z/. Listen and repeat.ThatSuewasamazing.cItspronounced/sir/.#l#ElH#[#flMFrq7/4-4SFnmMti;.NdAE@stPSipitslowly.MinimalqTr1e{:}"-F@l;t;:1jihio u""t2( 26(c Listen and repeat both sounds together. )/s/ is unvoiced. lzl isvoiced.--PairsSoundI Sound2lsl lzlSue zooI heardapieceI wantthe bigpiece.priceWhatstheprice?Thatzoowasamazing.7Itspronouncedlzitl.ziPZipitslowly.buzzI heardabuzz.PeasI wantthebigpeas.pfizeWhatstheprize?busDUS.
    • UNIT5l lzl zoo lll*: lair words. a Listen and repeat the words.b Youwill hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1for /s/ (sound l) or 2 for /z/ (sound2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 2, !,I,1,2- I fair sentencesc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.d Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lsl (sound I) or 2 for lzl(sound2)e SentencestressLook at this pattern of strong and weak stressesin the first set ofminimal pair sentences.That Suewas amazing. That zoo was amazing. oOooOoListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain while looking at the patternsand notice how the weak stressesare quidcerandqr"rieter.Pair 1:oOoooo Pair 2: ooOO Pair 3: OoOoPair 4: oOoO Pair 5: ooooO Pair 6: OoOf Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)bus tr b)buzz I2a)sip I b)zip I3a)price tr b)prize tr4a)pence I b)pens tr5a)police I b)please tr6a)Sackville tr b)Zackville I- : JgUeI a First practise the target sound /z/ in words from the dialogue, plusothers.Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise./si and lzl soundsThe letters is usually pronounced /s/ after an unvoiced sound, and lzlafter a voiced sound./s/ after an unvoiced sound lzl after a voiced soundplurals snakes sacks units animals parcels armsartists zips legs3rd person makes thinks wants smells contains drawssingular repeatss whats its thinks somethings Susans
    • @ ur.rr5l lzl zooJoining/s/and/zJsoundsNoticethat if the two soundsaredifferent,we savthe secondofl€ Inorqstrongly.Yes,-Zena.(s-z) Thisparcelcontains-sixmice.(z-s) this-sack(s-does_Susan(z_s), Saythesewordsthat havetwo/s/or /z/sounds.Mhichsoundsarether:EXAMPLEMrs (lsllzl)I smells 6 surprising2 parcels 7 Lazarus3 somethings 8 sounds4 boxes 9 sacks5 Susan l0 zooscsob Listento the dialogue,payrngattentionto the/s/ and lzlsounds.Thenpractisereadingthedialoguealoud.Recordyourvoiceto compareyouproduction of thosesoundswith the recording.Surprisesin the postoffice(Zenoond Susonworkot the postoffice.Theyore busysortingporcels.lts Susonsfirstdoy.)SUSAN:Thisparcelsmells,MrsLazarus.ZENA:Callme Zena,Susan.SUSAN:Yes... Zena... Somethingswrittenon it.Whatdoesit say?ZENA:lt says:Thisparcelcontainssixmice.SUSAN:Aw!lsntthatawful,Zena!Pooranimals!ZENA:Andlisten,Susan!Whatsin thissack?SUSAN:ltsmakinga strangehissrngnorse.SAcK: (hrsses)Sssssssssssssssss!SUSAN:Zena!ltsa sackof snakes!ZENA:Soit is!.. Andwhatdo youthinksin thisbox,Susan?SUSAN:ltsmakinga buzzingsound.Box: (buzzes)ZztztzzzzzzzzzzzlSUSAN:Thosearebees!ZENA:A parcelof mice .. anda sackof snakes. . anda boxof bees.What:youthinkaboutthis,Susan,on yourfirstdayin the parcelsoffice?lsnsurprising?SUSAN:AmazinglThisisnta postoffice.ltsa zoo.
    • UNIT5l t7i zoo ll1rnantclustersa zl in consonantclustersUsethe prompts below to make sentencesabout Ms Mills, Mr Suzuki,{rs Mosesand Miss Jones.Listen and respond, like the example.EXAMPLE I Iove dogs. Response:Mr Suzuki lovesdogs too.Ms Mills Mr Suzuki Mrs Moses Miss Jones3 I have six cousins.6 I always lose thi(Note: The following titles are only used with a family name: Mr lmisrelfor men and Ms lmrzl for women. Mrs lmrslr,l is also used for marriedvomen, and Miss /mrs/for unmarried women.)Consonantclusters:occupations,jobs, careerslatch the sentencehalvestogether.EXAMPLE A horse trainer trains horses.I A horsetrainer2 An engineer3 A renovator4 A housekeeper5 A gardener6 A prize giver7 A wage clerkB A rose grower9 A garagedesignerl0 A fishermanI I A politician12 A dressmakera grows only roses.b kissesbabies.c fishes.d designsgarages.e sewsother clothes besidesdresses.f trains horses.g trims hedges.h sometimes washesclothes.i givesprizes.j builds bridges.k moderniseshouses.I pays wages.Check your answers in the key.Then read the answers aloud. Finally,cover the second half of the sentencesand try to remember them, whilestill being careful with the clusters.-: InBLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatr ou noticed about how to spell the sound /z/.7 I buy expensivecbad dreams.
    • il4/J/shoe- She shouldnt be wearing such a shabby rtb.skirt at work, should she?- She certainly shouldnt.- I do wish she wouldnt.- Shall I tellher?-... um ... er ... Im not sure if you should ...I Targetsound/J/cszaa First practise the sound /s/ (seepage107).Listenand repeat.c:lztrb Then put the tip of your tongue backa little to make the unvoiced targetsound /J/.Listen and repeat.c3zcc Listen and repeat both sounds together.Both are unvoiced: lsl and lU.ParrsMinimalcsfr-o{IFd__o.l2SoundIlslcC isthird.PussPuss!he shouted.Sue shoeI likeSues. I likeshoes.sip shipSipit carefully. Shipitcarefully.ass ashLookatthatass. Lookatthatash.sew showHewontsewit. Hewontshowit.Sound2tltsheSheisthird.PushPush!heshouted.*"lLE*-*::-*)#,G JN
    • UNIT32 ,li shoe | | 5-imalpairwords.33aa Listen and repeat the words..:u b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor /s/ (sound l) or 2 for lJl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair 1: 1,2,I,2, I,!nimalpairsentencesit34ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.cr+ud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lsl (sound l) or 2 for lJl(sound2)..3+ae sentencestressFirst try to guesswhich two words in each of the minimal pair sentenceswill be strongly stressed.Then listen, and mark where the intonationbeginsto go down on the most stronglystressedword (on page 114).EXAMPLE Ship it carefully.crl f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.1a)Sues I b)shoes I2a)ass I b)ash tr3a)puss tr b)push I4a)sack tr b)shack tr5a)seats tr b)sheetsI6a)save tr b)shave I5 Dialogueff a Firstpractisethe targetsound{/ in wordsfrom the dialogue.Readthe"* wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.show Mr Shaw sure shop shut shall shake sheets shirtsshrunk Mrs Marsh push wish shouldnt English Swedishfinished washes washing machine special demonstrationc:o b First listen to the dialogue and notice that the intonation sometimesgoesup. Then read the dialogue and write a-j against the numbers 1-4in the box below.The first one has been done as an example.I o (five YeslNoquestions)2 _ (one question tag where the speakeris not sure of theanswer)3 _ (three sentenceswhich are a list of instructions abouthow to do something)4 _ (one unfinished statement)
    • l16 uxr52 /.1lshoeA specialwashingmachineMRsMARSH:(a) Doesthisshopsellwashingmachines?MRSHAW:Yes.Thisisthe latestwashingmachine.MRSMARSH:(b) ls it Swedish?MRSHAW:No,madam.ltsEnglish.MRSMARSH:(c) Couldyoushowme howit washes?MRSHAW:(d) ShallI giveyoua demongfiation?Thisoneisourspecialdemonstrationmachine.ltssosimple.(e) Youtakesomesheetsandshirts.(f) Youputthem in the machine.(g) you shutthisdqAndyoupushthisbutton.MRSMARSH:(h) Themachineshouldntshakelikethat,shouldit?MRsHAW:Washingmachinesalwaysshake,madam Ah!ltsfinishednor.MRSMARSH:(i) Butthesheetshaveshrunk,andso havethe shirts.MRSHAW:(j) Doyouwishto bUythismachine,madam?MRSMARSH:.. Imnotsure.cso c First check your answersby listening to the dialogue again.Then checkin the key.Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the intonation with the recording.4 Joining/J/soundsa {/ sounds arejoined between words.EXAMPLE English_sheepRewrite thesephrasesfollowing the example in l.I shops in England Englishshops2 shipsmade in Denmark3 sheep in Scotland4 shampoo from Sweden5 champagne from France6 sheetsfrom Ireland7 shirts made in Poland8 shorts from Finland9 sugarfromTurkeyI0 shoesmade in Spaincsz b Listen and checkyour answers.c Readthe phrasesaloud, joining the ll sounds.EXAMPLE English_shops5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write wharyou noticed about how to spell the sound {/.
    • lSl televisionll7- Dad, what rhyrnes with explosion?- Erosion.- What about conclusion?- Con ion.- And television?- Decision ... revision ... precision ...- Stop, Dad! Thats enough! Thank you.- My pleasure. Any time.t Targetsoundl3lcseaa First practise the sound {/ (seepage I 14).Listen and repeat.cratb Use your voice to make the targetsound /g/. Listen and repeat.c:sc c Listen and repeat both sounds.{/ is unvoiced. /3/ is voiced.2 Soundl3llslcasualMichellehasajobina shopsellingcasualshoes.massageShealsohasa casualjob doingsportsmassageoccasionallyShedoessportsmassageoccasionally,noteveryday.collisionYesterdayMichellesawa collisionoutsidethe shoeshop.measureShewasmeasuringa shoefor a customer.casualtyAn ambulancetooktwo injuredpeopleto casualty.(Note:TWomeanings of casual in the first two sentences:I casualshoes=relaxed style or fashion fopposite: formal] ; 2 casualjob = not regular workIopposite: permanent].)I ssaR reb,.iffi)kw
    • I l8 uNtr 15 /3/televisionc3eaa Listen and repeat the words.crsub Listen to the sentences.e3eac SentencestressIn spoken English,the most important words for the speakerarestrongly stressed.Sothere is often more than one correct way ofstressinga sentence,as it depends on the speakersmeaning. Guesswhich words might be spoken with stronger stressin the sentences.Then listen to the sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on pagell7).EXAMPLE Miehcllc has a jqb in a shop selling casual shoes.fisa d Listen and repeat the sentences.5 Televisionprogrammesi] a First practise the sound /3/ in some of the words from this unit. Readthe@words aloud or visit the website to practise.usually unusual pleasuregaragecasual clothesan unusual collisionItLctelevisiontreasure
    • c10b Listen.#,-elevision Programmes:hannel 5- ttl- Childrensfilm: TreasureIsland- i.r - News update: Art Urtusual Collision- l0 - Fashionshow: Casua!Clothes- 15-Travel film: CrossingAsi.a15- Do-it-yourself show: How to MeasureUNlt 33 /i/ telervisionI | 9Sharon Shaun CharlotteMy pleasure. Yourewelcome.ThatsOK.lUrSMarsha New Garagej0 - Variety show: 1/sa Pleasurec Make asmany sentencesasyou can about whoswatching what on TVtonight.EXAMPLE At 8.30,Shaunswatching a variety show called ltsa Pleasure.d Practisewith a partner. Talk about which of the television programmesaboveyou would like to watch. Also ask each other about what showsyou usually watch.EXAMPLES Mhat do vou usuallv watch on Thursdavs?Would you like to watch the fashion show Casuat Ctothes?4 Intonationin thanks/responsesWe usually saythank you and reply to thank you with intonation goingdown at the end. rhen somebody saysThank you for doing something,we sometimes reply, It s a pleasure,orMy pleasure.Some other responsesto thanks are:Yourewelcome,Thats all right, Thats OK.c+rPractiseways of saying thank you and responsesto thanks with intonationgoing down on the last strong stress.First listen and repeat the possibleresponses.Itsa pleasure.Thatsall right.EXAMPLE A: Thank you for lending me your television.B: Its a p.l€asure.I Thank you for mending rny television.2 Heresyour measuringtape.Thank you so much.3 I finishedTreasure Island.Thanks.4 It was greatto useyour garage.Thanks a lot.5 Thanks for the massage.It was great.s SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /3/.
    • t20IttIt chipsheepThisisa sheepfarm.sherryItsa sherrytrifle,shoplllbuythisshop.- Lovely little chapel for a church wedding bells ... chiming ...- Do you think theyre a good match?- Good question. Theyre like chalk and cheese. Shesa checkout chick;hes the chairman of a television channel. Hes rich, charming ...- But she is the national chess champion.-Ah! ... mm ... a perfect match, I imagine.(Note: Theyrelike chalk and cheese= idiom meaning theyre very different.)ffir@washHeswashingthetelevision.I Targetsound/tJlL4zaa First practise the sounds ltl and/.f/ (seepages89 and 114).Listen and repeat.r czub To make the target sound lt|,beginto make /t/, Then slowly move yourtongue from the roof of your mouth.Do it again more quickly. Dont useyour voice. Listen and repeat:/tf.2 MinimalpairsSoundI Sound2t.ft ttJtship chipWelikeships. Welikechips.cash catchI couldntcashit. I couldntcatchitl- YcheapThisisa cheapfarm.cherryItsa cherrytrifle.choplllbuythischop.watchHeswatchingthetelevision@
    • UNIT54 i1llchip l2l- 1 Pairwords, a Listen and repeat the words.b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor /.f/(sound I) or 2 for ltJl (sound 2).EXAMPLE PairI: 2,2,1,2,I -:l oairsentencesc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.d Listen to six of the sentencesand write 1 for lJl (sound l) or 2 for ltJl(sound2).e SentencestressFirst read the minimal pair sentencesand guesswhich two words will bestrongly stressedin each sentence.Notice which words are nouns,adjectivesor main verbs.These are often important for the speakersmeaning, so they are often (but not always)the stressedwords. Thenlisten to each sentenceand underline the two strongly stressedwords(on page120).EXAMPLE Heswatching the television.. f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)shop I b)chop tr2a)sherry I b)cherry tr3a)washing! b)watching!4a)ships tr b)chips I5a)shin I b)chin I6a)shoes tr b)choose I: - aloguea First practise the target sound /tJ/ in words from the dialogue. Readthewords aloud or visit the website to practise.choose chops Charles much lunch Churchbutcher chicken children cheaper cheerful charmingCheshire chump chopsb SentencestressListen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and guesswhich words are strongly stressedin eachsentence.The number in bracketstells you how manywords will bestrongly stressedby the speakerin that line. The first line has been doneas an example.Then listen to the dialogue asmany times asnecessarybefore deciding on your answers.
    • 122 UNIT34 h.f chipAtthebutchersshop(5) Gherlss eheshjre is o veryeheedul,eftsrming butcher.)CFIARLES:(2) Coodmorning,MrsChurch.MRScHURcH:(5) Coodmorning,Charlesld likesomechopsforthe childrensIUNCNCHARLES:(2) Chumpchopsor shoulderchops,MrsChurch?tuiRSCHURCH:( ) lllhavefourshoulderchops,andI wanta smallchicken.CHARLES:(3) Wouldyouliketo choosea chicken,MrsChurch?MRSCHURCH:(2) Whichoneischeaper?CHARLES:(a) Thisonesthe cheapest.ltsa deliciouschicken.l4RSCHtjRtH:(B) Howmuchisallthat?| haventgotcash.CanI paybycreditcard?CHARLES:(2) Of course,MrsChurch.( t{i c Check your answersby listening to the dialogue again.Then check in thkey.d Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Intonationin a listc r a Listen to the recording of someone Iisting the ingredients in the recipebelow. Notice how intonation keeps going up on each item of the list,but comes dovynat the end.Recipe- Cheese-topped chopsIngredients:a dash of soy saucefour chops.era*"Cheddarcheeseone freshchilli or aPueb ofchilli powdercherriesaomushroomsL,r#shallots*;cl, od coPractisereading this list aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourintonation with the recording.
    • UNIT54 /tJlchip 12SlnstructionsListento someonegivinginstructionsabouthow to makecheese-toppedchops.Noticehow intonationcankeepgoingup when givinginstructionsabouthow to do something,but comesdownatthe end.I Poura little soysauceoverthe chops.2 Chop the mushrooms, cheeseand shallots.Mix the mushrooms,cheese,shallo.tsandchilli with a dashof soysauce4 Grillthe chops.5 Spread the mixture qver the chops.6 Grill the chopsand mixture for a few minutes.Put the chops on a dish and decorate eachchop with a cherry.8 Servethe chops with fresh French salad and chips.Practisereading these instructions aloud. Recordyour voice to compareyour stressand intonation with the recording.SrellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /tJl.
    • l$l fanuary124- Goodmorning.Myname is Chaslazz.Iwanttoarranlleto sendan item of my luggageon to lapan.- fustonemoment,Mr lazz... (onphone)Hello.Couldyou hold on for iusta moment,please?- Justin casetheresany damageto this baggage,the JumboietsetCompanyin Iamestownhas...- Im sorryMr lazz,but this is not the lumboietsetCompany.Their office is iust round the corner.I Targetsoundid3i ,Li ..,a First practise the sound itJl (seepage120).Listen and repeat.c+,.1t-.b Useyour voice to make the targetsound /dgl. Listen and repeat.c.terc Listen and repeat both sounds together./tJ/ is unvoiced. ld3lis voiced.2 MinimalpairsSoundIItltcheapItsa cheaptypeof car.chokeAreyouchoking?richesA landfullof riches.cherriesDoyoulikecherries?larchI wanta larchtree.HDoIwriteHhere?tSound2tfitieePItsajeeptypeof car.jokeAreyoujoking?ridgesA landfullof ridges.Jerry/sDoyoulikeJerrys?largeI wanta largetree.ageDo I writeagehere?2|Kn-E#,4 ^nfJ;73t
    • UNn 35 id3iJanuarv 125- al pairwordsa Listen and repeat the words.b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor ltJl (sound l) or 2 for ld3l (sound2).EXAMPLE Pair1: 2,2,1,2, L-:l pairsentencesc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.d Listen to six of the sentencesand write l for ltJl (sound I) or 2 for ld3l(sound2).e SentencestressFirst imagine how the minimal pair sentenceswill be spoken if the pairword is the most important word for the speakersmeaning. Underlinethis word (on page 124).Then listen to the sentencesagain and mark ifthe voice begins to go up or dovrmon this word.EXAMPLE Its a cheap type of car.f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)choke I b)joke tr2a)larch I b)large tr3a)cheap I b)jeep I4a)chain I b)Iane I5a)chilly tr b)Iilly tr6a)cheered tr b)jeered Isroguea First practise the target sound ld3l inwords from the dialogue. Readthewords aloud or visit the website to practise.jeep jail lohn just George edge Ierry larger injureddangerous agency travel agency jokes bridge villagedamaged manager passenger fanuary dangerously
    • 126 uHlrt5 ld3llanuarycss b Readthe dialogue below and fill the gaps (1-8) with the correct wordsfrom the box below.Then listen and check Vour answers.jokesmarnagerbridgepassengervillage damagedfanuary dangerouslyA dangerousbridgeJERRY:Justoutsidethist _ theresa verydangerousbridge.JoHN: Yes.Charlestoldme twojeepscrashedon it in 2-Whathappened?JERRY:Well,CeorgeChurchillwasthe driverof the largerjeep,andhewasdrivingvery3_ .JoHN: CeorgeChurchill?Do I knowCeorgeChurchill?JERRY:Yes.Thatginger-hairedchap.Hesthe4- of thetravelagencyin Chester.JoHN: Oh,yes.I rememberCeorge.Hesalwaystellingjokes.Well,wasanybodyinjured?JERRY:Oh,yes.Theotherjeepwentoverthe edgeof thes_ , andtwo childrenandanother6- werebadlyinlured.JoHN: Oh dear!Wereboththejeepsz_ ?JERRY:Oh,yes.JoHN: Andwhathappenedto Ceorge?JERRY:Ceorge?Hestellinge_ in jailnow,I suppose!c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 /t[/ and/ds/ soundscsr a JoiningsoundsNotice that when two sounds ltl or ld3l come together,we usually sayboth sounds.EXAMPLE large (ld3lltJi) cherriesListen and repeat.large cherries orangejuice How much cheesewhich jqb village ja[] watch chainrich child teach German large gentlemanwhich chair collegechess huge jumbo jet
    • UNIT35 lc!3llanuary 1!7CrosswordEveryanswerhasthesoundltjl or ld3l.CluesAcross:I Somepeople get married in a ...... .2 We eat bread,butter and ...... .3 Webuy jam in a...... .4 Youll get fat if you eat too much ......olate.5 A game for two people.6 Youcan seein the dark with a ......ch.7 This isnt ...... a difficult puzzle.Down:I A young hen is a ...... .2 This book belongsto Jock.It s .......book.3 The dangerousbridge is ...... outsidethe village.4 HRCAEare the letters of this word. It means to arrive.5 Tellme a j......e.6 Georgesjeep was ...... than the other jeep.: =llingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /d3l.
    • r28il REVIEWCardgame:Pickup unvoicedconsonants:/p/, /t/, /k/, /J/,/t.f* Photocopy and cut out cards from minimal pairs in Units 32,34,35 andadd the cards from Units 24, 26 and28.Shuffle the cards and deal them face doum all over the table.Turn over any two cards and read their sentencesaloud. If they both haveany unvoiced consonants in the pair words, you keep them and youcontinue playing.If they dont, turn them both face down again and the next person plays.Collect asmany cards as you can in a time limit, e.g.ten minutes.TESTYou can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont have to understandevery word to do this test.css I For eachline (1,2,3,4, 5),first listen to the whole line, then circletheone word (or part of a word) that is said twice. Note that meaning is nolimportant in this exercise.The purpose is to review the sounds byhearing them in contrast. One word is rarely used in everydayEnglish.and this is marked by an asterisk*. Incomplete words have the rest ofthe word written in brackets,e.g.chea(p).h| td3tchew Jew(ish)2 Sam (e)xam sham cham(pion) jam3so zo(ne) show cho(sen) Joe4C she chea(p) GeellslI suetltshoetzlzoo5 sap zap chap(erone)*-Scorechap Iap(anese)2 Circle the words with the same consonant cluster as l-3.I insect 2 orange/ns/ answer lnd3ltelevisionschance instructionsdesigns ancestorsrangesponge lunchpensinsidestranger muchpins":;*"T*"t1Tl"Iohns lounge
    • UN|T56Review 129opticianl[nlRussianIndonesianfashiontelevisionunfastenscorel /15lPickthe different one: /s/, lzl or lezlUnderline the s ending that has a different pronunciation.EXAMPLE Samanthas Mums Bills RuthsI loves climbs kisses whistles2 wants sings laughs gets3 bicycles watches matches boxes4 Lauras Williams Lukes Dads5 books oils bugs lessonsScoreIntonationRead this conversation and guessthe intonation. Then listen and drawintonation arrows in the boxesfor each item l-10.(draw 6 ofthese) (draw 3 ofthese) (draw I ofthese)CHARLES:Wouldyoulikesomecoffee? I [--lSUSAN:ld actuallylikesomehotchocolate. 2 [-_-lCHARLES:Wel! 3 [--_]SUSAN:Youknowhowto makethat,dontyou? 4CHARLES:Youjustheatup the milk,putthe chocolatein the cup 5... Andthenpourthe hotmilkoverit. 6 [--lsUSAN:Andaddsomeof thesemarshmallowsI brought. 7 f-lWouldlou likesomehot chocolate? 8 [--lCHARLES:Wrtha few extramarshmallows? 9 f-_l5U5AN:Mmmm! lO f-_-]ScoreTotal score t /50]intonationelectricianlessonillusionexpanslon
    • ffi unr 56ReviewAdditionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfromUnits30-55Unit 30 31 32 33 34 35Targetsound lsl lzl lil lSl lt| lfilsun zoo shoe television chip lanua:Fromthe abovetable,chooseanytargetsoundsthat you had difficulrywith1 Listenagainto the dialoguein that unit, Iisteningfor the targetsound.2 Circlethe targetsoundin anywords in the dialogue.3 Listento the dialogueagainand checkyour answers.4 Checkyour answersin the key.5 Listento the dialogueagain,listeningfor the targetsound.6 Practisereadingthe dialoguealoud,and recordyour voiceto compareyour production of the targetsoundwith the CD.Youcanalsousethis reviewtaskasa quick self-test,by doing steps2 and4 only.
    • l5llf l fan- :, , Ms Fox - rnllfour.We finish at , Mr Foot.* had enough ofthis office for one day.- :., much hiring and firing. Im off., ::- iustput thosefileson the flooqMr Foot., -r-.ecarefully.And dortt forget the flowersfor;-rrtiie...ing and firlng = i4io- meaning employing and dismissing workers.)-:getsound/f/Tomakethetargetsound/f /, touch .,yourtop teethwith your bottom lip.BIowout air betweenyour liP andyourteeth.Dont useYourvoice.Listenandrepeat:/f/. rimalpairsASoundI Sound2lpl ltlpin finItsa sharppin ltsa sharpfin.Peel feelPeelthisorange. FeelthisoranSe.@.r7;-*4?4,/-! (/l---:n&,/-n-IruLLt",1r*vfTiIt<2r"J.n--rj<:4I@TPorkTheresnoporkhere.PullThesignsaidPull.snaPSniptheseflowers.PalmHe showedme hispalm.fo*Theresno forkhere.fullThesignsaidFull.sniffSnifftheseflowers.wedmehisfarm.
    • 152 UNIT37 tfI lanMinimalpairwordscssaa Listenandrepeatthewords.csebb Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword,write lfor ipl (sound1)or 2 for lfl (sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 2,1,2,1,2Minimalpairsentencesc5eac Listento theminimal pairsentences.cssud Listento sixof the sentencesandwrite I for /p/ (sound1)or 2 forlfI(sound2).c5eae sentencestressListento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe stronglystressedwords(onpage131),EXAMPLEHe showedme his palm.MinimalpairsB&Minimalpairwordst otrad Listenandrepeatthewords.coorb Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword, writefor /h/ (soundl) or 2 for lfI (sound2).EXAMPLEPairl: I, I,I,2,2Minimalpairsentencesc0la c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.I*54a.r$ t/ .€n,fuSoundI Sound2,itht tU:"ar - t Holdthis hispaper.heatI likeheatontheback.hitlThatsignsaidHill.heelThisheelsdifferent.feetI likefeeton the back.fiilThatsignsaidFill.feelThisfeelsdifferent.honey funnyThisishoney. Thisisfunny.hole foalItsgota littlehole. ltsgota littlefoal.
    • UNIT37 lfI fan l3,5. d Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lhl (sound l) or 2 for lfl(sound2).; e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the stronglystressedwords (on page 132).EXAMPLE Fold this paper.f Tick the words a), b) or c) that you hear in the sentences.Ia)pin tr b)fin I2a)peel tr b)feel tr3 a)snipping f b) sniffing I4 a)heel I b) feel ISa)harm tr b)farm tr6a)pole D b)hole I c)foal tr" - :logueIntonation in requestscan be down at the end but it usually sounds morepolite going up.J a Practisethese six requestsfrom the dialogue with the-intonation going up. Readthe sentencesaloud or visit the website topractise.t Pleasephonemy officeafterfivedays,MrsPhillips.z Pleasegivea friendlylaugh.3 Pleaseusethisfelt-tippedpen,MrsPhillips.+ Pleaselook.. er . . softandbeautifuls Pleasesiton thissofa.o Pleasefillin thisfortn., b First listen to the dialogue, payrng attention to the target sound. Thenread the dialogue and fill the gaps (a-f) with the requests (1-6) above.The first gap has been done as an example.- Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.Then check in thekey."--xyphotographerPHOTOCRAPHER:Coodafternoon.HowcanI helpyou?FRED:lm FredPhillips.I wanta photographof myselfandmy wifePhillippa.PHOTOGRAPHER:Certainly,Mr Phillips.a)Pleosefillin thisform.PHTLLIPPA:lllfillit in.Fred.
    • ffi unr 57fit fanPHOToGRAPHER:b)- Mr Phlllips,do youprefera fullfrontphotographor aprofile?FRED:A fullfront,dontyouthink,Phillippa?PHILLIPPA:Yes,A fullfrontphotograph.FRED:Fullfront.PHILLIPPA:(hondsin theform) ltsfinished.PHoTocRAPHER:Thankyou,MrsPhillips.c)- ls it comfortable?PHILLIPPA:Yes.lt feelsfine.PHOTocRAPHER:Mr Phillips,d)-FRED:Thatsdifficult.lf yousaysomethingfunnyI canlaugh.PHoToGRAPHER:And,MrsPhillips,e)-FRED: (loughs)PHoToGRAPHER:Thatsit finished.FRED:Finished?PHoToGRAPHER:Finished,Mr Phillips.PHtLLIPPA:Willthe photographbe readyfor the fifthof February?PHOTOCRAPHER:YCS.D-c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound and the intonation with the recording.4 lntonationin rfsentencesMatch the beginning of these f sentences(l-7) with the endings (a-g).I If Fredlaughs,2 If Grandfather flies,3 If you want to eat fish,4 If you telephone information,5 If you fry food,6 If theyrefrom France,7 If you finishbeforethe others,Listen to check and repeat.Notice how the intonation goesup and thendown.EXAMPLEIf Fred laoghs, he looks fusty.SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /f/.a he getsfrightened.b theycanspeakFrench.c yourefirst.d it getstull of fat.e theyrehelpful.f he looksfunny.g you needa knife and fork.5
    • t55N lvlvanevoue€r beentotenice?:e. er.But Iveheardyourejust comeback-- ,enice,haventvou?i."-: holiday Ive ever had. The food was fabulous. : i ou buy anything in Venice?"* - this r-est.-- .es ... A berry-colouredVenetian vest!:n-fashionable!-::et sound/v/ a Firstpractisethe sound /f/ (seepage131).This is an unvoiced sound.Listen and repeat.b Useyour voice to make the targetsound /v/. Listen and repeat.c Listen and repeat both sounds: /f/and /v/. rimalpairsASoundI Sound2lll lvlsafe saveSafehere? Savehere?fineFinein thegarden?failItsa fail?,l/=:+lE=i" * Thevneeda tasts:di .{L-rlllxr1"ffi.M,-.s#+sffifewfew?--lcllrF ti.,|-EHHI//47/, ThisroomhasaferryFerrylate?vine/inc in tho o.arlon?veilItsa veil?viewThisroomhasa view?vastTheyneeda vastship?veryVerylate?
    • 156 uur 58/v/vanMinimalpairwords( r,{iaa Listen and repeat the words.l,r,r b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor /fi (sound l) or 2 for /v/ (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 2, L,2,2, IMinimalpairsentences( 6;d c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.(Note:These are statementsusedas questions, so the intonation goesup.)cozud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lfl (sound I) or 2 for lvl(sound2).c67ae sentence stressNative speakersof English only sometimes use statements as questionsListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and notice how the speakervoice begins to go up on the most important word for the speakersmeaning. This word is spoken with the strongest stress.Underline thisword and any other strongly stressedwords you hear in each sentence(on page 135).EXAMPLE This room has a view?SoundI Sound2lbl lvlbet vetTheyregoodbets. Theyregoodvets.best vestHeworehisbest. Heworehisvest.3@ bolt voltWe needmorebolts. We needmorevolts.banCantheyliftthatban?boatJoneswonthe boat.berryItsa berryredcolour.vanCantheyliftthatvan?voteJoneswonthevote.veryItsa veryredcolour.FN{ lAffiF! iirl4,i6tsAls.,th tr IiJ"n.,Ethmor__lJ-
    • UN|T58lvlvan ll7 -al pairwordsa Listen and repeat the words. Then Iisten and repeat.b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor /b/ (sound I) or 2 for lvl (sound 2).EXAMPLE PairI: I,2,1,2, I -al oairsentencesc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.d Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lbl (sound l) or 2 for lvl(sound2).e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the twostrongly stressedwords in each sentence (on page 136).f Tick the words a), b) or c) that you hear in the sentences.r a)lift I b)Iived tr2a)half I b)halve tr3a)fast tr b)vast I4a)boat I b)vote tr5a)bolts I b)volts tr6a)safe I b)save tr: - alogueAI a First practise the target sound /v/ in some of the words from thedialogue. Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.view lived five of have love village valley very Vanderlovely Victor living arrived Vivienneb lntonationin statementsIntonation usually goesdown at the end of a statement. Listen to theintonation in this dialogue.Then practise reading it aloud. Recordyourvoice to compare your intonation and production of the target soundwith the recording.i -: VleWvrvtENNE:HastheVanderfamilylivedhereforverylgng,Victor?VtCToR:Fiveanda halfyea,ls,Vivienne.We arivedon the firstof February.vlvlENNE:Whata lcruelyviewyouhave!VICTOR:Y€sltsfabulous.vtvtENNE:LooklYoucanseethevil,lagedownin theya{eyvlCTOR:Yes.Wejustlsvelivingherebecauseof the view.
    • 1,!!Qunq 58/r,/van4 Stressanclintonationczz a Listen to this description and draw a down arrow on the last strongstressin each sentence.Check your answersand then practise readingthe description aloud. Recordyour voice to compare your production o,the target sound with the recording.This is a photograph of a fat farmer arriving at a village.The village is in a valley.The farmers driving a van.Its the seventeenthof November.Its a fine day but its very cold.Some of the leaveshave fallen from the vine in the foreground of thephotograph.Remember that intonation often goesdown at the end of statements,short answers,WH questions,questions with or.Match these questions and answers,and draw down arrows on the laststrongstress.EXAMPLE &ihatmonth is it in this phOtograph? NoVemberI Mhosglriving the van? A vine2 How many leaveshave fallen from the vine?3 Vhere do the villagerslive?4 Is the van leaving or alriving?Arrirrin oFiveIn the valler5 In the foreground of the plfOtograph, is it a vine or a fir tree? Four6 Near the village are there four or five fir trees? The farmerc73 Listen to check your answers,then practise sayingthe questions andanswers.5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /v/.
    • lwlwindowr59at do you want for your birthday?atever you want to give me." atch?A uallet? ... um ... A wig? A netsuit? A welcome:- ::? ... er ... A woolly vest?Some wine? A grape vine?atever..€b-@r-:getsound/wi-, a First practise the sound /v/ (seepage135).Listen and repeat.b Make your lips round and hard tomake the short target sound /w/.Listen and repeat.. c Listen and repeat the two sounds:lvlandlwl.i-,,z-< _-..L/ i)lt---- ,inimalpairsSoundI Sound2I?eJEvest westThatsthe vest. Thatsthe west.vet wetThedogsvet. Thedogswet.vtneThisismybestvine.wtneThisismybestwine.veil whaleItsa blueveil. ltsa bluewhale.-ralpairwords- a Listen and repeat the words., b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, writefor /v/ (sound l) or 2 for lwl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: I,l,1,2,2
    • 140 UNIT59 /w/ windowMinimalpairsentencesI)4ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.pand Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /v/ (sound l) or 2 for lwl(sound2).D4ae SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the twostrongly stressedwords in each sentence (on page 139).EXAMPLE This is my best vine.Ds f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.r a)vine I b)wine I2a)Y I b)we3a)veal I b)wheel4 a)verse |-J b) worse5 a)veils tr b)whales !6a)vet I b)wet I5 Dialogue$ a first practise the target sound /w/ in words from the dialogue below.- Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.well what wet walk warm with white wine wentwalked woods wild sweet William Wednesday wasntwearing walnut railway quiet quickly twenty squirrelswonderful Winona afterwardsuc b SentencestressListen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and guesswhich words are strongly stressedin eachsentence.The number in bracketstells you how many words will bestrongly stressedin that line. The first line has been done as an exampi.A walkin thewoods.VIRGINIA:(2) | saw. . Williamagainon Wednesday,WinonaWINoNA:(4) Oh?Williamagain (Winonoloughs.) Well,whathappenec-VIRCINIA:(a) Wewentfora lovelywalkin thewoods.wINONA:(6) Oh?Inthewet?Wasntit verywet on Wednesday?VIRCINIA:(6) lt wosverycoldandwet Butwe werewearingverywarmclotf=(a) andwe walkedquicklyto keepwarm.WINoNA:(6) lsthatthewoodsnextto the railway?ltsnotveryquiet.VlRclNlA:(6) Yes.Butfurtherawayfromthe railwayit wasveryquiet(a) andtherewerewildsquirrelseverywhere.We counted(2) twentysquirrels.WINONA:(5) Twentysquinels?Andwhatdidyoudo forlunch?(2) A picnicwiththe squirrels?trT
    • UNIT59 lul window 141VIRCINIA:(5) lt wastoowet.Afterwardswe wentto a restaurant.lt was(6) wvelveoclock.We hadwalnutcakeandsweetwhitewine(I) lt waswonderfulwINONA:(3) So?Williamagain Well ?VIR6tNtA:(l) Well?(Virginioond Winonolough.)c Check your answersby listening to the dialogue again.Then check in thekey.d Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the sentencestressand the target sound with therecording." ---:ssandintonationa Intonation usually goesdown at the end of WH questions and shortanswers.EXAMPLEMherewas it ouiet? In the woods.Match the answers (a-h) to the questions (l-B) about the dialogue.Then Iisten to check and repeat.1 Mherewas it quiet? a The squirrels.2 Mhat did they watch? b Ever).where.3 Mhat did they drink? c To keep warm.4 lVhere were the squirrels? d In the woods.5 Mhy did they walk quickly? e TWelveoclock.6 ^Ihat did they eat for lunch? f Went for a walk.7 Mhattime did they have lunch? g Walnut cake.8 A/hatdid William and Virginia do on Wednesday? h Sweetwhite wine.Practisereading the questions and answersaloud. Recordyour voice tocompare your production of the intonation with the recordingb lntonation:old information/new informationNotice that intonation in I4lHquestions can changewhen we are talkingabout old information, e.g.the first time we ask somebodysname, weask:A4ratsyour name? This is new information. But if I then forget thename and askagain,I ask:Whats your name? becauseI am askingabout old information that has already been given.The intonation goesup to show that this is something we have already shared.Listen to Winona, later in the day,askingVirginia some questions aboutinformation they had shared.A/herewere the squirrels exaeltly?dhat time did you sayyou had lunch?Mhy did you walk quickly?
    • 142 uNlT59 /rri rvindorvThis is all old information that Virginia and Winona had already sharedso the intonation goesup.Now listen to Winona asking for new information.A/hatdid you both talk about?Mhen did you arrange the meeting?Listen and mark whether these questions are old information or newinformation. The first two have been done asexamples.Mhat did you say you drank? oldinformotion2 Mhat colour did you wear? newinformotion3 What did Victor say?a Whydid youwalkquickly?5 What did Victor wear?6 lVhere did you go with Victor?ru c Linking/w/The sound /w/ is used in rapid spoken English to link other sounds.TI--,sound /w/ Iinkswords ending in /u/ or lol , e.g.who,you, how,go, hel.when the next word begins with a vowel. Listen to the examplesthenlisten to six short interactions where this linking happens. Mark whereyou could hear linking lw I in l-6 belowtltrhExAMPLES *nl*lr,lwlYou_are. Go_away!t;I A: Hello,everybody!How areyou? B: Hello,Emma. Oh Im OK nouI had the flu and felt terrible2 A: Mho isnt here? B: Joeisnt.A few others arent.3 A: Is SueOK?Anybody know B: I dont know if Sueis off withabout Sue? the flu aswell.4 A: How do I get to a garage? B: You go under a bridge andthrough a village.5 A: Do you understand? B: No, I dont really.6 A: Oh, its so unfair! You always B: Grow up!get two ice creams!Check your answersin the key.Then practise the interactions with apartner. Recordyour voices to compare your production of linking /ttwith the recording.Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /w/.5 Spelling
    • l4ti[I/j/vellow- Did 1ouuse to use a computer when youwere vounger?- No.When I was youngthere didnt use to be anycomputers. I just used to play with ayo-vo ... umI havent played with a yo-yo for years ... er ...HaveT,ougot ayo-yo?- No, just a computer.I TargetsoundljlLrnaa Firstpractisethe sound /ill (seepage3). Listenand repeat.ur.rHb To make the target sound /j /, begin tomake the sound /irl but very quicklymove your tongue to make the nextsound. Do not touch the roof ofyourmouth with your tongue or you willmake another sound like /d3l(seepage 124).Listen and repeat.nrocc Listen and repeatboth sounds:ld3l and ljl.2 Minimalpairsi)_v-tfrivotce{r:I*,gtG.!| ^gr..! J-.3:&16*U-SoundIIrl:tjokeThatsa wonderfuljoke.jamWouldyoulikejam?fess-less,I loveyou.jeersHe sangoverthejeers.juice useTheresno juice. Theresno use.Sound2tjtyolkThatsa wonderfulyamWouldyoulikeyam?loveyou.yearsHe sangovertheyears.@:,/yesVec Iyolk.
    • 144 UNIT40 /.y/yellowMinimalpairwordsDlla a Listen and repeat the words.nttu b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor ldSl (sound l) or 2 for /j/ (sound 2).E)(AMPLEPairl: 2, 1,2, l,IMinimalpairsentencesorzac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.orzud Listento five of the sentencesandwrite I for ld3l (sound l) or 2for ljl(sound2).nlzae SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the stronglystressedwords (on page 143).Stressedsyllablesare LOUDeTand s I o wer.Unstressedsyllablesare clriietcrand quicker.This givesEnglish itsrhythm.EXAMPLE Would you like jam?ur r f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)joke I b)yolk I2a)jam tr b)yam I3a)Iess I b)yes tr4a)jeers tr b)years I5a)juice I b)use tr6a)jet I b)yet trNotsostupidJOHNYEE:Excuseme.Didyouuseto livein York?JOEYOUNC:YCS.JOHNYEE:Didyouuseto be a tutoratthe I ?JOEYOUIC:Yes.Fora fewyears5 Dialogue$a nirst practise the target sound /j/ in words from the dialogue. Readthe-words aloud or visit the website to practise.York years Young news few Hugh stew tunes hugeyellow yesterday tutor student onion newspaper producesbeautiful excuseme usedto did you useto music knewNew tubes stupid university tuba Europeur+ b Readthedialoguebelowandfill thegaps(I-B)with thecorrectwordsfrom theboxbelow.Thenlistento therecordingandcheckyouranswers.music knew New tubes stupid university tuba Europe
    • UNIT40 /ii yellew 145JOHNYEE:DoyourememberHughYip?Hewasa z studentJoEYouNc: HughYip?Didhe useto havea hugeyellowjeep?JoHNYEH:Yes.Andhe usedto plavbeautifultuneson the:JoEYoUNC:Yes,l+_ Hugh.Heusedto bea verystupidstudent.Doyouhaveanynewsof Hugh?JOHNYEE:YesHesa millionairenowin s- York.JoEYoUNc:A millionaire?Playingthetuba?JoHNYEE:Oh,no.HeproducesJamin o-, andtinsof onionstew,andsellsthemin 7- | readaboutHughin the newspaperyesterdayJ0FYOUIC:OhlWell,hewasntso8-c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Stressandintonation:highlightinga wordr)|5aa Notice that the speakercan chooseto make any word the mostimportant one for the meaning of a sentence,and to make that wordmore strongly stressedthan the other words. The meaning of thesentencechangesslightly.Listen to one of the questions from thedialogue said with five different meanings becauseeach time a differentword is given this stronger stress.1 Did you use to live in York? Suggeststhe meaning: (There aredifferent opinions about this.VVhatsthe truth?)2 Did you use to live inYork? Suggests:(I did. Or somebody elsedid.Vhatabout you?)3 Did you use to live inYork? Suggests:(But not now.)4 Did you use to live inYork? Suggests:(But maybe you workedsomewhere else.)5 Did you use to live in York? Suggests:(Not some other city.)DI5r) Now listen to another sentencesaid with five different meanings. Matcheach sentence (1-5) with the correct suggestedmeaning (a-e).I He had a yellow jeep. a) (But not any more. Not now.)2 Hehad. a yellow jeep. b) (But nobody elsedid.)3 Hehad ayellowjeep. c) (Not a caror anyotherkindofvehicle.)4 He had a Izellowjeep d) (Iust one. Not severalof them.)5 He had a yellow ieep. e) (Not a red one or any other colour.)
    • 146 uNtr 40 iir vellorvuio b Linking/j/The sound /.i/ is used in rapid spoken English to link other sounds.Thesound /j/ Iinkswords ending in /il/ or ltl, e.g.she,he,I, we,my, boy,say,they, when the next word, begins with a vowel. Listen to the examplesthen listen to six short interactionswhere this linking happens.Markwhere you could hear linking /j / in l-6 below.tjt tjt tjtEXAMPLES l_agree. He_is here. The way_out.I A: Letsplay a card game. B: OK, Ill deal.2 A: That boy is very rude. B: Yes,he ought to be morepolite.3 A: Are those printouts of my emails? B: Yes,they are.4 A: He alwaysfeelssadwhen B: I understand. I often do too.hesalone.5 A: Sayit again,please. B: I said today is my eightiethbirthday.6 A: They all had a good cry B: There wasnt a dry eye in theat the funeral. church.iEf Check your answersin the key.Then practise the interactions with apartner. Recordyour voices to compare your production of linking /j /with the recording.c About youReadthese answersand answerT (True) or F (False)or D (Dont know).I Mhenyou were three you used to dressyourself. ( )2 A/henyou were six months old you used to feed yourself. ( )3 A/henyou were a baby you used to be beautiful. ( )4 ,Vhenyou were first at school you used to be stupid. ( )5 lVhen you were younger you used to really like music. ( )** Choose one of the statements,or make up a similar one, and asksomebodyabout it.EXAMPLE .Vhenyou were (ten) yearsold, did yqu use to like (cycling)?5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /j/.
    • 147Tllhl hat- llave you ever been to a hospital?-Yes. I wasnt actually ill. But I used to play hockey,and I injured my hand.I had to go to Hill End Flospital.- Ilowdid it happen?- Oh, somebody just hit my handvery hardwith alrockey stick.Targetsound/h/i,r To make the targetsound /h/, push alot of air out very quickly. Do nottouch the roof of your mouth withyour tongue.Listenand repeat:/h/.Minimalpairs.+<f+<<<G!,-k! lllr,1tffiuSoundI Sound2(no sound) lltliil hirlill in hospital? lsTomHillin hospital?r.nR1,l-!v1i.o^_#*"{itr=de€l heelThatsabeautifuleel. Thatsabeautifulheel.and handPutyourheadond Putyourhead,hand,heartintoit. heartintoit.oldOldMrsSmithshand.earSheslostherearring.islandsI lovethe islands.holdHoldMrsSmithshand.hearSheslostherhearing.highlandsI lovethe highlands.
    • 148 uNtr 4l ih, irarMinimalpairwordsirrHaa Listenandrepeatthewords.IlrBtb Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword,write Ifor no sound(sound1)or 2 forihl (sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 2,2,1,2,IMinimalpairsentencesrrrqrc Listento the minimal pair sentences.rrr.rrd Listento six of the sentencesand write 1 for no sound(sound l) or 2 for/h/ (sound2).Dteae sentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain. Notice that the speakercanchoose to make any word the most important one for the meaning of asentence,and to make that word more strongly stressedthan the otherwords.4/henyou are reading English books or newspapersa word thatis much more strongly stressedthan the others in a sentence is printedin italics or in bold italics. Notice this in the sound 1 sentencein Pair 3:Put your head and heart into it. The speakerdoes this to suggestthemeaning: not just your head but alsoyour heart, so the pronunciationof and changes.Here it is pronounced /end/ when it is stronglystressed.It is usually weakly stressed,and pronounced /end/.nzo f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a) eels2 a) and3 a) eye4 a) art5a)ow6 a) airI b)heels If b)hand II b)hieh II b)heart II b)how II b)hair tr5 Dialoguefi a Firstpractisethetargetsound/h/in wordsfrom thedialogue.Readthe.wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practice.Hi he how has had have hit heard hope househorse Holly husband happened behind perhapsunhappy hospital horrible Helenab Read the dialogue and fill in the gaps.After each number there are twogaps.The first gap is a word starting with /h/.The second gap is a wordstarting with a vowel. Choosewords from the box below.Number I hasbeen done as an example.having ambulancehe unhappy hitall hospital heard accident howHelena ice-cream injured operation
    • UN|T4t /h/hat 149A horribleaccidentEMMA:Hi,Holly.HOLLY:Emma,haveyou t heord ?Theresbeena horrible occidentEMMA:Oh,dear!Whatshappened?HOLLY:Helenashusbandhashadanaccidenton hishorse.EMMA:2 awful!ls he ?HOLLY:Yes.Hesbeentakento I in anEMMA:Howdidit happen?HOLLY:Hewas byan_ van.lt wason the crossingjustbehindhishouse.EMMA:Howhorrible!HOLLY:Hes5_ an emergency in hospitalnowPoor6 lShessoEMMA:Perhaps7_ll be _ right,lolly.HOLLY:I hopeso.ulr c Check your answersby listening to the dialogue, then practise readingthe dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare your production ofthe target sound with the recording.4 lntonationt)22a ExclamationListenandrepeat.Oh dear? Howhorrible!Howawful! Howterrible!kPractiserespondingto thesestatementswith an exclamation.EXAMPLE A: Hamish has had an accident.B: How awful!I A helicopter has hit Adrians house.2 Harrys holiday hotel was hit by the hurricane.3 Andrew spent all his holiday in hospital.4 Haley hit herself with a heary hammer.5 Ellenshusband is ill in hospital.6 Ive hurt my hand and I cant hold anything.
    • l5O uNtr4t lhthatb Word linking with /h/Notice that in rapid spoken English,words are sometimes linked by thedisappearanceofthe sound /h/. The sound /h/ often disappearsin theweak forms of: he, him, his, her, has,had, haue.Like the word and in 2e.the pronunciation of thesewords changeswith strong or weak stressin asentence.Strongstress Weakstresshe lhitl lhtl or ltl Whereis he?him /hrm/ lrml I told him.his lhrzl lrzl Sheshis wife.her lhgl lal I told her.has lhezl lezl What has happened?had lhr,dl ladl They had seenit.have lhr,v I levI They have gone.D?r Now listen and mark the disappearing /h/ sound in the questions belorrwhile you read silently,EXAMPLE 1tVhofound (h)im?Detectiveatwork:disappearing/h/I Who found him?2 Mhatshis name? Harry?3 tVhoelse have you spoken to? Sheshis wife?4 Vt/hatsher phone number? Shehasnt a phone? Has she got a mobile?5 tVhathas the neighbour said about him?6 lVhat had he eaten?Check your answersin the key.Then practise the questions.Recordyourvoice to compare your production of theseweakly stressedh words withthe recording.s SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /h/.
    • t5IIl0l thin-What did you think of the new theatre?- I thought it would have been better. It costthousands to rebuild. But I thought it wasnothing special. What did you tlrink?- I thought it was really something!I Targetsound/0/r)zr To make the target sound iOl,put yourtongue between your teeth. Blow outair between your tongue and your topteeth. Do notuse your voice. Listenand repeat:/0/.2 MinimalpairsA^- RSound I Soundlsl l1lmouse mouthWhata sweetlittlemouse! Whata sweetlittlemouth!sum thumblsthissumOK? lsthisthumbOK?sick thickItsverysick. ltsverythick.sink thinkHessinking. Hesthinking.pass pathTheresa mountainpass. Theresa mountarnMinimalpairwordsrr:,:-a Listenandrepeatthewords.Di,tb Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword,write Ifor /si (sound1)or 2 for l0l (sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: I,2,1,2,1MinimalpairsentencesD2r,ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.uzatd Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /s/ (sound 1) or 2 for l0l(sound2).-,/^{q,fr)f-65Ma=f/aa&FIJtffietu
    • 152 UNlr42iolthinr).6ae sentencestressListento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethesentencestress(onpagel5l).EXAMPLEIsthis sum OK?MinimalpairsBSoundI Sound2Iil tgtfirst thirstHesgota first. Hesgotathirst.fin thinAfinsoup,please. Athinsoup,please.half hearthld likea half. ld likea hearth.Minimalpairwordsr)-,.ra Listen and repeat the words.tu;t b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor /f/ (sound I) or 2 for /0i (sound 2).EXAMPLE PairI: 2, l,I,1,2MinimalpairsentencesD?88c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.neatd Listen to three of the sentencesand write I for /f/ (sound I) or 2 for l0l(sound2).Drsae SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesand underline the sentencestress.EXAMPLE Hesgot a first.MinimalpairsCSoundI Sound2Itl lgltree threelf,c : hio frec r+,^ - L:- +L-^^r( J u ur6 L|LL, lt > C LJIE tl llEC.tanks thanksThePresidentsends ThePresidentsendshistanks. histhanks.sheet sheathTheknifewashidden Theknifewashiddenin a sheet. in a sheath.6elffil8i:.:31.*...,Eil
    • UN|T42 /e/thin 155MinimalpairwordsD2eaa Listen and repeat the words.ozsbb You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor /t/ (sound 1) or 2 for /0/ (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: L,2,L,I,2MinimalpairsentencesDsoac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.nsond Listen to three of the sentencesand write I for /t/ (sound I) or 2 for l0l(sound2).r):i0ae sentence stressListen to the minimal pair sentencesand underline the sentence stress(on page52).EXAMPLE Its a big tree.urr f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.t a)sink tr b)think I2a)mouse I b)mouth I3a)tin I b)thin I4a)taught tr b) thought I5a)moss tr b)moth tr6a)fought tr b)thought tr5 Dialogueff a first practisethetargetsound/0/in wordsfrom the dialoguebelow.Readthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto oractise.three thirsty thank you thousand Thursday authorCatherine Samantha nothing something mathematicianRuth Roth worth month moth mothsb In this dialogue, each numbered line has a word that is especiallyimportant becauseof Ruthsstrong responseto what Catherine says.Readthe dialogue and underline the most important word in eachnumbered line. Number t has been done as an example.GossipsCATHERINE: SamanthaRothisonlythirty.RUrH:(1) lsshe?lthoughtshewasthirrythree.CATHERINE: SamanthasbirthdaywaslastThursday.RUTH:(2) Wasit?| thoughtit waslastmonth.CATHERINE: TheRothshouseisworthsixhundredthousand,RUTH:(3) ls it?lthoughtit wasworththreehundredthousand.CATHERINE: RossRothistheauthorof a bookaboutmoths.RUTH:(4) lshe?I thoughthewasa mathematician.
    • 154 UN|T42/0ithinCATHERINE: lm sothirsty.RUTH:(5) Areyou?I thoughtyoudranksomethingat the Roths.CATHERINE: No.Samanthagaveme nothingto drink.RUTH:(6) ShallI buyyoua drink?CATHERINE: Thankyou.r)32c Check your answersby listening to the dialogue. Notice that theespeciallyimportant words are much LOUDeTand s I o w er, and theintonation goesup.d Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the intonation and the target sound with the recording.4 lntonationIn the dialogue Ruth expressessurprise with intonation going up.Dr3a Listen and repeat.Is she? Af;ashe? Is it? .Areyou?b Match the statementsbelow in A (l-7) with the correct responsesin B(a-g).AB1 Catherine is at the theatre.- a Are you? I thought you drank something.2 RossRoth is thirty-three. b Is she?I thought she was at theRoths.3 Its Samanthasbirthday today. c Is he?I thought he was thirty.4 Im so thirsty. d Is she?I thought shewas thirty-three.5 The Roths house is north of here. e Is it? I thought it was last month.6 Mrs Roth is thirty. f Is it? I thought it was worth300,000.7 The Rothshouse is worth g Is it? I thought it was south.600,000.D3ir Check your answersby listening to the recording. Listen to eachstatement and respond.Practisewith a partner.Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /0/.t5SPelling
    • l6l the feathert55-Did tlrcsepeopletalkabout their neighbours?*-Well, yesthey talked a bit ... er ... about ... this and that.- | hats what I hate about those people. I heyre there attheir windows just watching everybody in rhe street,and then they gossip about it for tlre next week.- Everybody talks about other people. I mean here youare talking aboutthem!Targetsound/d/r)3saa First practise the sound /0/ (seepage151).Listenand repeat.li:itr b Useyour voice to make the targetsound /d/. Listen and repeat:/d/.D3bcc Listen and repeat both sounds:/0/ is unvoiced./d/ is voiced.MinimalpairsAeI:(votcesVutr-ci.ffiru@lh+.n;.rG-#,iffiffirSoundI Sound2ldt ltlDan thanSmithisbigger,DanJones. Smithis biggerthanJones.,4t3a.day they #BDayarrived. Theyarrived."{[ jtrdare thereJimdareshisfriend. Jimthereshisfriend,core rnose ,ffiDozeafterlunch. Thoseafterlunch. --:------lda either € s|I dontknowhersister,lda. I dontknowhersistereither.IT t f{
    • 156 unr 45/d/thefeatherMinimalpair rdsr)36aa Listen and repeat the words.D:lorb You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor /d/ (sound l) or 2 for 16l(sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair l: I,1,2, I,2MinimalpairsentencesD3zac Listento theminimal pair sentences.oszbd Listento fiveof the sentencesandwrite I for /d/ (sound1)or 2 for16l(sound2).D37ae sentencestressListento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethesentencestress(onpage155).EXAMPLEDozeafterlunch.MinimalpairsBSoundI Sound2lzl 16lclose clothe i.ffi5m-MHW,Il II tr--lHEeel#@/Minimalpairwordsr)3saa Listen and repeat the words,u.inl,b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor /z/ (sound l) or 2for 16l(sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 2, l,1,2, IMinimalpairsentences11.1euc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.rrrqr,d Listen to four of the sentencesand write I for /z/ (sound l) or 2 for 16l(sound2).D3eae SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(above).EXAMPLE Thats a Iarge size.TheshopsignsaidClosinglbreezeBreezemeansairmoving.boosTheboosechoedloudly.sizeThatsa largesize.TheshopsignsaidClothing.breatheBreathemeansairmoving.boothTheboothechoedloudly.scytheThatsa largescythe.
    • UNIT43 idl the feather 157o+o f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a) Ida2 a) day3 a) dares4 a) size5 a) bays6 a) boosDialogueb) either Ib) they Ib) theres Ib)scyhe trb)bathe Ib)booth trtrtrtrIITIThe hatin thewindowMISSBROTHERS:ASSISTANT:MISSBROTHERS:ASSISTANT:MISSBROTHERS:ASSISTANT:ff a Firstpractisethetargetsound/6/in wordsfrom thedialogue.Readthe*wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.the this that than there other another rather togetherleather feathers Brothers smoother either with clotheso+r b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.I wantto buvthe hatin thewindow.Therearethreehatstogetherin the window,madam.Do youwantthe onewiththe feathers?No.Theotherone.Thesmalloneforthreehundredandthreeeuros?No.Notthatoneeither.Theoneoverthere.Theleatherone.Ah!Theleatherone.Nowthisisanotherleatherhat,madam.Itsbetterthanthe one in the window.ltsa smootherleather.MISSBRoTHERS:Butld ratherhavethe onein thewindow.lt goeswithmyclothes.ASSISTANT:Certainly,madam.Butwe donttakeanythingoutof thewindowuntilthreeoclockon Thursday.c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Sentencestress6ffi* n+za Talkaboutthe threehatsusingthewordsfrom the boxbelow.ni4s A: iVhichhat do yzu think is _ than the others?B: The one with the feathers.C: The Ieather hat.D: The one for three hundred and three euros.better more fashionablecheaper more stupidprettier more comfortableuglier more expensive
    • I58 unr 45 /d/thefeathero+sb IntonationMatchthe I4lHquestions(l-7) with thestatemenrs(a-g).Listenandrespond.t Whatsthis? a These are2 Mhatarethse? b ThatsZrck.3 rrA/hatsthat Agimal? c ThisisZ.4 rWhatsthislefter? d This is the&a.5 Mhatsthat frmber? e Thosearezgbras.6 tVhatare fhse? f Thatsa&ro.7 lVhos g ThatsaZQbu.ffif#flffi5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /d/.
    • t59iEREVIEWCardgame:Pickupvoicedconsonants:TEST/z/ (zoo),/S/ (television),/ds/ (January),/u/ (van),lw/ (window),/ j/ (Vellow),/h/ (hat),/6/ (thefeather)Photocopy and cut out cards from Units 31-43.Shuffle the cards and deal them face dourn all over the table.Turn over any tvvocards and read their sentencesaloud. If they both haveany voiced consonants in the minimal pair words, you keep them and youcontinue playing.If they dont, turn them face down again and the next person plays.Collect as many cards asyou can in a time limit, e.g.ten minutes.You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont have to understandevery word to do this test.trr+I For eachline (1,2,3,4, 5),first listen to the whole line, then circletheone word (or part of a word) that is said twice. Meaning is not importantin this exercise.The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them incontrast. Some words are rarely used in everyday English, and this isshovrmby an asterisk*. Incomplete words have the rest of the wordwritten in brackets,e.g.fou(nd).t6ttgtthtt:ttf/I fee ye he the(sis) thee*2 fou(nd) vow Wow! yow(l) how thou(sand) thou*3 foe* vo(te) woe* Yo(ga) hoe tho(le)* though4 f,e* VIE why high thigh thy*5 fis(t) vis(cose) whis(per) his(tory) this(tle) thisScore _ ,5-2 Circle the words with the same consonant cluster as l-3.I giftlftlcoughed arrivedlaughed kissed wishedloved lofty softfifth Iift
    • @ unrr44Review2 moths ,,iosi i-"o*i /clothes :l pgths lengths,-fi Iudiths "vThursdayr naluropaths , tablecloths,.1..fl i#l"o*,3 swan/sw/ ., ., I-.-"-"-, , i. sword -1r DWeOlSn enqUfreScore D,r{i3 WordlinkingListenand add the sound /j/ (yellow)or lwl asin the example.EXAMPLE Well,who_is the boss?I_am.lwl lilWell,who_is the boss?I_am.YASMIN:l_askedyou_aquestion,Wesley.WESLEY:Oh_lmsorry_ldidnthearyou,Yasmin.YASMIN:You_oftendothat,andl_alwaysgetannoyed.WESLEY:Oh_isthatso?Why_isthat,Yasmin?YASMIN:ltsjustannoying!Why_areyoudoingit,Wesley?WESLEY:Justto_annoyyou,Yasmin.Score4 WordstressUnderlinethe stressedsyllablein thesewords.(Scorehalf a mark peritem.)valley village beautiful railway Europe perhapshospital mathematician author leatherscorelElTotal score
    • UN|T44Review l6lAdditionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfromUnits37-43Unit 37 38 39 40 41 42 43Target sound lfl lvl lwl ljl lhl l0l 16lfan van window yellow hat thin the featherFrom the above table, choose any target sounds that you had difficultywith.I Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, listening for the target sound.2 Circle the target sound in anyword in the dialogue.3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.4 Check your answers in the key.5 Listen to the dialogue again, listening for the target sound.6 Practisereading the dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compareyour production of the target sound with the recording.You can also use this review task as a quick self-test,by doing steps2 and 4only.
    • 162iHrm/ mouth- Irn thinking of ruoving.- Oh.Where to?- nlnr ... Irrr not sure. I rrright nroveto }lanchester... nulr ... or I nray go to Carrrbridge... SornetimesIrrr ... irrragining tnyself nroving to ... IVlunich...or Rolrreor ... rrtaybeIarseille or ...- Well don t call the renrovers until you nrake upyour rrrind.I Targetsound/m/i)rh To make the targetsound /m/,closeyour lips.Useyour voice./m/ comesthrough your nose.Listen and repeat:/m/.2 Sound/m//n1tmileThemileisvervold.L-<-tvorcemtneThisismine.mummyHe loveshismummy.combI wanta comb.nameHesproudof hisname.rrr , a Listen and repeatthe wordsrrr rb Listento the sentences.rrr r,c Sent€ncestressListen to the sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(above).Stressedsyllablesare LOUDeTand s I o w er. Unstressedsyllablesarerlrrllttr and quidarThis givesEnglishits rhythm.EXAMPLE This is mine.,,, r,d Listenand repeatthe sentences.
    • UNIT45 ini/ rnouth 1555 Dialoguefl a First practise the target sound /m/ in words from the dialogue below.Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.summer family charming small smart muffinsCambridge Tim some from Malcolm MichamMacCallum time Mum met come make homemaybe manners tomorrow rememberb Readthe dialogue and guessthe missing words with the sound lml .Thefirst one has been done. The missing words are all in the box below.time Mum met come make home mavbe mannerstomorrow rememberMumsmuffinsMALCOLM:Mum.mavTimMitchamcomeI home withme forteatomorrow?MRSMACCALLUM:Of course.Malcolm.HaveI z Timbefore?MALCOLi4:Youmet him in thesummer.Hesverysmall.MRSft4ACCALLUM:Oh,yes.| :_ Tim.Hesverysmart.Andhe hascharming4_. Doeshisfamilys_ fromCambridge?MALCOLM:Yes.And Oh,Muml Willyou6_ somehome-mademuffins,tomorrow?MRSMACCALLUM:Mm. 7 .If I haveEMALCOLM:I toldTimaboutyourmuffins,9_ . Thatswhy hescomingfortea too+u c Check your answersby listening to the dialogue.Then practise readingthe dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare your production ofthe target sound with the recording.4 IntonationMm has many meanings, depending on the intonation.naga Listen to four dialogueswith different meanings of Mm.1 Mrr-trnmeans!rhatdid vou sav?2 Mm meansyes3 Mmnrrun meansHownice!4 Mmm ... meansIm thinkingaboutwhat to say.
    • $ffi unrr45tmlmouthb Read this conversation and guesswhich intonation and meaningMmwill have in Bs answers.A: Wouldyou likesomehome-mademuffins?B: (l) Mm?A: Wouldyou likesomemuffins?B: (2) Mm ...n: Well,makeup yourmind.B: (3) Mm.A: Hereyouare.a: ($ (eoting) Mm!A: lm gladyou likethem.I madethem myself.Wouldyou liketo trythem with marmalade?B: (5) Mm?A: Marmalade.Theyremarvellouswith marmalade.Wouldyou likesome?B: (6) Mm.A: Hereyou are.B: (7) (eoting) Mm!oso c Listen to the conversation and check your answers.d Practise reading the conversation aloud. Record your voice to compareyour production of the target sound and the intonation with therecording.Practise in pairs, taking turns to be A and B.**sspellingLookbackoverthis unit at wordswith the targetsound,andvwitewhatyou noticed abouthow to spellthe sound/m/.
    • t65frl /n/noseNo, definitelynot ... No. I didnt phone you ... No,I did not send you an email ... No. Not in the least... Cantyou take no for an answer?... No, I dontwant to make a donation to anything. I haventany money. And pleasedont phone me again.I Targetsound/n/Dst To make the target sound /n/, dontcloseyour lips. Put your tongue on the/roof of your mouth. Touch your sideteeth with the sidesof your tongue.Useyour voice. /n/ comes through yournose.Listen and repeat:/n/.v=)))<2J,l//llMinimalffi.M,mkr:aY."r@WrupairsSoundI Sound2lml lnlmile NileThemileisveryold. TheNileisveryold.votcemrne ntneThisismine. Thisisnine.mummy moneyHe lovesmummy. He lovesmoney.comb coneI wanta comb. I wanta cone.name maneHesDroudof thisname. Hesproudof thismaneMinimalpairwordsDszaa Listen and repeat the words.nszub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor lml (sound l) or 2 for /n/ (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: I,1,I,2,2t&Q
    • 166 uNtr 46 inl noseMinimalpairsentencest.r:;;6 ;ir,"n to the minimal pair sentences.Di1t,d Listen to flve of the sentencesand write I for lml (sound l) or 2 for in(sound2)D53ae SentenceStressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and match each pair with r:stresspatterns (a-e) below.The big circlesare the strongly stressedno:-in the sentenceand the small circles are the weakly stressedwords.EXAMPLE a) oooO Pair 4: I want a comb. / I want a cone.c) oOoooONotice that the weakly stressedwords are said more quickly, and thar :pronunciation of some words changesif they are weakly stressed,e.g/ov/ becomes /av/, ls lvl becomes lzl or lezl, a is pronounced lcl.r,,;r f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)combs I b) cones2 a)mine tr b) nine-3 a)name I b) mane4 a)some I b) sun-5 a)warm f b)warn I6 a)money I b) mummy !5 Dialoguefl a First practise the target sound inl in words from the dialogue. Readri:.-words aloud or visit the website to practise.no not near name noise Notting Hill morning manageravenue furnished unfurnished dont want rent monthfriends pounds evening Northend apartment centralinexpensive one can than down fifteen London MartinSyllabictnrIn the following words /n/ is usually a syllable.often station oven kitchen accommodation prison elevetforbidden television certainly thousand Nelson garden aS.-i,-; b Firstlisten to the dialogue,paying attention to the targetsound.Theread the dialogue and fill the gaps (l-8) by choosing eighr words fro:the list above (syllabic lnl).At anaccommodationagencyMARTIN:CoodmorningMy nameisMartinNelsonAreyoutheman.:=MANAGER:Yes,I am.HowcanI helpyou,Mr t_ ?MARTIN:I wantan aDartmentin centralLondona) oooOd) oOooOb) ooOe) ooOo
    • UNIT45 /n/ rrose 157MANACER:z_, Mr NelsonHowmuchrentdo youwantto pay?MARTIt{:No morethanf 1,000a monthMANACER:f 1,000a month?Wedontoftenhaveapartmentsasinexpensiveasthat.Notin centralLondon.Wehaveoneapartmenllorf2,179 amonthin NottingHill.ltsdownneartheI in NorthendAvenue.MARTTN:lsitfurnished?MANACER:No.ltsunfurnished.Thekitchenhasno + ltsforbiddentousethe5 Nofriendsrntheapartmentaftere_ intheeveningNo noiseandno7_ afterI,l.15pm No , .MARTTN:Nothankyou!lwantanapartment,nota g_ Irr" c Listento the dialogueagainand checkyour answers.d Practisereadingthe dialoguealoud.Recordyour voice to compareyourproduction of the targetsound with the recording.4 Minibingogamel){, a Practisesayingthesenumbers.Listenand repeat,paying attention tothe sound /n/.I71I91013t715181920 2t 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 2970 7t 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 7990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99b PIayin a group of five people. (A student studying alone can record thenumbers, and then choose two of the boxesbelow.)One person calls out the numbers abovein any order.Thketurns to callthe numbers.The others each chooseone of the boxesA, B, C or D below.Crossout each number in your box asit is called (or put a small piece ofpaper on top of each number asit is called).The first person to crossout all their numbers wins.9209917911777999r799157971 13 I 7 181997 t7 l9l897 l9 10 99 27 l0 11 9r 29 99 21 7A5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spellthe sound /n/.DBA
    • r68lll rr3rring-What are you doing in the holidays?C- Im thinking about going somewhere near Naples.- Naples! How interesting! What are you planningto do there?- Nothing much ... swimming ... lyrng in the sun ...having a good time.....eating ... drinking ...just relaxing.-Ah! Howcharming!Targetsound/n/D57 To make the target sound /1/, touch the./ - ..backoftheroofofyourmouthwiththe u " -back ofyour tongue. Useyour voice. lql ^ -comes through your nose.Listen andrepeat:/0/.pairsASoundI Sound2lnl lnlwin wingWhata wln! Whata winglthin thingWhythisthin? Whythisthing?ban bangBanthebook. Bangthebook.IrlvotcelanTheyranforanhour. foran hour.rangTheyrangrungAk7ffiP;p["*js+.+Shehasnever Shehasneverrunbefore. rungbefore.Ron wronglsit Ron? lsitwrong?
    • UNIT47 /4/ ring 169MinimalpairwordsD58aa Listen and repeat the words.tr.irrub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1for /n/ (sound l) or 2 for l4l (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 2, I,I,2, IMinimalpairsentencesDseac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.ossbd Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lnl (sound l) or 2 for ll(sound2)D5eae SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on page 168).EXAMPLE Mhat awin!MinimalpairsBSoundI Sound2lAkl lrJiwink winglllgiveyoua wink. lllgiveyoua wing.sink singHessinking. Hessinging.rink ringTherinkwasa perfectcircle.Minimalpairwordsr)60da Listen and repeat the words.r)(0r,b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor /nk/ (sound l) or 2 for /t/ (sound2).EXAMPLE Pair1: 2,2,1,I,2Minimalpairsentencest)irdc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.ncrnd Listen to five of the sentencesand write 1 for /4k/ (sound I) or 2 for lnl(sound2)FWhata terriblestink! Whata terriblesting!stinkbankBankit quickly.Theringwasa perfectcircle.stingbangBangitquickly.
    • l7O UNIT47/n_ringSentencestressD6rae Listen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on page 169).EXAMPLE Ill give you a wing.oez f Tick the words a), b) or c) that you hear in the sentences.I a)Ron I b)wrong I2a)ran I b)rang I3a)sinks I b)sings tr4a)win tr b)wink tr c)wing I5a)ban I b)bank I c)bang tr6 a)sinners! b) sinkers I c) singers I5 Dialoguefl a First practise the target sound /q/ in words from the dialogue. Readthe>-words aloud or visit the website to practise.ring strong string King Lang morning evening somethinginterestinglqkl: pink drink thinking Duncanlgl: fingers Angusverb + ing: hanging ringing singing banging bringing puttingtalking whispering shouting standing sayrng going doingholding helping walking getting sleeping runninghappening.oor b CorrectionThere are nine items to change in the dialogue. First listen to thedialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogueand listen at the same time. Make the words the same as the recording.Noisyneighbours(DunconKingis lyingin bed tryingto sleep.ShoronKingis stondingneor thewindowwotchingthe neighbours,Angusond SusonLong.)DUNcANKING:(ongrily).BanglBang!BanglSharon!Whatarethe Langsdoingatnineoclockon Sundaymorning?SHARONKINC:Well,AngusLangistalking,Duncan.DUNCANKINC:Yes,butwhatsthe bangingnoise,Sharon?SHARONKINC:(/ookrngout of the window)Angusis standingon a ladderandbangingsomenailsintothewallwitha hammer.Nowheshangingsomestrongstringon the nails.DUNCANKING:AndwhatsSusanLangdoing?SHARONKINC:SusansbringingsomethinginterestingforAngusto drink.Nowshesputtingit underthe ladder,and. . Ohh!
    • UNIT47 /rr/ ring I7lDUNCANKtNG:Whatshappening?SHARONKING:Theladde/sgoingDUNCANKtNG:WhatsAngusdoing?SHARoNKING:Hesholdingthe stringin hisfingersandhesshoutingto Susan.DUNCANKtNC:AndisSusanhelpinghim?SHARONKtNC:No.Shesrunningto our house.Nowshe,sringingourbell.BELL:RINCIRINCIRINC!DUNcANKtNG:lm notgoingto answerit.lm sleeping.c Practisereading the corrected dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice tocompare your production of the target sound with the recording.4 Intonationoo+a Practisethese l4lf1questions and statements with the intonation goingd0€rn.Talk about the pictures. Listen and respond, like the example.&5S pellingb Practise in pairs, as in the example above.Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /r;/.Sharon KingAngus LangSusanLangAngusMrs Lang
    • 172fl rlrletter- Do you like marshmallows?-Yes, theyre lovely. But I also like lollipops.How about you?- I like lo ops too. But what I really like ischocolate and vanilla ice cream.-Mmm!I Targetsound/l/D6saa First practise the sound /n/ (seepage165).Listen and repeat.oosub To make the target sound lll , the augoesover the sidesof your tongueand out of your mouth. Listen: /l/.D65cc Listen and repeat both sounds: /n/and lll.2 MinimalpairsSoundItwnoWeneednotables.nightIt< : hrioht niohtO "t *nineThatnineistoo long.JennyI loveJenny.snaPThatsa snappingnoise.Sound2^tlowWe needlowtables.lightItsa brightlight.lineThatlineistoo long.jellyI lovejelly.slapThatsa slappingnoise.MinimalpairwordsD66aa Listen and repeat the words.noatb You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, writefor /n/ (sound 1) or 2 for lU (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: 2, I,2, 1,2
    • UNIT48 ill letter 175MinimalpairsentencesD6zac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.ooznd Listen to five of the sentencesand write 1 for /n/ (sound l) or 2 for lll(sound2)D67ae sentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on page I72).EXAMPLE We need no tables.ooa f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.1a)night I b)fight I2a)no I b)low I3a)bin I b)bill tr4a)knot I b)lot tr5a)snow I b)slow tr6 a)snacks! b) slacks I5 Dialogueft a First practise the target sound /l/ in words from the dialogue. Read thea.words aloud or visit the website to practise.leg lunch like love later lettuce lovely Lily lemonadehello eleven melon nearly usually yellow Mrs Carpelloplease plate black Lesley glass left lamb slice oclockearly salad really jelly olivesoogb First listen to the dialogue, pa)tng attention to the target sound. Thenread the dialogue and fill the gaps (1-10) by choosing the correct wordsfrom the box below.glass left lamb slice oclock early salad reallyielly olivesEarlyfor lunchat the officecanteen(Lesleyis the cook.Lily Corpellois neorly olwoyseorly for lunch.)LtLY: Hello,Lesley.LESLEY:Hello,MrsCarpello.Youreveryl_ for lunch.ltsonlyelevenzLtLY:WhenI comelatertheresusuallynothingi_ .LESLEY:Whatwouldyoulike,MrsCarpello?LtLY:Legof 4_ , please.LESLEY:Andwouldyou likea plateof 5_ ? ltslettucewithblacko
    • 174 UNIT48 /li letterLILY:Mm.Lovely.| 7- likeolives.LESLEY:A8 of lemonade?LtLY:Yes,please.ld likethat.Andld lovea 9- of melonandsomeofthatyellowto- .oos c Check your answersby listening to the dialogue again.Then practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Finaflll andlll belorea consonant:- Tell me about your Uncle Phil, Carol.e-Well, hessmall. And hesold and wrinkled ...and he smiles ... and he travels all round theworld with his twelve animals. And he sellsbeautiful jewellery.-What a verv unusual uncle!ttl ballo;o a Notice that /l/ sounds a littledifferent when it comes at the endof a word or before a consonant.To make this /l/ sound, move theback of the tongue up towardsthe roof of the mouth. Listen:/l/ ball. Listen and repeat:/l/ ball.I b DialoeueFirst [ractise this /V sound in words from the dialogue. Readthe wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise./l/ at the end of a wordBill tell Ill Paul fall pull smalllll belorea consonanthelp difficult fault spoilt child holding salesman myselfalwaysSyllabic/l/ - each/l/ soundisa syllablelittle uncle careful special bicycle sensible beautifulgentlemanp;r c Readthedialogueandfill the gaps(l-6) by choosingthe correctwordsfrom thelist above(syllabic/l/).Thenlistento the dialogueandcheckYOUranswers.
    • UNlr 48 /l/ letter i75A spoiltlittleboyin a bicycleshopPAUL:Whatal bicycle!UNCLEBILL:PauI!Be2 ISALESMAN:Excuseme,sir.Thischildistoo smallto ridethisbicycle.ltsa verydifficultbicycleto .UNCLEBILL:Becareful,Paul!PAUL:Youalwaystellme to be careful.Donthelpme.I wontfall.SALESMAN:But,sir.Thisisa veryi- bicycle.lts.PAUL:Dontpullthe bicycle,UncleBill.llldo it myself.UNCLEBILL:Be+_ , Paul.Thiss_ saysitsa(Poul folls)PAUL:lt wasUncleBillsfault.Hewasholdingthe t_d Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.D7ze Intonationin exclamationsPractiseexclamations about the pictures below. Listen and respond, likethe example.EXAMPLE Mhat a @, gentlemanlgentlemantallbottlebeautifulsmalltablewonderfulhospitalffi1l+fg6-ei-comfortable unusualSpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /V.candlelittlechildmiserable
    • t76Et trt rain-Would you like to comerowingwith meand Carolineon Fridav?-Yes, but Im terribly busy writing, Rachel ...- Oh come on, Blake, take a break!You need torelax. Remember the last time we went rowing.Row row row your boat gently down thestream. Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily, lifeis but a dream.- Oh, all right.Row, row, row your ...I Targetsound/r/r);3 To make the target sound /r/, turn thetip of your tongue up as in the picture.Do not touch the roof of your mouthwith your tongue. The sidesof yourtongue should touch your top backteeth. Listen and repeat:/r/.2 MinimalpairsLvorce:ds&.F4*4*46-+$-t!lff--nnr,.tel9n5HF%.+0Mute.ellyjelly?Iflv.4--w-E/af!#-lrCff IH.t^v1--r-,#ff#FcqAFs#SoundI Sound2ilt htlong wrongItsthe longroad. ltsthewrongroad.light rightls it light? ls it right?load roadItsa longload. ltsa longroad.ilikeJerryDoyoulikeJerry?fryldliketofryit.grassTheressomegrass.Doyoulyld liketo lt.glassTheressomeglass.
    • UNIT49 lrl ritin 177MinimalpairwordsD7.raa Listen and repeat the words.oz+ub Youwill hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor /l/ (sound I) or 2 for /r/ (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: I,L,2,2,2MinimalpairsentencesD75ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.nzsrd Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lll (sound l) or 2 for hl(sound2)D75ae sentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and match each pair withone of the stresspatterns (a-f) below.The big circles are the stronglystressedwords in the sentence and the small circles are the weaklystressedwords (or syllables).EXAMPLE a) ooOO (Pair 1) Its the long road. / Its the wrong road.a) ooOO b) OoO c) ooO d) ooOO e) oOoOo f) oooOoNotice that the weakly stressedwords are said more quickly, and thischangesthe pronunciation, e.g./o and do arepronounced llel and ldal.lzo f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.1 a) long I b) wrong I2a)jetry tr b)Ierry I3a)glass I b)grass I4 a)collect ! b) correct !5 a)lane I b) rain I6a) flea I b) free tr5 Dialoguea First practise the target sound /r/ in words from the dialogue. Readthewords aloud or visit the website to practise.Rose Ruth Ruby really Russia railway Roland very lerryparent Lara lorry married Europe cleverest America proudpretty library librarian waitress central restaurant countriesAustria Australia interesting electrician children drivesecretary grown up Greece France everywhere
    • 178 UN|T49 rirainnz; b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.A proudparentLARA:Areallthechildrengrownup now Ruth?RUTH:Oh,yes,Lara.Rubyisthecleverestone.Shesa librarianin the publiclibrary.LARA:Veryinteresting.AndwhataboutLaura?RUTH:Shesa secretaryatthecentralrailwaystation.LARA:AndwhataboutRose?Shewasalwaysa veryprettychild.RUTH:Roseisa waitressin a restaurantin Paris.Shesmaniedto an electrician.LARA:AndwhataboutJerryandRoland?RUTH:Jerrydrivesa lorry.Hedriveseverywherein Europe.LARA:Really?Whichcountriesdoeshe driveto?RUTH:FranceandAustriaandCreeceandRussia.LARA:AnddoesRolanddrivea lorrytoo?RUTH:Oh,no.Rolandisa pilot,Lara.LARA:Really?Whichcountriesdoesheflyto?RUTH:AustraliaandAmerica.c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 IntonationD7Ba Finish these sentencesabout Mrs Reedschildren. Find the answersinthe dialogue above.Practiseintonation going up in the unfinished partof the sentence,and down when the sentencefinishes.EXAMPLE Ruby isnt a tdin driver - shesa l@rian.I lerry isntan ele@ieffin-2 Roseisnta s&retarv-3 Roland isnt a photegFapher -4 Laura isnt a raditress-5 Ruby isnt a lmlfy driver -b Silent /r/rvVhenthere is no vowel following it, /r/ is silent. Thisrule only appliesto some speakersof English,e.g.in south-east England, South Africa,Australia. But many native speakersalways pronounce lrl , e.g.in south-west England,Scotland,America.Soyou may chooseto omit thisexerciseif you are learning a variety of English where /r/ is alwayspronounced.
    • IJNIT4e /r/ rain !qzp Listento this conversationwhile readingit silently.Noticethat everyletterr is silent.Thenpractisereadingthe conversationaloud.IntheairportANNOUNCER:R.T.Airwaysflightnumberfourfoursevento NewYorkwilldepartlaterthisafternoonat 16.40hours.DRDARLING:Wonderful!lm goingto the barto ordersomemoreCermanbeer.MRMARTIN:Wheresthe bar?DRDARLINc:ltsupstairs.Theresa bookshoptoo.Anda supermarket.ThisisamaruellousairportlMRMARTIN:Oh dear!| wantedto getto NewYorkearlier.Ah! Heresan airhostess.Excuseme. I dontunderstand.Hasiherebeenan emergenry?AtRHOSTESS;Oh,no,sir.Theresjusta storm,andthe weatherforecastsaysitwill getworse.Sothe planewill leavea littlelaterthisafternoon.MRMARTIN:Areyousure?AtRHOSTESS:Oh,yes,sir.Ourdeparturetimeisat 4.4Othisafternoon.5 SpellingrFr Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and urite whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /r/.
    • t80ilREVIEWCardgame:Pickup pairst Photocopyandcut out cardsfrom all minimal pairsin units45-49.Shufflethe cardsanddealthemfacedownall overthetable.TESTTurn over any two cards and read their sentencesaloud. Ifthey areminimal pairs, you keep them and you continue playing.If thesetwo cards arent minimal pairs, turn them face down again and thenext person plays.Collect asmany minimal pairs asyou can in a time limit, e.g. I0 minutes.You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont need to understandevery word to do this test.uso I For eachline (I,2,3,4, 5),first listen to the whole line, then circletheone word (or part of a word) that is said twice. Meaning is not importantin this exercise.The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them incontrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everyday English, and thisis shown by an asterisk *, Incomplete words have the rest of the wordwritten in brackets,e.g,par(agraph).lnlI Pam2 Mum3 some4 Tim5myScorelnl lrllpan pang^Mon(day) mung*suntinsungtingxmullsull(y)*tilllielrlpar(agraph)Murr(ay)Surr(ey)tyr(anny)rye^tpalnigh*2 Circle the words with the same consonant clusters as l-2.I bread 2 wingshrl l4zlblend springbridge umbrellabrush spreadembrace bled bridewrongswinks kingswhims springs shrinkssongs thongs winsthinksScore
    • UNIT50 Rerie.,r l8lSound mazeAll the words in this maze car be pronounced with a syllabic consonant,e.g.table(l),station(n), Adam(m).You can only crossto a squarethat hassyllabic /n/.Begin here Finish here-l-- ----T-------r-- -----r-televen minimal random table ovenforbidden system syllable careful suddenly-+ ---f- --t- ---t-prison rhythm central madam--ts---F--J--+certainly kitchen passenger person televisionbottom curriculum example little specialScoreSyllabiclll and lmlFrom the maze in 3 above, list five words with syllabic lU and five wordswith syllabic /m/. (Scorehalf a mark per item.)Syllabic /V , ,Syllabic /m/ScoreTotal score
    • ffi unrr5oReviewAdditionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfrom Units45-49Unit 44 45 46 47 48Targetsound lml lnl lnl lll klmouth nose ring letter rainballFromthe tableabove,chooseanytargetsoundsthat you had difficultywith.I Listenagainto the dialoguein that unit, listeningfor the targetsound.2 Circlethe targetsoundin anyword in the dialogue.3 Listento the dialogueagainand checkyour answers.> r 4 Checkyour answersin the key.5 Listento the dialogueagain,listeningfor the targetsound.6 Practisereadingthe dialoguealoud,comparingyour production of thetargetsoundwith the recording.Youcan alsousethis reviewtaskasa quick self-test,by doing steps2 and-ionlv.
    • I85OVERVIEWCardgame:Overviewminimalpairssnap.I Photocopyandcut out cardsfrom all minimal pairsin Units l-49, or from- units vou havehad difEculwwith.Shufflethe cardsand dealth"- fu." down to makeapile of cardsin frontof eachplayer.Taketurns to quicklyturn your top cardfaceup on top of a new pile in thecentreof the table.Whenyou seetwo cardsappearthat area minimal pair,quicklysaySnap!andput your handon thepile.Thenyou canaddallthosecardsto yourpile.Collectall thecardsyou canin a time limit, e.g.ten minutes.TEST. DBrI Foreachline (1,2,3,4,5,6,7), firstlistentothewholeline,thencirclethe one word that is said twice. Meaning is not important in thisexercise.The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them incontrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everyday English. This isshorrynby an asterisk*. Incomplete words have the rest of the wordwritten in brackets,e.g.fou(nd)./elfilti"tI beat bit bet bat but Bartt3itDJtlnl2 cod cord could cooed curdtreltau /JT/tet/3A ovl Ow! oh!tgltkttdt/tltbtkey ghee*lpl4PtfitttfltI5so zo(ne) show cho(sen) Ioet6tt0tthttjttil6 fee ye* he the(sis) thee*/ml7 PamAttt/wpan pang* pal par(agraph)
    • fi}* overviervc) short vowels - a shorter soundd) nasals- air coming through thenoselateral- air coming around thesidesof the tonguee) approximants- air movingbetween two parts of the mouthwhich are not so closeto eachotherf) fricatives- air moving betweentwo parts of the mouth which arevery close to each otherg) plosivesorstops - air releasedsuddenlyaffricates - air released slowlylntonationDraw the correct intonation arrow ( or ) in each box.t [l end of statement t WH question / command / agreement tag /- lessfriendly / new information2 | | Yes/Noquestion / unfinished statement / surprised /- unsure tag / friendly / old informationEnglishsoundsThe purpose of this exerciseis not to teach you how to make Englishsounds, but to give you an overview from a different perspective of howEnglish sounds are made.Match the sounds in A (1-7) with the descriptions in B (a-g) of how tomake the sounds.The first has been done as an example.AVowelsI litllsl lul llu:l/crl---. a) diphthongs-madeof two vowel sounds2 lil lel lul lel la.llil lol --...--- b) longvowels-alongersound3 lrcl luel leal lerl ltl larlConsonants4 lpl lbl ltl ldl lkl lglttf tfut5 lfl lvl t9ll6t lsllzl ll $l lhl6 lrl ljl lwl7 lml lnl hlilt
    • MASKc)---Cut along the dotted line
    • DiagnosticTestA:AnswersandinterpretationSectionI On the Resultsheet(pagexii) placea crossagainstanyitemsthat wereincorrector hada questionmarkor no answerwaswritten.Thisindicateswork on thesesoundsmaybe needed.Checkin the Lsr o/ Iikelyerrorson the website(http:/ /www.cambridge.org/elt/elt-projectpage.asp?id=2500905).Same(1a,5c,8b,9b,12b,15b,17b,l8b, l9b, 24a)Different (all other items)Section2 l up 2 dor,rm 3 down 4 uP5 up 6 up 7 down 8 down9 up l0 downErrorsin thissectionindicatethatwork on intonationmaybeneeded.Checkfor this aspectof pronunciation in the Listof likely errors.Section3 I mistake 2 English 3 away 4lemonade5 conversationErrorsin thissectionindicatethatwork on word stressmaybeneeded.Checkfor this aspectof pronunciation in theList of likelyerrors.SectionAVowelsMakingEnglishsoundsI I Thefirstsoundisa diphthong.All the othersareshortvowels.2 Thesecondsoundis a shortvowel.All theothersarediphthongs.3 Thefirst soundis a shortvowel.All the othersarelong vowels.2 Lb 2c 3d 4a3 lb 2a 3d 4e 5c 6g 7f 8i th
    • Key 187UNIT1 litl sheep3c lPeter 2cheese 3beef 4please5 beef 6 eat 7 tea 8 me9 teas 10 three4c China - Chinese,Bali - Balinese,Malta - Maltese,Portugal - Portuguese,Lebanon - Lebanese,Iapan - fapanese,Nepal - Nepalese,Vietnam -Vietnamese4d Yes,its Chinese.Its Chinesetea.Yes,its fapanese.Its lapaneseseaweed.Yes,its Balinese. Its Balinese ice cream.Yes,its Vietnagre_Sc.Its Vietnamese rice.5 The sound /irl is usually witten with the letters ee (three, sweet),ea (eat,speak),e (be,these).Some other spellings:i (policeman), eo (people),ei (ceiling),ie(piece).UNfT2 hl ship2b Patr2: 2,2, I,2,2Pair3: I,I,2, I,2Pair4: I,2,2, I, LPair5: 2,2, l, I, IPair6: 2,2, 1,2,I2d L(2) 2(r) 3(2) 4(1) 5(2) 6(2)2e Pair l: Look out for that sheep!/Look out for that ship!Pair 2: Stop it leaking!/Stop it Usking!Pair 3: Mhat lovely cheeks!/,Vhatiovely chicks!Pair 4: This pccls got vitamin C in it./This nills got vitamin C in it.Pair 5: Throw out that bean./Throw out that bin.Pair 6: Hesgoing to leave./Hes gOing to live.2f I a - He wants a sheep for his birthday,2 b - Thats a very small bin.3 b - Look at these chicks.4 a - Thats a cheap machine.5 a -What a high heel!6 b - Dont eat that pill.3c lfestival 2prize-winning 3interesting 4 chimpanzees5 g1rnnastics 6 History 7 terrific 8 beginning
    • 2fUNIT42b2d2e4c5UNIT52b2d2er<*v1!F,,$lTl manPair2: 1,2,2, I, IPair3: L,1,2,2,2Pair4: 2, l, I,2,2Pair5: l,l, 1,2,2Pair6: 2, l,1,2, I| (2) 2 (r) 3 (1) 4 (2) 5 (2) 6 (1)Look at the men./Look at the man.Im sending the table./Im sanding the table.Its a lovely gem./Its a lovelypm.We had bread for lunch./We had Brad for lunch.1 b - Ive bought a new pan.2 a-Didyou seethe men?3 b - Did you sayand?4 b - I like the fatter cheese.5 a - Dont pet the dog.6 a - Thesearebedclothes.1c 2a 3b1b 2c 3a2 Amsterdam 3 Allen 4 anchor,y,salad sandwich5 had, map, Africa, had, Saturday 6 bad, absent7 passenger,Salvador,animals, antelope, alligatorB crashed,back, advertising, angry g contracts, cancelled,managementl0 have,back, travel, sackedlb 2c 3aThe sound /e/ is always written with the letter a (angry, taxi).ltr,lcupPair2: l,1,2, 1,2Pair3: 1,2, 1,2, IPair4: 2,2, I,2, IPair5. I,2,2, I,2Pair6: 2, l, I,2,2r (2) 2 (r) 3 (1) 4 (2) 5 (1) 6 (2)Pair 2: d) ooOooOo Theresa hat in the garden./Theresa hut in thegarden.Pair 3: c) ooOooO Seethe tracks on the rcad./ Seethe trucks on theroad.3a3b
    • ffi*t4c I No,not forty - fourteen.2 No,not ninety- nineteen.3 No,not sixty- sixteen.4 No,not eighty- eighteen.5 No,not thirty - thirteen.5 Thesound/r/isusuallywrittenwith theletteri (finish,window),andwiththelettery at theendof aword (verystudy).Someotherspellings:e(example,because),u(minute),ee(coffee),a]"(Monday).UNITI lel pen2b Pair2: I,2,2,I,2Pair3: 2, I, ,2,2Pair4: I, I,1,2,2Pair5: 2, I, L,2, IPair6: l, l,2,2, I2d r(l) 2(r) 3(2) 4(2) 5(2) 6(1)2e Pair 1: I need a pln./I need a pen.Pair 2: Thats my bin./Thats my Ben.Pair 3: Its a big tin./Its a big ten.Pair 4:fheres the Blg?/{heres the pcg?Pair 5: Theresthe bill./Theres the bell.Pair 6: Shewants a chick./She wants a cheque.2l I a - Give me another pin, please.2 b - Theresa peg over there.3 a - I buy them in tins.4 a - Ill just sit the alarm clock on this shelf.5 b - He needs a new desk.6 b - Shelljust peck at her food.3a jealous (2) help (1) everybody (4) arry(2) bench (1) Kevin tlAmerica (4) Mexican (3) Emily (3) Ben (1) very (2) bread riEddie (2)3c ld 2b 3f 4a 5g 6e 7c4d except exercise expect expedition expel exlperimentexpenditure expert expression extend extra lextrovert5 The sound /e/ is usually written with the lettere (pen, hotel).Some other spellings:ea (heavy,ready),a (any,many),ie (friend),ai(again).
    • ffi r"vPair4:b) ooOoo Theresa ban on it./Theresa bun on it.Pair5:a)oooO Shesgota bag./Shesgota bug.Pair6:e)oOooOo My anklewas!4.jured./Myunclewasinjured.2t la-lVhatadirtycap!2 b - This hut is too small.3 b -Theresablackbugon thetable.4 a-Theylive in a madhouse.5 a- I hangmy coaton the door,6 b - The childrenrun quickly.3c lnothing 2honey 3brother 4otherSlovely 6does Tmonth 8worry9 company l0 wonderful4a 1N 2A 3A 4N 5A; wordsforstatement:strong,dor,rrn5 The sound/n/ is usuallywritten with the letteru.Someotherspellings:oe(does),ou (cousin),o (manycommonwordswith the soundltl havethis spelling,e.g.wordsin 3cabove;others:love,above,onion, monkey,comfortable,gloves,coloured,London, money)UNIT6 ls^lheartMinimalpairsA2b PairZ: r,2,2, 1,2Pair3: l, I,2,2, IPair4:2, 1,2,2,IPair5: I, I, I,2,22d r(2) 2(r) 3(r) 4(2) 5(r)2e Pair1:,Vhata lovelycapl/iVhatalovelycarp!Pur2: Hetouchedhishat./Hetouchedhisheart.Pair3:Itsa farm cat./Itsa farm cart.Pair4:Theresaban on it./Theresa barnon it.Pair5:Ill packthe car./Ill parkthe car.MinimalpairsB2b Pair2: 2,2,I,2,1Pair3:2, 1,2,2,1Pair4: I, 1,2,2,IPair5: 2,I,2, l, I2d I (l) 2(r) 3(2) 4 (l) 5(2)2e Pairl:What abeautifulcupl/Whata bcautifulcarp!
    • 2tKey l9IPair 2: Theres a problem with my hut./Theres a problem with my heart.Pair 3: He coveredhis cut./He coveredhis cart.Pair 4: Mhatsin that bun?/lVhats in that barn?Pair 5: Come down, she said./Calm dor,rrn,she said.I c - Hesbroken my heart.2b-Thatsabadcut.3a-Igavehimacap.4 b - Theresa mouse in this barn.5 a -rvVhy dont you come down?6 a - I dont like Pattys.I marvellous 2 fantastic 3 smart 4 fabulous 5 attractiveThe sound /all is usually written with the letter a (father,ask).Some other spellings:au (aunt), al (half), ear (heart),ar (star).Review1 ban 2bet 3 bud 4 peak 5 party1 done, doesnt,does,come, usz}ralf, arm, are,arent, cant3 people,piece,these,she,need2f 3d 4b 5a 6eaglvertising undersland Lebanon lemonade sanelwichexpg4sive sunglasses fantastic phOtograph guitarreviewtaskcheaper,cheapest,eat,Marguerites,cheese,please,beef, tea, teas,me,three, Christina, Peter,Ianineinteresting, films, evening, Mrs lmrslzl , is, Kim, in, coming, cinema, its,Childrens, film, festival, ill, Bill, weve (weakform of we),tickets,prize-winning, children, listen, is it, gorillas, chimpanzees,Africa, six, Olympic,nastics,competitions, big, History, English, Cricket, terrific, pity, miss,kids, begins,fifty, minutes, quick, beginning.friends, Emma, Ben, hello /heleu/ or /heleu/, Emily, Eddie, everybody,except,Adele, again /egen/ or /egern/, Kevin, Red,Peppers,terribly, yes,better, said,help, yourself, Mexican, bench, French, bread, shelf,get,lemonade, met, yet, very friendly, spend,America, best, Kerrie,well,jealous, expensive, spent, everything, any, leftAaron, AjaxTravel, Amsterdam, Mrs Allen, anchovy, salad, sandwich,contact, Anthony map, ica, had, Saturday,bad, habit, absent,passenger,SanSalvador,animals, anteater,antelope, alligator, crashed,backup,advertising,programmes, angry,contracts, cancelled,management, have,come back, sackedStrongforms: He had to ...; He hadnt done the ...; He doesnthaveto ...3c5UNIT7I234AdditionalUnitIUnit2Unit3Unit4
    • E ""vUnit 5 doesnt,love,honey,Duncan,nothing, unhappy,understand,much,untrue, cousin,Iustin, brother,Dudley,funny, one,other,Hunter,I ly,unattractive,utter rubbish, does,just once,month, lunch, mustnt, worrycompany,just, shut up,wonderfulNote:buf isusuallypronouncedwith theweakform /bat/.dance,dancer,photograph,MartinNote:Strongforms:They are.Hereyou are.UNIT8 lolclock2b Pair2: I,I,2, I,2Pair3: 2,2,l, 1,2Pair4: I,2,2,2, IPair5: 1,2,I,2,2Pair6: 2,2,1,2,I2d r(2) 2(r) 3 (1) 4(2) 5 (l) 6 (1)2e Pair2: b) oooOO Hesgota whitecat./Hesgotawhite cot.Pair3: a) OooO Lookfor the fax./Lookfor the fox.Pair4: e) OoooO Putit in a sack./Putit in a sock.Pair5: d) OoOOo Turn that 1apslowly./Turnthat top slowly.Pair6: c) ooOoO I canseetheirbacks./Icanseetheirbox.2l I b -What a pretty little cot!2 a-He tried to put hisheadin a sack.3 b - Thetop wasmadeof metal.4 a-vVhichPatdo you want?5 a- I liked the baddiein that film.6 b -Write in blockletters.5c lhorrible 2soft 3strong 4hot 5long 6popular4b 2 tbox (command)3 . hot,MrsWong(suggestion)4 washing machine,Robin(suggestion)5 I office (command)6 / shops,Oscar(suggestion)7 t doctor,Bronwen(suggestion)5 Thesound/o/ iswritten with the letter o (on,stop).Someotherspellings:a(want,what),au(because).
    • Key 193UNfT9 lc^lball2b Pair2: 2,2, l, l,IPair3: l, I,2, 1,2Pair4: 1,2, 1,2, IPair5: 2,2,2, I, IPair6: 2,I,1,2,I2d r(2) 2(2) 3 (r) 4(2) 5 (l) 6 (1)2e Pair l: Is your name Don?/Is your name Dar,rryr?Pair 2: This cod was in the sea./This cord was in the sea.Pair 3: He was shot./He was short.Pair 4: Its a small paI./Its a small port.Pair 5: Look for the fox./Look for the forks.Pair 6: I dont like these spots./I dont like these sports.2f I b - My doctor doesntlike these sports.2 a - Thesepots are very dirty.3 b - Look at that white cord on the water.4 a - Mr Smith was shot.5 a - The lion walked towards Tom and Rod.6 a - I said,A/hata dog!4b I In the drawer? 2 Its too warm?3 Georgia? 4 Forty-five forks?5 A horse? 6 At four in the morning?7 Orlando? In NewYork? 8 IVlyfault?5 The sound /cll is written with the letteraw (Dawn), or (cord), a (ball),augh (daughter).UNITlO lul book2b Pair2: L,2,2,I, IPair3: 2,2,2,I, IPair4: 2,I,2,l,IPair5: I, I,2, 1,22d 1(1) 2(2) 3(1) 4(2) 5(2)2e Pair2: youPair3: IllPair4: aroundPair5: me
    • 2l@ *"vUNITI I2b1b -That cookis very noisy.2 a- Lockit up carefi-rlly.3 a- Hesmy godfather.4 a- How do you spellcod?Thesound/ui is usuallywritten with the lettersoo (foot,good)oru(push,put).Otherspelling:o (woman)./u:/ bootPur2:, L,1,I,2,2Pair3: 2,l,1,2, LPair4:2,2, 1,2,IPair5: 2,l, 1,2,II (2) 2 (L) 3 (1) 4 (l) 5 (l)waterproofbootsa wind-nroofiacketchildproof contahersan ovenproofdishawaterproofcoatabullet-proofvestI a- Look,I want you to comehere.2 a-Thats full.3 a- Did you sayPull?4 b - Thatsa foolish skirt.5 b - HewooedMary.GIRLS:(2)noon,LukeMISSLUKE:(4)noon,learn,cook,soup(5)turn, p.u,look, un, twoLUCY:(2)cuse,LukeMISSLUKE:(1)YesLUCY:(2)chew shoeMISSLUKE:(5)who,chew,floor,you,LuLUCY:(2)No,SuMISSLUKE:(1)tVhoLUCY:(2)Su,DukeSUSAN:(3)me,stu,IuJULIE:(l) yzuSUSAN:(B)was,me, my, mouths,full, chew Look,Luke2d2e2l3c
    • Key I95JULIE:(4)Stop,hair, Su,youSUSAN:(1)YOUJULIE:(1)YOUMISSLUKE:(I1) use,me, you, two, tin, rude, stay,school,stead,p, poolThe sound /ur/ is usuallywritten with the lettersu (music) oroo (food).5 Someother spellings:o(do),ou (you),ui (fruit),oe (shoe),ew (new),wo (two),ough (through).UNIT12ls;l girlMinimalpairsA2b Pair2: 1,2,2,2,rPair3: l, I,2,2, IPair4: 1,2,2,I,22d r (1) 2(2) 3 (1) 4 (1)2e Pair1:Shesgotfour./Shesgotfur.Pair2:Itsatorn sign./Itsa turn sign.Pair3:I wouldnt likewarm soup./Iwouldnt likeworm soup.Pair4: Hesa fastwalker./Hesafastworker.MinimalpairsB2b Pair2: I, I,2, I,2Pair3: l, I, l,2,2Pair4: 2,2, 1,2, I2d 1(r) 2(2) 3(1) 4(2)2e Pair 1:The sign saysten./The sign saysturn.Pair 2.Look at it, Ben./Look at it burn.Pair 3: Its a colourful bed./Its a colourful bird.Pair 4: Its the west wind./Its the worst wind.MinimalpairsC2b Pair2: 2,2,1,2,rPair3: I,I,2, 1,2Pair4: L,I,2,2,22d 1(1) 2(2) 3(2) 4(1)2e Pair1:Fabulousfun./Fabulousfern.Pair2:Lookatthat bun./Lookat thatburn.Pair3:Thatsatiny little bud./Thatsa tiny little bird.Pair4:Theresa gullon thebeach./Theresa girl on thebeach,
    • 196 rcy2f I a-Thatsaverysmallbed.2 b - Hesgotalot of buns.3 a- Thatsaverylong ward.4 a-Why dont you walkfaster?5 b - Shealwayswearsshirtdresses.6 b - HisnamesJohn...er ...Thomas,I think.4b 2 not sure3 expectsagreement4 not sure5 expectsagreement6 expectsagreement5 Thesound/s:/isusuallywrittenwith thelettersur (turn),or (worm),ir (bird)orer (fern).UNfT15 lal a camera3c la 2b 3b 4b 5a 6b4b A: Im going te the librery.B: Can ya buy semething fe me et the newsagents?A: Bet the newsagents is e mile frem tha libreryB: No. Not that newsagants.Not the one thets next ta thefish end chip shop. I mean the one thats near tha butchers.A: Oh, yes.Well, what da ya want?B: Semechocoletesend a tin ef sweetsand en eddressbook.5 The sound /e/ is usually written with the letters a (again,woman), o(today,police),e (open,quiet),er (water,mother).Somewords have the sound /e/ when they are weakly stressedin asentence,and are written witha (am, a, an, and, as,at, shall), o (for,fron.ol to) ande (the, them).UNIT14 REVIEWI lpull 2fall 3could 4word2 | were,burn,early,shirt,worst2 torn, water,all,four, talk3 shoe,two,through,super,do4 full, cook,would,look,good3123456AdditionalreviewtaskUnit8 O sh,wrong,Mrs Bloggs,want,holiday,horrible,job,washing,socks.bottle,soft,strong,lots,hot,long,often,sorry got,wants,popular
    • Kev 197Unit9 sports,report,four,morning,Roarers,football,York,LauraShort,reporter,airport,all,footballers, lking,towards,GeorgeBall,alvful,score,forty-four, fault/fcrlti or /fnlt/, forwards,always,falling,ballUnit l0 book,Mr Cook,could,put, bookshelf,full, cookeryshouldnt (shouldhereistheweakform /Jed/),look,took,foot,goodNote:room,bedroomcanalsobepronounced/ru:m/.Unit I I , rudest,students,school,afternoon,MissLuke,soup,computers,unit,twenty-t$o,excuseme,Lucy,chervinggum, shoe,who (strongform), thryou (strongform),SusanDuke,Julie,excuse,continue,rudeness,poolUnit 12 worst,nurse,thirsty,hurts,dirty,shirts, rk, early,er,Turner,werent(strongform),were(strongform),Thursday,Sherman,SirHerbert,ColonelBurton,worldUnitI3 SeeKeyfor4b on page196.UNfT15 letl male2b Pair2: l, l, 1,2,IPair3: 2,I, I,2, IPair4: I,2, I,2, IPair5: 2,2,l, 1,2Pair6: l,1,2,2, I2d r(2) 2(r) 3(2) 4(2) 5(1) 6(1)2e Pair 1:.Vhatanargfulpcn!/Mhatan awful parn!Pair2:Thedogsin the shed./Thedogsin the shade.Pair3:Itsa difficult edge./Itsa ellfficultage.Pair4:Justwet./Iustwait.Pair5:Testthis food./Tastethisfood.Pair6:Thatstoo much peppcr./Thatstoo much Bap€r.2t 1a- Thisstudenthasaverybad pen.2 a - Letssit in the shed,3 a- Pleasegiveme somemorepepper.4 b - Thechildrenwerelateout from school.5 a- Herletterwriting isverygood.6 a- Openthe door andgetreadyto leave.4b 2 TodayS3 Eighty-eight4 GoingaAlay?s eypldhei6 ToSFin?7 Me?
    • 198 KevUNIT162bThe sound /erl is usually written with the letters a (take), ay (day) orai(wait).Some other spellings:ey (grey),ea (break),eigh (eight).latl linePair2:2,2, I,2, IPair3: I, 1,2,2, IPair4:2, I,2, I,2Pair5: I, 1,2,I,2Pair6: 1,2,2, I,2| (2) 2 (r) 3 (1) 4 (2) 5 (2) 6 (r)Pair l: That was a good bar./That was a good buy.Pair 2:Mhat a noisy bark./Arhat a noisy bike.Pair 3: He loveshis Pa./He loveshis pte.Pur 4: Its got two Rs./Itsgot two eyes.Pair 5: Its a cart./Its a kite.Pair 6: Check the heart./Check the height.la-Iwantanewcart.2 b -The old ladywas dining.3 a -ll/hat a big star!4 b - Shehas a good life.5 a - This leathers hard,6 b - Do you like pie?I nice 2 iced 3 type 4 bike 5 mobileI Friday 9 climbing 10spider6library 7 tonightThesound/a/ isusuallywrittenwith thelettersi (time)ory (sky).Someotherspellings:igh (high),ey(eye),ie(lie),uy(buy).2d2e2t3c2bUNfT lT.lctl boy2d2ePatr2:2, I,2,2,2Pair3: l,1,2, I,2Pair4:2,2,2,1,1Pair5: I,2,2, l, I| (2) 2 (r) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (2)Pair 1:Its all there.iIts oil there.Pair 2: Its a ball on his head.i Its a boil on his head.Pair 3: Look at that golden corn./Look at that golden coin.Pair 4: The pgper tore./The paper toy.Pair 5: Hear the engine roar./Hear the engine, Roy.
    • Key I99f I b - t tound this coin in the garden.2 b - The little boy was troiling with anger.3 a - Look! Its all on the floor.4 a - Awl Youve broken that glass.5b-Hesaterribleboy.6 a - Did you put a of it in the saad?4a annoying unemployment oysteremployer appointment enjoypoisonous destroyer ointmentmoist embroidery toiletdisappointed join4b Disappointed / drsepcrntrd/ and unemploymeief/ rrnrmplclment/havesecondary stresson the first syllable.The main strong stressis on the thirdsyllable.5 The sound /crl is written with the letters oi (noise)or ov (bov).UNITl8 laul house2b Pair2: I,I,2,2,rPair3: I,2, 1,2, IPair4: 2, L,2, l,IPair5: I, 1,2, 1,22d | (2) 2(2) 3 (1) 4 (1) s (l)2e Pair 1:Its the best car./Its the best cow.Patr2: It was a long bar./It was a long bow.Pair 3: Her bra was wrinkled./Her brow was wrinkled.Pair 4: Theresbeautiful grasshere./Theresbeautiful grousehere.Pair 5: Arch! he said loudly./Ouch!he said lOUdly.2I I a - The bus drove into the car.2 a - Theresa lot of grassnear the farm.3 b - Her brow was white.4 a -Hat he said loudly.5 b -Ow! he said,Youhit me.6 b - Near the mountain there is a little tor.tm.3b shouting; €atm Sit; tenm bror.tm;Cer,rnrout; AIew?How?;en=the+et*n+aift in the tovrm4b lc 2a 3b 4f 5d 6e4d le 2c 3b 4a 5d5 The sound /aui is written with the lettersou (about) orow (dornm).
    • E *"uUNITl9 leulphoneMinimalpairsA2b PairZ:1,1,2, I,2Pair3: 2,l, 7,2,2Pair4: 1,I,1,2,2Pair5: L,2,2,1,2Pair6:2,2, 1,1,22d r(2) 2(r) 3(2) 4(1) 5(2)2e Pair1:Itsalargeburn./Itsa largebone.Pair2:Itsa greenfern./Itsa greenphone.Pair3:Thatsmy Bert./Thatsmy boat.Pair4:I work early./Iwoke early.Pair5:Helikesflirting./Helikesfloating.MinimalpairsB2b Pair2: r, r,2,2,2Pair3: I,2,1,2,2Pair4: 2,2,I, l, IPair5: l, 1,2,2,22d 1(l) 2(2) 3(2) 4(1) s(1)2e Pair1:Ginoscaught./Ginoscoat.Pair2:Itsa nought./ltsa note.Pair3:Wehada boughtpicnic./Wehadaboatpicnic.Pair4:Itsmy jalg./Itsmy loe.Pair5:Giveme the ball./Giveme the bowl.2t I a- Theyhavea nice greenfern in the hall.2 a-You canhavecoffee.Or do youwant tea?3 b - Itsavery heavybowl.4 a- Dontburn the chicken.5 a- I walk earlyin the morning,4a old:cold,sold,hold,told,goldhole:bowl,stole4b Across:I lonely 2 wont 3 no 4 go 5 pillowDor,r,rr:llow 2on 3no 4go Syellow5 Thesound/eu/isusuallywrittenwith theletterso (go,old),oa(boat)orow(know).
    • r"l *i.,.UNIT2Olrclyear2b Pair2: L,2,2,2,IPair3: 2, I,2, 1,2Pair4: l,1,2, I, IPair5: 2, l, 1,2,22d 1(1) 2(I) 3(2) 4(2) 5(1)2e Pair 1:That Estoo big./That earstoo big.Pair 2: Its a small bee./Its a small beer.Pair 3: This tea tastessalty./Thistear tastessalty.Pair 4: Its an old p€a./Its an old pret.Pair 5: He has a black bead.i He has a black beard.2t 1b-Ive justswallowedabeer.2 a - The tea fell on the floor.3 a -l/hat a funny bead!4 b - Thats a very unusual pier.5 a - There should be two Esand youve only got one.6 b - How are you, dear?3c lbeer 2year 3clear 4mountaineer 5beard 6beer Thear8 Cheers4b He can hear_us too.Dear_old Mrs Lear_is here_in the kitchen.This mountaineer*always spends some time eachyear_in the mountains.5 The sound /re/ is usually written with the letters ea (dear,ear).Other spellings:ere (here).UNIT21 lealchair2b Pair2. 1,2,2,2,IPair3: 2,2,l, I,2Pair4: 2,I,2, I,2Pair5: I,I,l, 1,2Pair6: 2,l, 1,2,22d 1(1) 2(2) 3(2) 4(2) s(r) 6(l)2e Pair1:Theearisntgood./Theair isntgood.Pair2:Itsa sweetbeer./ltsa sweetbear.Pair3:Thatsanold ptcr./Thatsan old pear.Pair4:Howdoyou spellhear?/Howdoyouspellhair?Pair5:Thatsa tear./Thatsa tear-Pair6:Threecheerslhesaid./Threechairslhesaid.
    • 2O2 Key2I I a -Three cheers,he said.2 b - There was a small bear on the table.3 a - Thats a very big pier.4 a - Look! Its here.5 a - Can I borrow your pen, please,Dan, dear?6 b - He said her name but it wasnt Claire.4b There_it is.Theyre_under_a table.Ive looked everywhere_in the house.5 The sound /ee/is usually written with the letters are (square)or ere(where).Other spellings:eir (their),ear(wear).UNIT22 REVIEWI lbuy bhere cair dweigh etoe2 | page,weight, pain2 shy,frightened, sigh3 hows, owl, found4 home, snow,though5 their, theyre, stare3 | Werelooking for a builder or an architect, Adler and Anderson.2 Mhere are their offices?3 Theyre over there, arent they?4 Are you an engineer or an architect, MrAdler?5 Im a structulal engineer and this is BlaitAnderson, our architect.4 timetable today gycling horse riding appolntment snowba-atmosphere 4qwhere work it out turn it dor,rmAdditionalreviewtaskUnit l5 railway, station, Mr Grey,waiting, train, late, ages,eight eighteen, Baker,afraid, made, mistake, timetable, changed,April, May, today, sayUnit l6 Heidi, Caroline, Nigel, typing, smiling, Hi, nice, silence,like, iced, ninen--nine, e, mind, Friday,bike, riding, sometimes, mobile, Riley,five, Iibra:nineteen, High, bye, tonight, drive, climbing, Miles, right, behind, spiderUnit l7 loyce Royal,Rolls Royce,noisy,employed, boy, RoyCoyne,noise, annovir..oil, pointing, boiling, spoilt, destroyed,disappointing,voice, toy,appointmentUnit l8 mouse, house, shouting, loudly, found, orv,d , frovrn, brown , roundaround, lounge, ground, couch, now, out, h upside down, somehor.town, Mrs BrownNote: our, ours are also pronounced la;1, la.zl.
    • Unitl9Unit2OUnit2lbearded,mountaineer, Mr [.ear,Austria, beer,here, dear,idea,yeag
    • W,r*tSectionB ConsonantsMakingEnglishsoundsI lunv. 2unv. 3v. 4unv.5v. 6unv. 7v. 8v.9 unv. l0 v. ll unv.2 ld 2i 31 4a 5c 6k 7 e 8g 9b rOh llj Izf3 Lb 2c 3a 4f 5d 69 7eUNIT25 lpl pen3c 2pocket 3potato 4pepper 5past 6policemanb stop c cup d help e dropped f upstairs4a apu1 apcncil apaperplaleapqt aposlcard apepperpotap€ar apleture aplastic spldersomesoap a carpet apranoaup_q azuppy an expcrsive plcoent for Poppya spoon an apple5 Thesound/p/iswritten with thelettersp(paper,shop)orpp (happy,shopping).UNIT24lbl baby2b Pair2: 1,1,2,1,2Pair3: 1,I,2,2,2Pair4: 2,2,l, L,2Pair5: 1,2,I, 1,2Pair6: 1,2,2,1,22d l(1) 2(r) 3(l) 4(2) 5(2)2e Pair1:Itsausefulptn./Itsa useftrlbin.Pau2:Pen,please!/Ben,please!Pair3:Lookat theyellowp€al./Lookat theyellowbear.Pair4:Itsan old cap./Itsan old cab.Pair5:A/hata]iysly pup!/VVhatalively pub!Pair6:Do you Iikepoppy?/Doyou likc Esbby?2f I b -Thatsaverysmallbin.2 a-My friendsnameis Poppy.3 a- That pup is very noisy.4a-Itsapighouse.5 b - Putit on thehorsesback.6 a-Mhat a lovelvpeach!
    • Kev 2033c Bob job pub cab proverb4b I handbag 2 football 3 ping pong ball 4 shopping bag5 hairbrush 6 paintbrush 7 postcard 8 birthday card9 policeman l0 postman4c shopkeeper pet shop, hip pocket blood bankblackboard beach ball bookshop bus stopbathrobe backpack baseball peppermint5 The sound /b/ is written with the lettersb (cab)orbb (cabbie).UNIT25 ltl table3a travel agent (LQ) twenty-two (QLL) tonight (Le) student (Le)important (LQ) department store (QQL) tomatoes (LL) toilet (Le)to (L) skirts (Q) basement (Q) telephone (L) cricket bat (QQ)exactly (Q) cafeteria (L) tomatoes (LL) fruit (Q) tell (L)top (L) Thai (L) time (L) nexr (Q)3b 2Thai 3tomatoes 4tell 5top 6telephone Ttimeb fruit c next d basement e restaurant f cricket bat g exactly4c 1Mhich floor is the restaurant on? new2 .4trichfloor is the restaurant? old3 Mhatson the next floor? old4 .Vherecan I buy a hat? new5 44reresthe sports department? old6Which floor is the toilet? old7 Mheresthe travel agents? new8 Mheresthe supermarket? old5 The sound /t/ is written with the letters t (sit) or tt (sitting).Other spelling: th (Thai).UNIT26 ldl door2b Pair2: 1,I,2,I,2Pair3: 2,2,2, l,IPair4: 1,2, I,2, 2Pair5: 2,2, l, I,2Pair6: 2,I,2,2,I2d (2) 2(r) 3(2) 4(l) 5(2) 6(1)2e Pair l:You too?/Youdo?Pair 2:You sent the emails?iYousend the emails?Pair 3: Is the red cart hers?/Isthe red card hers?Pair 4: Can he write well?/Can he ride well?Pair5: Doesthis train smell?/Doesthis drain smell?Pair6: Is there a trunk outside?/Istherea drunk outside?
    • I ""v2f 1b-Idontlikeriding.2a-Thatsanicecart.3 a- Heboughta bat,racquetandsomeballs.4 b - I sendall the parcelsby air mail.5 a- Thatsthe worst sight.6 b - I want to dry this shirt3a Thesound/d/ is louder herebeforea vowel.nobody (L) darling (L) bad (Q) cards(Q) Daisy(L)date (L) played(Q) dancing(L) listened (Q) dont (L)phoned (Q) tried (Q) today (L) rained (Q)3b 2darling 3date 4nobody 5today 6dont Tdancingb bad c phoned d played e cards flistened g tried5 Thesound/d/iswrittenwith thelettersd(day)ordd (middav).UNIT27 lkl key2c Theyareall statements.Theintonation goesdown.Thefirst four sentenceshavean adjectiveand a noun.Themost important word for the speakersmeaningis the lastone.Itsa hairy nrqt.Hesgot a lovelycud.Itsa brilliant ctaqs.Shesgot a strongbEck.ItsCfilwing.3a /k/ is louder beforeavoweland the nvo wordsjoin together.r /ks/ 2 lktl 3 /kw/ 4 llrJl 5 lkrlmilk (Q) cuckoo(LL) like (Q) next (Q) Kate(L) fork (Q)make(Q) American (L) carved(L) call (L) coffee(L)plastic(Q) course(L) cream(L)5b 2CaLl 3Kate 4cream 5American 6cawed Tcourse8 Cuckoob milk c make d fork e next f plastic4b I Itsan electriccuckooclock.2 Itsaplastickeyring.3 lts a dirty eggwhisk.4 Itsa dirty colabottle.5 lts an expensivecreamcake.6 Itsa comfortablecarcoat.7 Itsa blackaddressbook.
    • Key 2075 The sound /k/ is written with the lettersk (ask),ke (like), ck (back),c (can),qu (question),x (taxi).Other spelling: sch (school).UNfT28lsl g,tl2b Pair2:. I,2,2,L,2Pair3: 2,2,2, L, IPair4: I, I,2,2,2Pair5: I,2, 1,2, I2d (2) 2(r) 3(2) 4(1) 5(1)2e Pair l: Its a hairy coat./Its a hairy goat.Pair 2: Hesgot a lovely curl./Hes got a lovely gtrl.Pair 3: Its a brilliant class!/Itsa brilliant glass!Pair 4: Shesgot a strong back./Shesgot a strong bag.Pair5: Itscrowing./Itsgrowing.2I I b - That man looks like a gold fish.2 a - Theresa fly on your back.3 a - My grandmother bought a Dutch clock.4 a -Mhat a beautiful curl!5 b - Theres a green frog in the garden.6 b - The detective was looking for a good glue.3a The sound /g/ is louder before a vowel.computer postcard weekend catch cut camp coupleCarol Craig3c 2 Glasgow,beginning, August 3 Carol, catch, gossip4 computel games,girls 5 guess,weekend6 postcard, Portugal 7 Greece,camp, garden8 cut, grass4 llgzl 2lgll 3lgrl5 The sound /g/ is written with the lettersg (big) orgg (bigger).UNIT29 REVIEWI ltore 2Bill 3pay 4key 5do2 | strong, retry, distrust, entrance, electric2 enclosed,class,clothes, chocolate, quickly3 appreciate,impressive,probably, present, prawn3 lemptied 2filled 3combed 4pushed 5shouted4 Ielephone remember cafeteria photographers a policemana postcard a paper plate Amedcan somebody a greeneotfee cup
    • 208 t erAdditionalreviewtaskUnit23 passports,please,Tupman, airport, plane, Paris,Poppy,stupid, put, pocket,1rcn,pencil, pipe, postcard, envelope,stamp, pin, stop, perhaps, plastic,newspal)er,apple,pear,plastic,cup, spoon, paper,plates,piece,potato pie.l)epper grot,pulling, Peter,people, impatient, help, dropped, past, upstairs,policemanUnit24 birthday, Barbara,Rob, somelrody,blouse,beautiful, blue, butterflies, big,black, buttons, Ruby,buy, brother, hook, llirds, remember, terribly, been,busy,job, pub, cab,callbie, ahout, but, remember, proverb, betterUnit 25 department store,customer,assistant,want, to, skirt, skirs, upstairs,nex:,get,1hai,cafeteria,first, fruit, next, counter, left, tins, tomatoes, try,supermarket, basement, tell, travel, agents,its, right, restaurant, cricket,bat, get, sports, equipment, take, lift, department, top, telephone, twelfth,opposite, photographers,whats, time, exacdy,twenry-nvo, minutes, tenUnit 26 clamaged,l)aisy, David, darling, did, do, yesterday,tlate, didnt, rainerl, <larand, had, bad, cokl, decidecl, phonerl, nobody, answeretl,repairetl, to<lar,rlont, l)onald, Dianne, dancing, didnt, stayed,played, cards,Iordan,listened, radio, studied, told, trietlUnit 27 cuckoo, clock, like, cream, r offee, Xate (llarl, rall,Karen (.ook, OK, than*smilk, cream cakes,thank, make, take, cale fork, excuse,next, bookshelf,electric,American, plastic, r arved, exactly,six, oclock, quiet, t:ourse,loo.fantastir,erciting, cleverUnit 28 Craig,Maggie, Creg,Glasgow,beginning, August, giggling, gossip,gottogether, games,girls, guess,Portugal, going, go, Greece,garden, grateful.SrassUNIT50/s/sun2c That Suewas amazing.Itspronounced /sir/.gjp it slowlv.I heard a bus.I want the b.!gprcee.Mhatsthe priee?4b 2 In winter lets_ski_in the snow.3 Samtakes_suchgood photographs.4 Sarahlaughs_silently.5 In summer lets_sailinto the sunset.6 Suelikes_somecats.7 Lucas_sendslots of text messages.8 Is Chris_sucha cheapskate?5 The sound /s/is written with the letterss (bus),ss(boss),x (box),ce(Price)
    • 2d2fuNlT5r2b4b5UNIT522b2d2e2Tr.v @lzl zooPair2:1,2,2,2, IPair3: 2,2, I,2, IPair4: 2, 1,2, 1,2Pair5: 1, L,2,2,2Pair6: I,2, I,2,I1 (1) 2 (r) 3 (2) 4 (2) 5 (t) 6 (2)1 b -I heard abtzz.2 a - Sip it slowly.3 a -Mhats the price?4 b - I only have a few pens.5 b -Help, please!heshouted.6 a - He lived in a town called Sackville.I lsllzl 2lsl lzl 3 lsllzl 4 lsllzl Slsl lzl 6lsl lzl 7 lzl lslS lsllzl 9lsl lsl I0lzl lzl2j(otherpossibleanswersaredandk) 3k 4h 5g 6i 7I8a 9d 10c lrb l2eThe sound /z/ is written with the letters z (zoo),s (dogs),x (example).{/ shoePair2: l, 1,2,I,2Pair3: I,2,2, l, IPair4: l, l, 1,2,IPair5: 1,2,2,1,2Pair6: 2,2,1,2,Ir (2) 2 (2) s (1) 4 (2) 5 (1) 6 (1)Pairl:@is third./SlIcisthird.Pair2:I like SEes./Ilike Sfrues.Pair3:Sipit @retully./Shipit d&efully.Pair4:Lookat thataqs./Lookat that@lr.Pair5:HewontW,wit./He wont STibwit.Pair6:PaSs!he shouted./hsh! he shouted.I a- ThoseareSues.2 b - Lookat that dirty ash.3 a-Puss!he shouted.4 b - Themicelivedin a shack.5 a- Im goingto buy somenew seats.6 a- Tomshouldsave.
    • 3c4bE ""t5UNIT552c5UNIT542bla,b,c,d,j2hse,lg4i2 Danish_ships3 Scottish_sheep4 Swedish_shampoo5 French_champagne6Irish_sheets7 Polish_shirts8 Finnish_shorts9Turkish-sugarl0 Spanish_shoesThesound{/ iswritten with theletterssh(shop).Otherspelling:ch (champagne)./g/televisionShealsohasa casualiob doinesDortsmassase.Shedoessportsmassageoccasionally,not everyday.YesterdayMiehgllc sawa collision outsidcthe shoeshop.Shewasmeasuringa shoefor a customer.An ambulancetook two injured pcqple to casualty.Thesound/3/islwitten with the letters(usual,decision),Otherspelling:g (garage).Itfl chtpPair2: I,I,2,2, IPair3: 2,2,2,1,1Pair4: 2,1,2,I,2Pair5: l,I,1,2,2Pair6: 2,I,2,2, I1(r) 2(2) 3(1) 4(r) 5Q) 6(2)Pairl:We like ships./Welikechips.Pair2:Thisis a sheepfarm./Thisis a cheapfarm.Pair3:Itsa sherrytrifle./Its a cherrytrifle.Pair4:Ill buy thisshop./Illbuy thischop.Pair5:I couldnt cashit./I couldnt catchit.Pair6:Heswashingthe television./Heswatchingthe television.2d2e
    • Ker.21I2f 1b -Thats averyexpensive chop.2 b -Would you like cherry or orange?3 a - Heswashing the television.4 a - There are too many ships here.5 a - I fell down and cut my shin.6 b - I want to choose,please.3c (2)...mor... Church(5)...mor... Charles...chops...chil...lunch(2)Chump... shoul(4)...four... shou... small...chick(3)...Iike...choose...chick(2)tVhich... chea( ) This ...chea ...lic ...chick(8)How... much ...that ...have ...cash...pAy...cred ...card(2) ...course...Church5 The sound /tf is written with the letters ch (church).Other spelling:tch (kitchen),t (question).UNIT55lfil January2b Pairz: r,l,z,2,zPair3: I,2,2,2, IPair4: 2, I,2,l, IPair5: 2,2, I,2, IPair6: I, L,2,I,22d rQ) 2(r) 3(2) 4(1) 5(r) 6Q)2e Pair 1: Its a Cheaptype of car./Irs a i@p rype of car.Pair 2: Are you eHoking?/Are you ftfl<ing?Pair 3: A land full of rldies./A land full of t"rdges.Pair 4: Do you like cffirries?/Do you like @rys?Pair 5: I want a l&ch tree./I want al&ge tree.Pair 6: Do I writeI# here?/Do I write adehere?2f 1 a - I dont want you to choke.2 b - Sheplanted a large tree in the garden.3 a - I dont like those cheap kinds of cars.4 b - This is my new watch, Jane.5 a - Its chilly in the garden.6 b - The crowed jeered when he finished speaking.3b I village 2lanuary 3 dangerously 4 manager5 bridge 6 passenger 7 damaged g jokes
    • 212 Kei4b Across: 1 church 2jam 3 jar 4 choc 5 chess 6 tor 7 suchDown: lchicken 2locks 3just 4reach 5ok 6larger5 The sound /dglis written with the lettersj (joke),ge (age),dge(edge).UNIT56 REVIEW| | zoo 2jam 3 so 4 she 5 chap2 | chance, inside, answer,instructions (secondand third letters but not thelast two letters),ancestors2 range,sponge,stranger,exchange,lounge3 intonation, electrician, expansion, Russian,fashion3 lkisses 2sings 3bicycles 4Lukes 5books412345678910ndditional review taskUnit 30 its,expensive,lets,seaside,Saturday,sweetie,yes,sailing, water-skiing,thats exciting,just, sit, sun, swimming, instead, stay,SixStar,spend,Sunday,sensible,Sue,sleep,outside,sand,smallest,possible,sum, SamSmith, such, cheapskateUnit 5l Zena, Susan,workers, busy,parcels,Susans,smells,Lazarus,somethings,does,s , contains, isnt, animals, noise, is, buzzing, buzzes,Zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz,those,bees,parcels,surprising, amaztng,zooUnit 52 special,washing,machine,Mrs Marsh,Mr ShaWshop,machines,Swedis:English,show,washes,shall,demonstration,sheets,shirts,shut , push,shouldnt,shake,should, finished,shrunk, wish, sureUnit 33 television,treasure,unusual,collision,casual,Asia,measure,garage,pleasureUnit 34 butchers,CharlesCheshire,cheerful,charming, butcher,Mrs Church,chops,childrens,lunch, chump, chicken,choose,which, cheaper,cheapest,muchUnit 55 dangerous,bridge, Ierry,Iohn, Iust, village,jeeps,Ianuary, George,largcr,dangerously,ginger-haired, manager,agency,jokes, injured, edge,passenger,damaged,j ailUNIT57 lfl tanMinimalpairsA2b Pair2: I,I,2,2,2Pair3: 2, I, 1,2, IPair4: I, I,2, 1,2Pair5: 2,2,2,I, IPair6: I, 1,2,1,22d r(r) 2(2) 3(2) 4(2) 5(l) 6(r)
    • reYfff*2e Pair l: Its a sharp pin./Its a sharp fin.Pafu2: Peelthis orange./Feelthis orange.Pair 3: Theres no polk here./Theres no fork here.Pair 4: The sign saidPull./The sign saidFull.Pair 5: Snip these flowers./Sniff these flowers.Pair 6: He showed me his palm./He showed me his farm,MinimalpairsB2b Pair2:2, I,2, I,2Pair3: I,I,2,2, IPair4: 2,2,L,2,IPair5: I, I,2, I, IPair6: 1,2,2,1,22d 1(1) 2(2) 3(2) 4(1) 5(2) 6(1)2e Pair1:Hold thisp4per./Foldthisp4per.Pair2:I likeheaton theback./Ilikefeeton the back.Pair3:ThatsignsaidHill./ThatsignsaidFill.Pair4:Thisheelsdifferent./Thisfeelsdifferent.Pair5:Thisishoney./Thisisfunny.Pair6:Itsgotalittle hole./Itsgot a little foal.2f lb-Thatsalongfin.2 a-Peelthis potato,please.3 b - Shewalkedround the gardensniffingflowers.4 b - Pleasefeelthis shoe.5 a-We dont harm theseanimals.6 b - Thatsavery big hole.3b b3 c5 d2 e4 fl4 lf 2a 39 4e 5d 6b 7c5 Thesound/f/ iswritten with thelettersf (fun)orff (flufly).Otherspelling:ph(photo),fe(wife).UNIT58 lvl vanMinimalpairsA2b Pair2:2,2, I,2, 1Pair3: I, l,1,2,2Pair4:1,2,1,2,IPair5: 2,2,1,I,2Pair6: I,2,1,I,22d r(2) 2(r) 3(1) 4(2) s(2) 6(1)
    • 214 Key)oPairl: Safehere?/Savehcrc?Pair2:nr* tr thegalden?/Vinein the garden?Pair3:Itsafail?/Itsaveil?Pair4:Thisroomhasafel^8/Thisroomhasaview?Pair5:Theyneeda fastship?/Theyneeda vastship?Pair6:Ecuy late?/tetylate?MinimalpairsB2b Pair2: l,l,L,I,2Pair3: 2, 1,2, 1,2Pair4: 1,2,2, 1,2Pair5: 2,2, 1,2, IPair6: I, l, I,2,22d r(2) 2(2) 3(1) 4(l) s(l) 6(2)2e Pair 1:Theyre good bets./Theyre good vets.Pair2: He wore his best./He wore his vest.Pair 3: Can they lift that ban?/Can they lift that van?Pair 4:We need more bolts./We need more volts.Pair 5: Ioneswon the boat./lones won the vote.Pair 6: Its a bg1ly red colour./Its a very red colour.2t I a -We always lift carefully.2 b - Halve the apple.3 a - New York is a fast city.4 a -Weve got the boat.5 a - There should be fifty bolts.6 a - Is safe an adjective or a verb?4a atavillage./inavalley./drivingavan./ofNoycmber./verycold./ofthenhotoeraph.4b I van ...The farmer. 2 vine ....Four.3 villagers ... In the valley. + arriving ...Ag[ving.5 fir tree ....A vine. 6 five fir trees?...Five.5 The sound /v/ is written with the letter v (van).Other spellings:ve(have),f (of).
    • Key 215UNIT19 lwlwindow2b Pairz:1,2,2,2,LPair3: 2,2, I, 1,2Pair4: I,2,I,2, IPair5: 2,2, L,l, I2d r(2) 2(r) 3(2) 4(1) 5(2) 6(1)2e Pair 1:V didnt come before U./We didnt come before you.Pair 2: Thats the vest./Thatsthe west.Pair 3: The dogsvet./The dogswet.Pair 4: This is my best vine./This is my best wine.Pair 5: Its a blue veil./Its a blue whale.2t 1a-iVhat abeautifulvine!2b -He wrotewe at the beginning of the sentence.3 a - Pleasechange this veal.4 b - This book is worse.5 b -We were surprised to seesome whales in the water.6 a - Give him the vet food.3c (4)Oh,.. Will... Well...happ(4)...went... Iove...walk... woods...(6)Oh... wet... Was...ver...wet... Wednes...(6) ...was ...cold ...wet ...wear ...ver ...clothes(4) ...walked... quick... keep ...warm(6) ...that... woods ...next ...rail ...not... quiet ...(6)Yes...fur ...way...rail ...ver ...quiet(4) ...wild ...squir ...ev... coun(2)twen... squirr(5) ...twen ...squirr ...what ...do ...Iunch(2)...plE...souirr(5) ...too ...wet ...Af ...went ...Ies ...(6)twelve...clock... wal ...cake...sweet...wine...(l) won...(3)So...Will... Well...(1)Well...4a ld 2a 3h 4b 5c 69 7e 8f4b 3 Victor (new information) a Why (old information)5 4gtor (new information) 6 ,Vhere(old information).
    • 216 Kev4c I A: Hello:everybody.How*areyou?B:Hello:Emma.Oh:Im OKnoq" I hadthe flu.".andfelt terrible.2 A:Who:isnt here?B:foe:isnt.A few:othersarent.3 A: Is Sue*OK?Anybodyknow*aboutSue?B:I dont know3ifSue:isoffwith theflu:as well.4 A: Howdo:I getto*a garage?B;Yougo*undera bridgeandthrough:a village.5 A: Do you:understand?B:NoJI dontreally.6 A: Oh:its solunfair!You:alwaysgettwo:ice creams.B:Grow*up!5 Thesound/w/ is usuallywrittenwirh rheletterw (well).Otherspellings:wh (what),qu (quick),o (one).UNIT40 ljl yellow2b Pair2: l, I,2, I,2Pair3: I,l, I,2,2Pair4: 2,2,l,2, IPair5: 2,1,2,I,22d r(l) 2(1) 3(2) 4(2) 5(2)2e Pairl: Thatsawonderfuljoke./Thatsa wonderfulyolk.Pair2:TheresnSjUiec./Theresno use.Pair3:Wouldyou like jem?/Wouldyou like yam?Pair4:Iess,I loveyou./Yes,I loveyou.Pair5: He sangoverthe j€crs./Hesarg overthe ycaru.21 1b-Thatsabadyolk.2 a- Letseatjam.3 a- Iess,letsgoto the cinema.4 b - Thesewereterribleyearsfor him.5 a-What juiceis that?6 a- Hehasntflown byjet.5b luniversity 2music 3tuba 4knew 5New 6tubes7 Europe Bstupid4a lb 2a 3d 4e 5c4b I A: Letsplay3acardgame.B:OKiIll deal.2 A:Thatboy3isveryrude.B:Yes.He:ought to be morepolite.3 A:Arethoseprintoutsof myr srn2il53B:Yes,theYl31s.
    • 2d2f5UNIT4T2b5UNIT42Minimal2bKev 2174 A: HeJalwaysfeelssadwhen hesalone.B:Ijunderstand.Iloften do too.5 A: Say3itagain,please.B:I saidtoday3ismy j eightiethbirthday.6 A:Theylall had a goodcry3at the funeral,B:Therewasnt a dry3eyelin the church.Thesound/j/ iswritten with thelettersy (yes)oru (student).Otherspellingew(new).lhl hatPair2:1,2,2,I,1Pair3: 2,I,I,2,IPair4: l, 1,2,2,2Pair5: 2,1,2,1,2Pair6: 2,2,I,I,21 (1) 2 (2) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (2) 6 (1)I a - I dont like these eels.2 a-He hurt his foot, leg and arm.3 b - These children have got beautiful high brows.4 b - Do you like heart?5 b -How! he shouted loudlv.6 a -What lovely air!2 how/injured 3 hospital/ambulance 4 hit/ice-cream5 having/operation 6 Helena/unhappy 7 helall1tVhofound (h)im?2rv1lhats(h)is name? Harry?3A/hoelse (h)ave you spoken to? Shes(h)is wife?4vVhats(h)er phone number? Shehasnt a phone? (H)as she got a mobile?5 Mhat (h)asthe neighbour said about (h)im?6What (h)ad (h)e eaten?The sound /h/ is written with the letterh (hill).Other spelling: who (who)./0/thinpairsAPair2: L,I,2,2,IPair3: I,2,2,2, IPair4: 2,2, I,2, IPair5: 2,2,2, 1, I4b
    • 218 Key2d r(2) 2(r) 3(2) 4(l) s(l) 6(2)2e Pair1:Mhata sweetlittle mousel/,Vhata sweetlittle mouth!Pair2:Isthis sumOK?/Isthisthumb OK?Pair3:Itsverysick./ltsverythick.Pair4:Hessinking./Hesthinking.Pair5:Theresa mountainpaSS./Theresa mountainpalh.MinimalpairsB2b Pair2: l, I,2,2, IPair3: I,I, L,2,I2d r(2) 2(r) 3(r) 4(2)2e PairI: Hesgota first./Hesgota thirst.Pair2:A fin soup,please./Athin soup,please.Pair3:I d like ahalf./Id like a hearth.MinimalpairsC2b Pair2:1,2,2, I,2Pair3: I, I,2,2, I2d I(2) 2(2) 3(2 4(1)2e Thats a big tree./Thats a big three.The President sendshis tanks./The Presidentsendshis thanks.The knife was hidden in a sheet./The knife was hidden in a sheath.2t I a - I always sink in the bath.2 b - Hesgot a big mouth.3 a - Dont burn it. That saucepanis only tin.4 b - The teacher thought quickly.5 a - Look at that moss on that stone.6 a - The tvvomen fought very hard.3c 2 month 3 three 4 mathematician 5 Roths 6I4b 2c 3e 4a 59 6d 7f5 The sound /0/ is written with the lettersth (think).UNIT45 ldlthefeatherMinimalpairsA2b Pair2: I, l, 1,2,2Pair3: I, 2,1,2,IPair4: 2,2,l, I,2Pair5: 2,I, I,2,22d 1(i) 2(2) 3(2) 4(1) 5(2)
    • Kev 2192e Pair l: Smith is bigger,Dan Iones./Smith is bigger rhan lones.Pair 2: Day arrived./They arrived.Pair 3: Iin1 dareshis friend./Iim thereshis friend.Pair 4: Doze after lunch./Those after lunch.Pair 5: I dont know her sister,Ida./I dont know her sister either.IVlinimalpairsB2b Pair2:2,1,I,2,IPair3: l, I,2,2,2Pair4: 2,2,I,1,22d l(1) 2(2) 3(2) 4(1)2e Pair 1:The shop sign saidClosing./Theshop sign saidClothing.Pair 2:Breeze means air mqving./ Breathe means air moving.Pair 3:The boos echoed loudly./The booth echoed loudly.Pair 4: Thats a large size./Thatsa large sclrthe.21 1 a -We dont like his wife, Ida.2 a -Day came later than in summer.3 a - Jim dareshis friend.4 a - Sheneeds a smaller size.5 b -Wiil they seabathe?6 b - The booth sounded very bad.4b ld 2e 39 4c 5f 6a 7b5 The sound /d/ is written with the letters th (the, this, that, these,those,they, there, their, theyre, then, that, them).UNIT44 REVIEWI lwe 2how 3foe 4thigh 5this2 I coughed, Iaughed, lofry soft, lift2 months, Iengths,Iudiths, naturopaths, tablecloths3 Swedish,sweeten,swum, swear,suite, swift3 Ijasked you:a question, Wesley.Oh:Im sorry j I didnt hear you, Yasmin.You:often do that, and I , always get annoyed.Oh:is that so?Mhyjis that, Yasmin?Itsjust annoying!Why, n1"you doing it, Wesley?lust to:annoy you, Yasmin.4 valley village beautiful rcilway Europe perhaps hospitalmathematician author leather
    • 22O KeyAdditionalreviewtaskUnit 37 funny, photographer, afternoon, Fred Phillips, photograph, myself, wife,Phillippa, fill, form, fblt-tipped, prefer, full, front, profile, finished, sofa,comfortable, feels,fine, friendly, laugh, difficult, il, soft, beautiful, for, fifth,February phone, office, after, fiveUnit 38 riew, ander, lired, very,ictor, fire, irienne, arrired, of, lorely, hare,rillage, ralley, love, Iir"ingUnit 39 lralk, rnoods,rilliam, ednesday,inona, rtell, rthat, t€, llent, 1€t,nasnt, ednesday,lt€re, trearing,arm, nalked, rail quiet, anay,rvas,nild, squirrels, every ere,t$enty,nith, aftenrards, trtelve, s"alnut, slreet,ite, wine, nonderfulUnit 40 stupid, ee,you, use,York,Young,yes,universit); )€ars, Hugh "ip, music,student, used to, )ellow beautiful, tunes, tuba, kn news, millionaire,NewYork, produces, onion, st tubes, Europe, newspaper, ,resterdayUnit 4l horrible, Hi, Holly, have,heard, happened, Helenas,husband, has, had, his,horse, how he, hes,hospital, happen, hit, behind, house, having, unhappy,perhaps, hell, hopeUnit 42 Catherine, Ruth, Samantha Roth, thirty, thought, thirty-three, Samanthas,birthday, Thursday,month, Roths,worth, thousand, three, author, moths,mathematician, thirsty, something, nothing, thank youUnit 43 Miss Brothers, the, with, there,together,feathers,other, that, either,leather, another, than, smoother, rather, clothesNote: with can also be pronounced /wIO/.UNIT45 lmlmouth2c Themile isveryold.Thisis mine.Heloveshismummy.I want a comb.Hesplsud of his name.3c 2met 3remember 4manners 5come 6make Tmaybe8 time 9 Mum 10tomorrow4c I Mhatdid you say?2 lm thinking aboutwhat to say.3 Yes.4 Hownice!5 Whatdid vousav?6 Yes.7 Hownice!5 Thesound/m/iswrittenwith theletterm (make).Otherspelling:mm(summer),mn(autumn),me(time).
    • Key 221UNIT46 lnlnose2b Pair2|. r,2,2,r,2Pair3: 2,2,I,2, LPair4: l, 1,2,I,2Pair5: 1,2,1,2,I2d r(2) 2(2) 3(r) 4Q) 5(2)2e Pair1:c) oOoooOThemile isveryold./TheNile isveryold.Pair2:b) ooOThisis mine./Thisis nine.Pair3:e)ooOoHelovesmummy./Helovesmoney.Pair4:a)oooOI want a comb./I want a cone.Pair5:d) oOooOHesproud of his name./Hesprouelof his mane.2t 1b-Iwanttwo cones,please,2 b - Ill giveyou nine.3 b -Mhat a beautifulmane!4 b - I onlywant sunflowers.5 a- Pleasewarm the children.6 b - He loveshis mummy.3c lNelson 2Certainly 3station 4oven 5garden 6eleven7 television Bprison.5 Thesound/n/iswritten with the lettern (no).Otherspellings:kn (know),nrf (funny),ne (phone).UNIT47 lql ringMinimalpairsA2b Pair2: 2,2,1,I,2Pair3: 1,2,l, 1,2Pau4:2,2,l,l,LPair5: L,I,2,2, IPair6: 1,2,1,2,I2d r(1) 2(2) 3(2) 4(1) 5(2) 6(1)2e Pairl: Mhatawin!/Mhatawing!Pair2:Mhythis thin?/tVhythis Lhing?Pair3:Banthe book./Bangthe book.Pair4:Theyran for an hour./Theyrangfor an hour.Pair5:Shehasneverrun before./Shehasneverrung before.Pair6:Is it Ron?/Isit wrong?
    • 222 KeyMinimalpairsB2b Pair2: 2,2,I,I,IPair3: I, 1,2, 1,2Pair4: I, 1,2, l, IPair5: I,I,I,2,22d l(1) 2(r) 3(2) 4(2) 5(l)2e Pair I: Ill giveyou a wink./Ill giveyou a wing.Pair 2: Hessinking./Hes singing.Pair 3: The rink was a p€Ifect circle./The ring was a perfect circle.Pair 4:Mhat a terrible stink!/lVhat a terrible sting!Pair 5: Bank it guiekly./Bang it quickly.2I I a-Thats Ron.2b-Somebodyrang.3 a - Tom always sinks in the bath.4 b - Mhat a beautiful wink!5 c -You should bang it.6 b - This is not the right place for sinkers.3b effii*g morning; t€Jkin€ singing; put+in€ hanging;€€fia€ doing;ifl,t€rcsting pink; {alling going ;vrhi€perin€ shouting; Aialki€€running;+hin*i€€{b€t*t€e++in6#fF{€ffi€e sleeping4aI MhatsAngus Lang doing? Hesbanging some nails into the wall.2 WhatsAngus doing? Heshanging some strong string on the nail.3 A/hatsSusanLang doing? Shesbringing something for Angus to drink.4 Vhats Mr Lang doing? Heshanging from the string.5 A4ratsMrs Lang doing? Shes ringing the bell.6MhatsDuncan King doing? Hessleeping.5 The sound /p/ is written with the lettersng (sing).Other spelling: n (drink, English).UNIT48 lll letter2b Pair2: 1,2,1,1,2Pair3: 2,2,l, 2,IPair4: 1,2,2,2,LPair5: 2,2,l,2, I2d rQ) 2(r) 3(2) 4(2) 5(2)2e Pairl: Weneedno tables./Weneedlow tables.Pair2:Itsa bright night./Itsa brightlight.Pair3:Thatnineistoolong./Thatlineistoolong.
    • Ker 225Pair 4: I love Ienny./I love jelly.Pair 5: Thats a snapping noise./Thats a slapping noise.2t I a - Look! The moons shining. Mhata lovely night!2 a - There are no chairs here.3 a - This shouldnt be on the bin.4 b - Its a lot of string.5 a - Im wearing snow shoes.6 b - Im going to buy some slacks.3c learly 2oclock 3left 4lamb 5salad 6olives TreallvB glass 9 slice f0 jelly4d lbeautiful 2careful 3special 4sensible 5gentleman6 bicycle5 The sound /l/ is written with the letterl (like).Other spellings:le (apple), ll (all).UNIT49 lrl rain2b Pair2: 2, 1,2,2, IPair3: I,2,I,2,2Pair4: 2, I,I,1,2Pair5: 1,2,2, 1.,IPair6: 2,2,l,I, I2d r(r) 2(2) 3(1) 4(2) 5(r) 6(1)2e Pair l: a) ooOO Its the long road./Its the wrong road.Pair 2: c) ooo Is it light?/Is it right?Pair 3: d) ooOO Its a long load./Irs a long road.Pair 4: f) oooOo Do you like plly?/Do you like lerry?Pair5: e) oOoOo Id liketo flyit./Id like to fryit.Pair 6: b) OoO Theressome glass./Theressome grass.21 1 a - That sentenceis long.2 b - Susan likes ferry.3 a - Theressome glassin the garden.4 a - Pleasecollect the homework.5 b -We walked in the rain.6 b - This is a free house.4a I hes a lorry driver.2 shesa waitress.3 hesa pjlot.4 shesa secretary5 shesa librarian.
    • 224 Key5 The sound /r/ is written with the letterr (red).Other spellings:rr(tomorrow),wr (write).UNIT50 REVIEWI lpang 2mull 3sun 4Tim 5rye2 | bridge, umbrella, brush, embrace, bride2 wrongs, kings, springs, songs,thongs5 eleven,forbidden, prison, certainly, kitchen, passenger,person, television,listen, suddenly,oven4 Syllabic /l/ minimal, syllable,table, careful, central, example, little, specialSyllabic /m/ random, system,rhythm, madam, bottom, curriculumAdditionalreviewtaskUnit 45 N{um, muffins, Malcolm, Mrs MacCallum, may,Tirn Mitcham, come,home, me, tomorrow [ret, him, sumnrer, small, remember, smart,charming, manners, family, from, Cambridge, make, some, hottte-tttade,tomorrow mtn, maybe, time, comrngUnit 46 accommodation agency,morning, name, Martin Nelson, manage! can,want, an, apartment, in, central, London, certaitrly,rent, no, thatr, !1,000(one thousand poutrds), month, dont, often, inexpensive,not, one, t2,I79(two thousand, one hundred and seventy-nine pounds), Notting Hill,down, near,station, Northend Avenue,furnished, unfurnished, kitchen,oven, forbidden, garden, friends, eleven,evening, noise,atrd, television,11.15(eleven,fifteen),prisonUnit 47 Duncan King, lying, trying, standing, watching, Angus Lang, bang, Langs,doing, morning, singing, banging, looking, hanging, strong, string,bringing, something, interesting, putting, happening, going, holding,fingers, shouting, helping, running, ringing,,RINGI,sleepingUnit 48 early,lunch, Lesley,Lily Carpello, nearly,always,hello, only, eleven,oclockIater,usually, left, like, leg, lamb, please,plate, salad,lettuce, black, olives,Iovely,really,glass,lemonade, love,slice,melon, yellow jellyUnit 49 proud, parent, are all, children, grown, Iluth, Lara, I{uby,cleverest,librarian, library very interesting, Laura, secretary central, railway, Rose,pretty, waitress,restaurant, Paris,married, electrician, Ierry Roland, drives.lorry eve here in Europe, really,countries, drive, France,Austria,Greece,Russia,Australia,AmericaOVERVIEWI lbit 2could 3A 4T 5show 6V Toan2l23 2c 3a 49 5f 6e 7d
    • TracklistingsCDATtackAl -A75Duration:7057"CDBTrack81 - 896Duration:7623"CDCTrackCl - C73Duration:7l52"CDDTrackDl - DBIDuration:7015"
    • tsBN978-0-521-60673-Blflilfiilrlililiilil|lliltil9r7gB52 1il686739r1