Oracle OpenWorld 2013 - HOL9737 MySQL Replication Best Practices
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  • 1. Copyright © 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Insert Information Protection Policy Classification from Slide 121
  • 2. Copyright © 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Insert Information Protection Policy Classification from Slide 122 MySQL Replication Best Practices Luís Soares Sr. Software Engineer Sven Sandberg Sr. Software Engineer
  • 3. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.3 The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.
  • 4. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.4 Agenda  Replication Basics  Crash-Safe Slaves: Replication Metadata in System Tables.  On-line Data Verification: Replication Event Checksums  Tuning and Optimizing Row-based Replication  Improving the Slave Scalability: Multi-Threaded Slave Applier  Automated Fail-over and Slave Positioning: Global Transaction Ids  Summary
  • 5. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.5 Replication Basics  MySQL Master Server – Changes data – Logs changes (Events) into a file (Binary Log)  MySQL Slave Server – Retrieves events from the master – Replays the events on the slave's databases MySQL Replication Components.
  • 6. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.6 Replication Basics  The Binary Log – File based log that records the changes on the master. – Statement or Row based format (may be intermixed). – Split into transactional groups. BEGIN ...Ev1 Ev2 COMMIT MySQL Replication Components: Binary Log. Binary Log FileBinary Log File BEGIN ...Ev1 Ev2 COMMIT Event Layout on a Binary Log File
  • 7. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.7 Replication Basics MySQL Replication Components: Binary Log. Binary Log Binary log files Index Under the Hood Binary log files: mysql-bin.000001, mysql-bin.000002, … - The actual data. Index: mysql-bin.index - An index over the binary log files. Log coordinate: - binlog file name + event offset in the file (3.23.15+) - Global Transaction Identifiers (5.6+)
  • 8. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.8 Replication Basics MySQL Replication Architecture. Insert... Insert... B binary log Insert... relay log Insert... A binary log Client Dump thread IO thread SQL thread Network Master info Relay Log Info Replication Metadata
  • 9. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.9 Replication Basics  Asynchronous Replication (MySQL 3.23.15+) – Transactions are committed and externalized without interaction with the replication layer. – Events are sent to slave after the commit operation is acknowledged. – Faster but vulnerable to lost updates on server crashes and inconsistency. – Built into the server.  Semi-synchronous Replication (MySQL 5.5+) – Master commits transaction but waits until one slave acknowledges having received and stored the event before replying to the client. Changes Propagation.
  • 10. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.10 Replication Basics Hands-On
  • 11. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.11 Replication Basics Getting MySQL.  Head to – http://dev.mysql.com   ... and get the latest MySQL 5.6 generic tar.gz package from there  … or alternatively, you can find MySQL 5.6 linux generic package at your local directory /usr/local/mysql­56 .
  • 12. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.12 Replication Basics Setting Up Working Directories. $ tar xfvz /usr/local/mysql­....tar.gz    ­­directory=$HOME/hol9737 $ mkdir $HOME/hol9737/ $ cd $HOME/hol9737/ Create a directory for storing the binaries (e.g., under your home). Unpack the package (e.g., using tar). $ mv $HOME/hol9737/mysql­... $HOME/hol9737/mysql­56 Rename the directory for simplicity
  • 13. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.13 Replication Basics Setting Up MySQL. $ mysql­56/scripts/mysql_install_db   ­­basedir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­56   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/master    ­­user=`whoami` Create Two Data Directories $ mysql­56/scripts/mysql_install_db    ­­basedir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­56   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/slave   ­­user=`whoami` Create two Data Directories
  • 14. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.14 Replication Basics Setting Up MySQL Master Server. [mysqld] server­id=1 log­bin=master­bin log­error=master.err port=12000 Create a defaults file called $HOME/hol9737/master.cnf Set the unique server id. Turn ON the binary log.
  • 15. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.15 Replication Basics $ mysql­56/bin/mysqld    ­­defaults­file=$HOME/hol9737/master.cnf   ­­lc­messages­dir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­56/share   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/master/ Start the master server. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysql ­u root ­­port 12000 ­­protocol=tcp   ­­prompt='master> ' Log in to the master server. Setting Up MySQL Master Server.
  • 16. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.16 Replication Basics Inspecting the Master Status. master> SHOW BINARY LOGS; ...  master> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS; ...  master> SHOW MASTER STATUS; What binlog files are in use? What's in the first binary log? What binary log is in use what is its position?
  • 17. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.17 master> SHOW BINARY LOGS; master> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS; master> SHOW MASTER STATUS; Replication Basics Inspecting the Master Status. +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | File              | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | master­bin.000001 |      120 |              |                  |                   | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec) +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name          | Pos | Event_type  | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                    | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | master­bin.000001 |   4 | Format_desc |         1 |         120 | Server ver: 5.6.6­m9­log, Binlog ver: 4 | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec) +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name          | File_size | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+ | master­bin.000001 |       120 | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • 18. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.18 Replication Basics The Binary Log Layout. Log Events Format description Rotate Log Events Format description Rotate Log Events Format description ● Multiple Files. ● Files begin with Format Description event. ● Each log file ends with a Rotate event.
  • 19. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.19 Replication Basics Setting Up Replication User (that the slave will connect with). master> CREATE USER `rpl_user`@`localhost`; master> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.*          TO `rpl_user`@`localhost`          IDENTIFIED BY 'secret'; master> FLUSH PRIVILEGES; We could use any user. Needs replication grants to read any change on the master Better use a dedicated user for connecting the slave.
  • 20. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.20 Replication Basics Setting Up MySQL Slave Server. [mysqld] server­id=2 relay­log=slave­relay­bin log­error=slave.err port=12001 Set the unique server id. Set the name for the relay log. Create a defaults file called $HOME/hol9737/slave.cnf
  • 21. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.21 Replication Basics Starting Up The MySQL Slave Server. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqld    ­­defaults­file=$HOME/hol9737/slave.cnf   ­­lc­messages­dir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­5.6/share   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/slave/ Start the slave server. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysql ­u root ­­port 12001 –protocol=tcp   ­­prompt='slave> ' Log in to the slave server.
  • 22. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.22 Replication Basics Starting the Slave Threads. slave> CHANGE MASTER TO   MASTER_HOST = 'localhost',   MASTER_PORT = 12000,   MASTER_USER = 'rpl_user',   MASTER_PASSWORD = 'secret'; Point the slave server to the master server. Use the credentials we had granted before. slave> START SLAVE; Start the slave threads.
  • 23. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.23 Replication Basics Inspecting the Slave Status. slave> SHOW SLAVE STATUS; Inspect the slave status. (...)                Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event                   Master_Host: localhost                   Master_User: rpl_user                   Master_Port: 12000                 Connect_Retry: 60               Master_Log_File: master­bin.000002           Read_Master_Log_Pos: 120                Relay_Log_File: slave­relay­bin.000003                 Relay_Log_Pos: 284         Relay_Master_Log_File: master­bin.000002              Slave_IO_Running: Yes             Slave_SQL_Running: Yes (...) Both slave threads are up and running!
  • 24. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.24 Replication Basics Replicating From Master to Slave. master> USE test; master> CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT);  slave> USE test;  slave> SHOW TABLES; master> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1);  slave> SELECT * FROM t1; Use the test db. Create a table. Slave has replicated the table. Slave has replicated the data.
  • 25. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.25 Replication Basics What's in the Binary Log? master> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS [IN 'master­bin.0000002']; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name          | Pos | Event_type  | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                    | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | master­bin.000002 |   4 | Format_desc |         1 |         120 | Server ver: 5.6.6­m9­log, Binlog ver: 4 | | master­bin.000002 | 120 | Query       |         1 |         217 | use `test`; CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT)     | | master­bin.000002 | 217 | Query       |         1 |         296 | BEGIN                                   | | master­bin.000002 | 296 | Query       |         1 |         395 | use `test`; INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (1)   | | master­bin.000002 | 395 | Xid         |         1 |         426 | COMMIT /* xid=21 */                     | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 5 rows in set (0.00 sec) The “CREATE TABLE” statement. The “INSERT” statement.
  • 26. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.26 Replication Basics Replicating From Master to Slave – binary log formats. • Three formats: – STATEMENT – every change logged as a statement. ● Re-executed on the slave. – ROW – every change logged as data. ● Data changes are applied on the slave. – MIXED – every change logged either as data or statements. ● Automatically switches from statement to row on non-deterministic statements.
  • 27. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.27 Replication Basics Replicating From Master to Slave – binary log formats. master> set binlog_format=ROW; master> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2); master> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name          | Pos | Event_type  | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                    | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | master­bin.000002 |   4 | Format_desc |         1 |         120 | Server ver: 5.6.6­m9­log, Binlog ver: 4 | | master­bin.000002 | 120 | Query       |         1 |         217 | use `test`; CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT)     | | master­bin.000002 | 217 | Query       |         1 |         296 | BEGIN                                   | | master­bin.000002 | 296 | Query       |         1 |         395 | use `test`; INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (1)   | | master­bin.000002 | 395 | Xid         |         1 |         426 | COMMIT /* xid=21 */                     | | master­bin.000002 | 426 | Query       |         1 |         498 | BEGIN                                   | | master­bin.000002 | 498 | Table_map   |         1 |         543 | table_id: 70 (test.t1)                  | | master­bin.000002 | 543 | Write_rows  |         1 |         583 | table_id: 70 flags: STMT_END_F          | | master­bin.000002 | 583 | Xid         |         1 |         614 | COMMIT /* xid=27 */                     | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 9 rows in set (0.00 sec) Let's change the format. The second “INSERT” statement.
  • 28. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.28 Replication Basics Master replication files. $ ls ­la master/ (...) ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXX XXXXXX      143 Sep 26 11:10 master­bin.000001 ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXX XXXXXX      614 Sep 26 11:40 master­bin.000002 ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXX XXXXXX       40 Sep 26 11:10 master­bin.index (...) The binary log files. Index file over the existing binary log files.
  • 29. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.29 Replication Basics Slave replication files. $ ls ­la slave/ (...)  ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXXX XXXXXXX      128 Sep 26 11:40 master.info (...)  ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXXX XXXXXXX       57 Sep 26 11:40 relay­log.info (...) ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXXX XXXXXXX      337 Sep 26 11:10 slave­relay­bin.000002 ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXXX XXXXXXX      778 Sep 26 11:40 slave­relay­bin.000003 ­rw­rw­­­­ 1 XXXXXXX XXXXXXX       50 Sep 26 11:10 slave­relay­bin.index (...) The relay log files. Index file over the existing binary log files. Persists IO thread repliaction metadata (master host, username, … and positioning on the master's binlog). Persists SQL thread replication metadata. Basically, the positioning in the relay log.
  • 30. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.30 Crash-Safe Positioning: Storing Replication Metadata in Tables.
  • 31. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.31 Storing Replication Metadata in Tables.  Store replication metadata in tables, within the context of regular transactions. – Commit both data and replication positions together. – Rollback both data and replication positions together. – Robust, highly available setups. – No metadata in files (master.info and relay-log.info). – Slave knows a valid position to resume replication after a crash.  Often referred to as the “Crash-Safe Slave” or “Transactional Replication” feature.  Non-transactional engines will not work with this for obvious reasons. Self-healing slaves. MySQL 5.6
  • 32. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.32 Storing Replication Metadata in Tables. Configuring the slave to use tables as metadata repository. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqladmin shutdown    ­­user=root ­­port=12001 ­­protocol=tcp [mysqld] (...)  relay­log­info­repository=TABLE master­info­repository=TABLE $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqld    ­­defaults­file=$HOME/hol9737/slave.cnf   ­­lc­messages­dir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­5.6/share   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/slave/ Start the slave server. Shutdown the slave server. Configure slave to use tables, instead of files.
  • 33. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.33 Storing Replication Metadata in Tables. Inspecting the filesystem and the tables. $ ls ­la slave/ master.info and relay-log.info are gone!! slave> SELECT * FROM mysql.slave_relay_log_info; +­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+... | Master_id | Number_of_lines | Relay_log_name           | Relay_log_pos | Master_log_name   | Master_log_pos |... +­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+... |         2 |               6 | ./slave­relay­bin.000005 |           284 | master­bin.000002 |            614 |... +­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+... 1 row in set (0.00 sec) relay-log.info was automatically migrated! Let's look at the relay info slave table. (if you see errors like ERROR 2013 (HY000): Lost connection to MySQL server during query - don't worry and just try again)
  • 34. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.34 Storing Replication Metadata in Tables. Inspecting the filesystem and the tables. slave> SELECT * FROM mysql.slave_master_infoG mysql> select * from mysql.slave_master_infoG *************************** 1. row ***************************              Master_id: 2        Number_of_lines: 23        Master_log_name: master­bin.000002         Master_log_pos: 614                   Host: localhost              User_name: rpl_user (...) master.info was automatically migrated! Let's look at the slave table.
  • 35. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.35 Storing Replication Metadata in Tables. Inspecting the filesystem and the tables. slave> SHOW CREATE TABLE mysql.slave_relay_log_infoG mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE mysql.slave_relay_log_infoG *************************** 1. row ***************************        Table: slave_relay_log_info Create Table: CREATE TABLE `slave_relay_log_info` (   `Master_id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,   `Number_of_lines` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL (...)   `Relay_log_name` text CHARACTER SET utf8 (...)   `Relay_log_pos` bigint(20) unsigned NOT NULL (...)   `Master_log_name` text CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL (...)   `Master_log_pos` bigint(20) unsigned NOT NULL (...)   `Sql_delay` int(11) NOT NULL (...)   `Number_of_workers` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,   PRIMARY KEY (`Master_id`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 COMMENT='Relay Log Information' 1 row in set (0.00 sec) InnoDB engine by default. What's the table schema?
  • 36. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.36 On-line Data Verification: Replication Event Checksums
  • 37. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.37 Replication Event Checksums  MySQL 5.6 Replication adds replication events checksums.  Each event is appended a 32 bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC32).  Master generates CRC32 when writing events to the binary log.  Multiple verifications points (on the master and/or on the slave). – Can be turned on/off independently. Cyclic Redundancy Checks Per Events. BEGIN ...Ev1 Ev2 COMMIT C R C Binary Log FileBinary Log File C R C C R C C R C BEGIN ...Ev1 Ev2 COMMIT C R C C R C C R C C R C One CRC per Event.
  • 38. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.38 Replication Event Checksums  --binlog-checksum = CRC32 | NONE – Turns on/off generation of CRCs on the master. – SET @@global.binlog_checksum ● --master-verify-checksum=0 | 1 – Dump thread and user sessions verify checksums. – SET @@global.master_verify_checksum ● --slave-sql-verify-checksum=0 | 1 – SQL thread verifies checksums. – SET @@global.slave_sql_verify_checksums User Interface for Controlling CRC.
  • 39. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.39 Replication Event Checksums Configuring the Master to Generate Checksums. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqladmin shutdown    ­­user=root ­­port=12000 ­­protocol=tcp [mysqld] (...)  binlog­checksum=CRC32 $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqld    ­­defaults­file=$HOME/hol9737/master.cnf   ­­lc­messages­dir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­5.6/share   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/master/ Start the master server. Shutdown the master server. Configure master to generate event checksums. This is actually the default currently.
  • 40. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.40 Replication Event Checksums Inspecting the Replication Event Checksums. master> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(3); Let's insert another row into test.t1. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqlbinlog master/master­bin.000002 # at 120 #120926 12:26:24 server id 1  end_log_pos 199 CRC32 0x9a914962  Query thread_id=1 exec_time=0 error_code=0 (...) BEGIN /*!*/; # at 199 #120926 12:26:24 server id 1  end_log_pos 298 CRC32 0x4de04ef5  Query thread_id=1 exec_time=0 error_code=0 use test/*!*/; SET TIMESTAMP=1348658784/*!*/; INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (3) /*!*/; # at 298 #120926 12:26:24 server id 1  end_log_pos 329 CRC32 0xe4f8efc1  Xid = 20 COMMIT/*!*/; Valid CRCs.
  • 41. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.41 Tuning and Optimizing Row-based Replication
  • 42. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.42 Row-based Replication Enhancements  RBR works with partial rows in addition to full rows. – Before Image – only fields required to find the row. – After Image – only fields that actually changed.  May be also configured to exclude BLOBS only (when not needed).  Reduces memory footprint  Reduces network bandwidth usage  Reduces binary log size.  SET binlog_row_image={MINIMAL|NOBLOB|FULL} – default is FULL Optimized Row-based Replication Logging.
  • 43. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.43 Row-based Replication Enhancements Optimized Row-based Replication Logging. Before Image After Image Full Rows Rows without Blobs Minimal Rows Blob Primary Key Changed Columns
  • 44. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.44 Row-based Replication Enhancements Using Full Rows. master> FLUSH LOGS; master> SET binlog_format=ROW; master> CREATE TABLE t2 (int1 INT, int2 int,    float float, txt text, PRIMARY KEY (a)); master> INSERT INTO t2 VALUES (1, 1, 1.0, 'ola'); master> UPDATE t2 SET int2=2; Create a new binlog file. Need Row Format. Update the table.
  • 45. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.45 Row-based Replication Enhancements Using Full Rows. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqlbinlog ­v master/master­bin.000003 # at 242 #120926 12:55:17 server id 1  end_log_pos 664 CRC32 (...) BINLOG ' Je1iUBMBAAAAMgAAAFACAAAAAEgAAAAAAAEABHRlc3QAAn (...) (...) '/*!*/; ### UPDATE test.t2 ### WHERE ###   @1=1 ###   @2=1 ###   @3=1                    ###   @4='ola' ### SET ###   @1=1 ###   @2=2 ###   @3=1                    ###   @4='ola' # at 314 The full rows are written to the binary log.
  • 46. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.46 Row-based Replication Enhancements Using Rows Without Blobs. master> FLUSH LOGS; master> SET binlog_row_image=NOBLOB; master> UPDATE t2 SET int2=3; Create a new binlog file. Change to NoBlob images.
  • 47. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.47 Row-based Replication Enhancements Using Rows Without Blobs. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqlbinlog ­v master/master­bin.000004 # at 242 #120926 13:04:09 server id 1  end_log_pos 304 (...) BINLOG ' Oe9iUBMBAAAAMgAAAPIAAAAAAEgAAAAAAAEABHRlc3QAAnQyAAQ (...) (...) ### UPDATE test.t2 ### WHERE ###   @1=1 ###   @2=2 ###   @3=1                    ### SET ###   @1=1 ###   @2=3 ###   @3=1                    # at 304 The blob field was not included in the before and after images since it was not needed for the update operation.
  • 48. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.48 Row-based Replication Enhancements Using Minimal Rows. master> FLUSH LOGS; master> SET binlog_row_image=MINIMAL; master> UPDATE t2 SET int2=4; Create a new binlog file. Change to Minimal images.
  • 49. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.49 Row-based Replication Enhancements Using Minimal Rows. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqlbinlog ­v master/master­bin.000005 # at 242 #120926 13:08:09 server id 1  end_log_pos 288 (...) BINLOG ' KfBiUBMBAAAAMgAAAPIAAAAAAEgAAAAAAAEABHRlc3QAAn (...) (...) ### UPDATE test.t2 ### WHERE ###   @1=1 ### SET ###   @2=4 # at 288 Only the PK was stored in the binary log. Only the changed field was stored in the binary log.
  • 50. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.50 Row-based Replication Enhancements Optimized Row-based Replication Logging.  The different types of images take: – FULL: 314 – 242 = 72 bytes – NOBLOB: 304 – 242 = 62 bytes – MINIMAL: 288 – 242 = 46 bytes  With only one row and a very simple update statement, very simple table, we have saved (FULL vs MINIMAL): – 72 – 46 = 26 bytes
  • 51. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.51 Row-based Replication Enhancements  Log the original query along with the RBR events: – Enhances auditing and debugging. – Extra event preceding the Rows events. – Replicated everywhere in the topology, together with the Rows events themselves. – User can turn the behavior on and off. Informational Log Events for Row-based Replication.
  • 52. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.52 Row-based Replication Enhancements Enabling the logging of the Rows_query_log_event. master> SET binlog_format=ROW; master> SET binlog_rows_query_log_events=ON; master> use test; master> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (6); master> UPDATE t1 SET a=7; master> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS IN 'master­bin.000005'; Turn on rows query log events.
  • 53. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.53 Row-based Replication Enhancements Testing the logging of the Rows_query_log_event. +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name          | Pos | Event_type  | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                    | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | master­bin.000009 |   4 | Format_desc |         1 |         120 | Server ver: 5.6.6­m9­log, Binlog ver: 4 | | master­bin.000009 | 120 | Query       |         1 |         192 | BEGIN                                   | | master­bin.000009 | 192 | Rows_query  |         1 |         241 | # INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (6)             | | master­bin.000009 | 241 | Table_map   |         1 |         286 | table_id: 70 (test.t1)                  | | master­bin.000009 | 286 | Write_rows  |         1 |         326 | table_id: 70 flags: STMT_END_F          | | master­bin.000009 | 326 | Xid         |         1 |         357 | COMMIT /* xid=81 */                     | | master­bin.000009 | 357 | Query       |         1 |         429 | BEGIN                                   | | master­bin.000009 | 429 | Rows_query  |         1 |         470 | # UPDATE t1 SET a=7                     | | master­bin.000009 | 470 | Table_map   |         1 |         515 | table_id: 70 (test.t1)                  | | master­bin.000009 | 515 | Update_rows |         1 |         591 | table_id: 70 flags: STMT_END_F          | | master­bin.000009 | 591 | Xid         |         1 |         622 | COMMIT /* xid=82 */                     | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 11 rows in set (0.01 sec) Queries are logged along with the changes.
  • 54. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.54 Row-based Replication Enhancements Testing the logging of the Rows_query_log_event. (...) # at 192 #120926 14:34:14 server id 1  end_log_pos 241 CRC32 0xddde516c  Rows_query # INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (6) # at 241 #120926 14:34:14 server id 1  end_log_pos 286 CRC32 0xb10b6695  Table_map: `test`.`t1` mapped to number 70 (...) # at 429 #120926 14:34:21 server id 1  end_log_pos 470 CRC32 0xd3a90e9b  Rows_query # UPDATE t1 SET a=7 # at 470 #120926 14:34:21 server id 1  end_log_pos 515 CRC32 0xdd3c50a9  Table_map: `test`.`t1` mapped to number 70 (...) $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqlbinlog ­vv master/master­bin.000005 Queries are logged along with the changes. Extra verbose so that mysqbinlog outputs the Rows_query_log_event.
  • 55. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.55 Improving the Slave Scalability: Multi-Threaded Slave Applier
  • 56. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.56 Multi-Threaded Slave  Multiple execution threads to apply replication events to the slave(s).  Splits processing between worker threads based on schema. – Multi-tenant systems friendly.  Concurrent transactions commit independently. – Intra-schema consistency is always guaranteed. – Inter-schema eventual consistency. Properties of the Multi-Threaded Slave.
  • 57. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.57 Multi-Threaded Slave Multi-threaded Slaves. RELAY LOG CoordinatorCoordinator ThreadThread T1T2 DB2 DBn DB1 IO ThreadIO Thread WorkerWorker ThreadsThreads Transaction apply path at the slave.Transaction apply path at the slave.
  • 58. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.58 Multi-Threaded Slave Setting up a load that will use two workers. slave> STOP SLAVE; slave> SET GLOBAL slave_parallel_workers=2; master> SET binlog_format=STATEMENT; master> CREATE DATABASE db1; master> CREATE DATABASE db2; master> CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (a INT); master> CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (a INT); master> INSERT INTO db1.t1 SELECT sleep(5); master> INSERT INTO db2.t1 SELECT sleep(5); Not a requirement for MTS, but needed for this example. Set 2 worker threads. Use sleep to make the slave threads apply concurrently. Create two databases.
  • 59. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.59 Multi-Threaded Slave Setting up a load that will use two workers. slave> SELECT * FROM mysql.slave_worker_infoG mysql> select * from mysql.slave_worker_infoG Empty set (0.00 sec) slave> START SLAVE; ­­ wait 5­6 seconds slave> SELECT * FROM mysql.slave_worker_infoG Positioning table for the slave threads.
  • 60. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.60 Multi-Threaded Slave mysql> select * from mysql.slave_worker_infoG *************************** 1. row ***************************                  Master_id: 2                  Worker_id: 0             Relay_log_name: ./slave­relay­bin.000017              Relay_log_pos: 1098            Master_log_name: master­bin.000008             Master_log_pos: 1159 (...)           Checkpoint_seqno: 5      Checkpoint_group_size: 64    Checkpoint_group_bitmap: (                                  *************************** 2. row ***************************                  Master_id: 2                  Worker_id: 1             Relay_log_name: ./slave­relay­bin.000017              Relay_log_pos: 882            Master_log_name: master­bin.000008             Master_log_pos: 943 (...)      Checkpoint_group_size: 64    Checkpoint_group_bitmap:  2 rows in set (0.00 sec)  Even though these tables are not for monitoring, we can see two entries filled, meaning that two slave workers were engaged.  Since they commit independently, there is a bitmap saved to pinpoint which positions have been applied by each worker.
  • 61. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.61 Automatic Fail-over and Replication Positioning: Global Transaction Identifiers
  • 62. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.62 Motivation: Seamless Fail-over.  Servers sometimes crash (hardware error, bug, meteor hit...)  Promote a slave to replace crashed master  Method to represent positions in replication stream is CRUCIAL! – Traditional: FILENAME+OFFSET ● local, absolute, manual – We introduce TRANSACTION IDENTIFIERS ● global, logical, automatic Global Transaction Identifiers
  • 63. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.63 A (master) B (slave) C (slave2) Global Transaction Identifiers Motivation: Seamless Fail-over.  Enable fail-over if master crashes
  • 64. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.64 A (master) B (slave) C (slave2) Crash! Global Transaction Identifiers Motivation: Seamless Fail-over.  Enable fail-over if master crashes
  • 65. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.65 A (master, crashed) B (slave) C (slave2) Global Transaction Identifiers Motivation: Seamless Fail-over.  Enable fail-over if master crashes
  • 66. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.66 A (master, crashed) B (slave) C (slave2) Global Transaction Identifiers Motivation: Seamless Fail-over.  Enable fail-over if master crashes fail-over
  • 67. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.67 A (master, crashed) B (slave) C (slave2) Global Transaction Identifiers Motivation: Seamless Fail-over.  Enable fail-over if master crashes fail-over
  • 68. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.68 Global Transaction Identifiers Global Transaction Identifiers.  Generate a global transaction identifier on commit: – server_uuid:number a61678ba­4889­4279­9e58­45ba840af334:1 – server_uuid identifies the server; globally unique – number is incremented by 1 for each transaction on this server
  • 69. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.69 Global Transaction Identifiers Global Transaction Identifiers.  Generate a global transaction identifier on commit: – server_uuid:number a61678ba­4889­4279­9e58­45ba840af334:1 – server_uuid identifies the server; globally unique – number is incremented by 1 for each transaction on this server  Write GTID to binary log GTID BEGIN ...Ev1 Ev2 COMMIT Transaction 1 GTID BEGIN ...Ev1 Ev2 COMMIT Transaction 2
  • 70. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.70 Global Transaction Identifiers Global Transaction Identifiers.  Generate a global transaction identifier on commit: – server_uuid:number a61678ba­4889­4279­9e58­45ba840af334:1 – server_uuid identifies the server; globally unique – number is incremented by 1 for each transaction on this server  Write GTID to binary log  Preserve GTID when slave re-executes transaction
  • 71. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.71 Global Transaction Identifiers New protocol.  New replication protocol: – Slave sends to master: range of identifiers of executed transactions to master – Master sends all other transactions to slave
  • 72. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.72 Global Transaction Identifiers New protocol.  New replication protocol: – Slave sends to master: range of identifiers of executed transactions to master – Master sends all other transactions to slave (slave) id1,trx1, id2,trx2 binlog (master) A id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog B
  • 73. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.73 Global Transaction Identifiers New protocol.  New replication protocol: – Slave sends to master: range of identifiers of executed transactions to master – Master sends all other transactions to slave (slave) id1,trx1, id2,trx2 (master) id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog A 2. id3, trx3, … 1. id1…id2 binlog B
  • 74. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.74 Global Transaction Identifiers New protocol used in failover. (slave) id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 B binlog A (crashed)(master) A id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog (slave) C id1,trx1, id2,trx2 binlog  Failover using new protocol
  • 75. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.75 Global Transaction Identifiers New protocol used in failover. A (crashed)(master) A id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog (slave) C id1,trx1, id2,trx2 binlog Crash! (slave) id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 B binlog  Failover using new protocol
  • 76. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.76 Global Transaction Identifiers New protocol used in failover.  Failover using new protocol A (crashed)(crashed) A id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog C id1,trx1, id2,trx2 binlog id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 B binlog
  • 77. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.77 Global Transaction Identifiers New protocol used in failover. (new master) id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 B binlog A (crashed)(crashed) A id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog (slave) id1,id2 id3, trx3,... C id1,trx1, id2,trx2 binlog  Failover using new protocol
  • 78. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.78 Global Transaction Identifiers Configure the master and slave to use Global Transaction Identifiers. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqladmin shutdown    ­­user=root ­­port=12000 ­­protocol=tcp Shutdown the master server. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqladmin shutdown    ­­user=root ­­port=12001 ­­protocol=tcp Shutdown the slave server. master> RESET MASTER; slave> STOP SLAVE; slave> RESET SLAVE; Clear non-GTID state from binary logs Clear non-GTID state from relay logs
  • 79. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.79 Global Transaction Identifiers Configure the master and slave to use Global Transaction Identifiers. [mysqld] (...)  gtid­mode=on enforce­gtid­constistency log­slave­updates configure master to use GTIDs [mysqld] (...)  gtid­mode=on enforce­gtid­constistency log­slave­updates log­bin=slave­bin configure slave to use GTIDs GTIDs ON only works if binary logging is ON. Master and slave must either both have GTIDs ON, or both have GTIDs OFF
  • 80. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.80 Global Transaction Identifiers Configure the master and slave to use Global Transaction Identifiers. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqld    ­­defaults­file=$HOME/hol9737/slave.cnf   ­­lc­messages­dir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­5.6/share   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/slave/ $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqld    ­­defaults­file=$HOME/hol9737/master.cnf   ­­lc­messages­dir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­5.6/share   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/master/ Start the master server. Start the slave server.
  • 81. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.81 Global Transaction Identifiers Configure the master and slave to use Global Transaction Identifiers. slave> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1,        MASTER_HOST = 'localhost',        MASTER_PORT = 12000,        MASTER_USER = 'rpl_user',        MASTER_PASSWORD = 'secret'; slave> START SLAVE; Start the slave threads. Tell the slave threads to use GTIDs for positioning.
  • 82. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.82 Global Transaction Identifiers Try it out. master> CREATE TABLE t3 (a INT); master> INSERT INTO t3 VALUES (1); master> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; mysql> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED                   | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | 8D4B6B85­09AE­11E2­BCA8­002318251294:1­2 | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ Create and populate a table. Create and populate a table. See what GTIDs were assigned to the transactions. slave> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; mysql> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED                   | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | 8D4B6B85­09AE­11E2­BCA8­002318251294:1­2 | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ The same GTIDs have been applied on the slave.
  • 83. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.83 Global Transaction Identifiers Try it out – GTIDs in master's binary log. master> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS IN 'master­bin.000002'; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name          | Pos | Event_type     | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                    | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | master­bin.000002 |   4 | Format_desc    |         1 |         120 | Server ver: 5.6.6­m9­log, Binlog ver: 4 | | master­bin.000002 | 120 | Previous_gtids |         1 |         151 |                                         | | master­bin.000002 | 151 | Gtid           |         1 |         199 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= '[uuid]:1'     | | master­bin.000002 | 199 | Query          |         1 |         296 | use `test`; CREATE TABLE t3 (a INT)     | | master­bin.000002 | 296 | Gtid           |         1 |         344 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= '[uuid]:2'     | | master­bin.000002 | 344 | Query          |         1 |         423 | BEGIN                                   | | master­bin.000002 | 423 | Query          |         1 |         522 | use `test`; INSERT INTO t3 VALUES (1)   | | master­bin.000002 | 522 | Xid            |         1 |         553 | COMMIT /* xid=17 */                     | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 8 rows in set (0,00 sec)
  • 84. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.84 Global Transaction Identifiers Try it out – GTIDs in slave's binary log. slave> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS IN 'slave­bin.000001'; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name         | Pos | Event_type     | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                    | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | slave­bin.000001 |   4 | Format_desc    |         1 |         120 | Server ver: 5.6.6­m9­log, Binlog ver: 4 | | slave­bin.000001 | 120 | Previous_gtids |         1 |         151 |                                         | | slave­bin.000001 | 151 | Gtid           |         1 |         199 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= '[uuid]:1'     | | slave­bin.000001 | 199 | Query          |         1 |         296 | use `test`; CREATE TABLE t3 (a INT)     | | slave­bin.000001 | 296 | Gtid           |         1 |         344 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= '[uuid]:2'     | | slave­bin.000001 | 344 | Query          |         1 |         423 | BEGIN                                   | | slave­bin.000001 | 423 | Query          |         1 |         522 | use `test`; INSERT INTO t3 VALUES (1)   | | slave­bin.000001 | 522 | Xid            |         1 |         553 | COMMIT /* xid=17 */                     | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 8 rows in set (0,00 sec)
  • 85. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.85 Global Transaction Identifiers Set Up A Second Slave. $ mysql­5.6/scripts/mysql_install_db   ­­basedir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­5.6   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/slave2 ­­user=`whoami` Create new Data Directory [mysqld] server­id=3 relay­log=slave2­relay­bin log­error=slave2.err port=12002 gtid­mode=on enforce­gtid­consistency log­slave­updates log­bin=slave­bin Create a defaults file called $HOME/hol9737/slave2.cnf
  • 86. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.86 Global Transaction Identifiers Set Up a Second Slave. $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysqld    ­­defaults­file=$HOME/hol9737/slave2.cnf   ­­lc­messages­dir=$HOME/hol9737/mysql­5.6/share   ­­datadir=$HOME/hol9737/slave2/ $ mysql­5.6/bin/mysql ­u root ­­port 12002 –protocol=tcp   ­­prompt='slave2> ' Start the slave2 server. Log in to the slave2 server.
  • 87. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.87 Global Transaction Identifiers Set Up a Second Slave. slave2> CHANGE MASTER TO   MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1,   MASTER_HOST = 'localhost',   MASTER_PORT = 12000,   MASTER_USER = 'rpl_user',   MASTER_PASSWORD = 'secret'; Point slave2 to the master server. Use the credentials we had granted before. slave2> START SLAVE; Start the slave threads. Setup slave2 to use GTIDs for positioning
  • 88. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.88 Global Transaction Identifiers Try out the second slave. slave2> SHOW BINLOG EVENTS IN 'slave­bin.000001'; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | Log_name          | Pos | Event_type     | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                    | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | slave2­bin.000001 |   4 | Format_desc    |         1 |         120 | Server ver: 5.6.6­m9­log, Binlog ver: 4 | | slave2­bin.000001 | 120 | Previous_gtids |         1 |         151 |                                         | | slave2­bin.000001 | 151 | Gtid           |         1 |         199 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= '[uuid]:1'     | | slave2­bin.000001 | 199 | Query          |         1 |         296 | use `test`; CREATE TABLE t3 (a INT)     | | slave2­bin.000001 | 296 | Gtid           |         1 |         344 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= '[uuid]:2'     | | slave2­bin.000001 | 344 | Query          |         1 |         423 | BEGIN                                   | | slave2­bin.000001 | 423 | Query          |         1 |         522 | use `test`; INSERT INTO t3 VALUES (1)   | | slave2­bin.000001 | 522 | Xid            |         1 |         553 | COMMIT /* xid=17 */                     | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­+­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 8 rows in set (0,00 sec) The new slave has replicated from the master
  • 89. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.89 Global Transaction Identifiers Recap: we want to simulate master crash and fail-over when one slave is behind. slave id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog A (crashed)master id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog slave2 id1,trx1 id2,trx2 binlog Crash!  The situation we want to handle
  • 90. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.90 Global Transaction Identifiers Recap: we want to simulate master crash and fail-over when one slave is behind. slave id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog A (crashed)master id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog slave2 id1,trx1 id2,trx2 binlog  The situation we want to handle failover
  • 91. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.91 Global Transaction Identifiers Recap: we want to simulate master crash and fail-over when one slave is behind. slave id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog A (crashed)master id1,trx1, id2,trx2, id3,trx3 binlog slave2 id1,trx1 id2,trx2 binlog  The situation we want to handle fail-over
  • 92. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.92 Global Transaction Identifiers Make slave2 fall behind. slave2> STOP SLAVE; Stop the slave threads to ensure that slave2 does not receive updates master> INSERT INTO t3 VALUES (99); master> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED;  slave> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; slave2> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | [uuid]:1­3             | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | [uuid]:1­3             | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | [uuid]:1­2             | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ Execute transaction on master to make slave2 fall behind.
  • 93. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.93 Global Transaction Identifiers Kill the master. $ pkill ­9 ­f mysqld.*master Kill the master server. master> SHOW TABLES; The master is dead ERROR 2013 (HY000): Lost connection to MySQL server during query
  • 94. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.94 Global Transaction Identifiers Failover: make 'slave' a master of 'slave2'. slave2> CHANGE MASTER TO   MASTER_HOST = 'localhost',   MASTER_PORT = 12001,   MASTER_USER = 'rpl_user',   MASTER_PASSWORD = 'secret'; Fail-over, i.e., switch to use 'slave' as the master. slave2> STOP SLAVE; Stop slave threads. slave2> START SLAVE; Start slave threads.
  • 95. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.95 Global Transaction Identifiers Fail-over worked by just pointing the slave to another server! slave2> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; mysql> SELECT @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED; +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED                   | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ | 8D4B6B85­09AE­11E2­BCA8­002318251294:1­3 | +­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­+ 'slave' is up to date now. The last transaction was copied from 'slave'slave2> SELECT * FROM test.t3; slave2> SELECT * FROM test.t3; +­­­­­­+ | a    | +­­­­­­+ |    1 | |   99 | +­­­­­­+ 'slave2' is up to date now. The last transaction was copied from 'slave'
  • 96. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.96 Summary
  • 97. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.97 Summary  This HOL showcased some MySQL Replication best practices  Several features from MySQL 5.6 that have direct user visibility were highlighted: – Multi-threaded slave – Global Transaction Identifiers – Optimized Row-based Replication – Transactional Replication Positions – Replication Event Checksums  In the end the attendee was able to get a glimpse of some of the new MySQL 5.6 features. – But there is much more to explore.
  • 98. Copyright © 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Insert Information Protection Policy Classification from Slide 1298