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Obesity prevention program

Obesity prevention program



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    Childhoodobesity1 Childhoodobesity1 Presentation Transcript

    • What is considered obese?
      • Obesity is defined an excessive accumulation of body fat
      • Obesity is present when total body weight is more than 25% fat in boys and more than 32% fat in girls.
      • Childhood Obesity is defined as a weight for height in excess of 120% of the ideal.
      • Growth Charts BMI( Body Mass Index)
      • Greater than 95% for infants and children on growth charts
      • 5%-25% of children and teenagers in US
      • VARIES WITH ETHNIC GROUP 5%-7% of Black and white children
      • 12% of Hispanic boys
      • 19% of Hispanic girls (Office of Maternal and Child Health, (1989)
      • 1. FAMILY- genetic predisposition. The risk of becoming obese is greatest among children who have two obese parents.
      • 2. Low- energy EXPENDITURE. Obesity is greater among children and adolescents who frequently watch TV. Only 1/3 of elementary children have daily physical education, and fewer than 1/5 have extracurricular physical activity programs at schools.
      • 3. Heredity- Infants born to overweight mothers have been found to be less active and to gain more weight.
    • Risk Factors
      • Diet- regular consumption of high calorie foods, such as fast foods, vending machine snacks and baked goods.
      • Inactivity.- Sedentary kids are more likely to gain weight because they don’t burn calorie through physical activity.
      • Genetics- If your child comes from a family of overweight people, the child may be genetically predisposed to put on excess weight, where high- calorie food is always available.
    • Risk Factors continued
      • Psychological factors. – Some children overeat to cope with problems or deal with emotions, such as stress or boredom.
      • Family factors- Parents are responsible for putting healthy foods in the kitchen at home and leaving unhealthy foods in the store. Parents need to control access to unhealthy foods.
      • Socio- economic factors- Children from low income backgrounds are at greater risk of becoming obese. Poverty and obesity go hand in hand .
    • When to seek medical advice
      • Not all children carrying extra pounds are overweight or obese. Some children have larger than average body frames.
      • If as a parent you are worried then talk to your doctor or health care provider. He or she can provide a complete weight assessment, your family’s weight for height history, and where your child lands on the growth charts
      • Determine if your child’s weight is in an unhealthy range.
    • Tests and Diagnosis
      • Doctor calculates your child’s body mass index (BMI)
      • And determines where it falls on the national BMI- for age growth chart. The BMI indicates if your child is overweight for his or her age and height.
      • Cutoff points on these growth charts, established by CDC - BMI for age between 85 th and 94 th percentiles
      • Overweight. BMI for age 95 th percentile or above- obesity
    • Diagnosis continued
      • Doctor evaluates your family’s history of obesity and weight related health problems.
      • Your child’s eating habits and calorie intake.
      • Your child’s activity level
      • Other health conditions your child may have.
    • Medical Complications
      • Type 2 Diabetes
      • Metabolic syndrome
      • High blood pressure
      • Asthma and respiratory problems
      • Sleep disorders
      • Liver disease
      • Early puberty or menarche
      • Eating disorders
      • Skin infections
    • Social and Emotional Fallout
      • Low self-esteem and bullying. Increased risk of depression
      • Behavior and learning problems. Overweight children tend to have more anxiety and poorer social skills than normal- weight children. Stress and anxiety can interfere with learning.
      • Depression.- Social isolation and low self-esteem create overwhelming feelings of hopelessness in some overweight children.
    • Treatment and Drugs
      • Based on your child’s age and if he or she has other medical conditions
      • Changes in child’s diet and level of physical activity.
      • Treatment may include medications or weight loss surgery.
      • Children under age 7 who have no other health concerns, the goal of treatment may be weight maintence rather than weight loss
      • Weight loss is typically recommended for children over age 7 or younger who have related health concerns.
    • Weight Loss
      • Should be slow and steady, anywhere from 1 pound a week to 1 pound a month, depending on your child’s situation.
      • Methods -1. Child needs to eat healthy diet and increase his or her physical activity. Parents need to be committed to helping your child make healthy diet changes.
      • Healthy eating. Parents are the ones who buy food, cook, the food and decide where the food is eaten.
    • Healthy Eating
      • When buying groceries choose fruits and vegetables over convenience foods high in sugar and fat. Always have healthy snacks available. Never use food as a reward or punishment
      • Limit sweetened beverages, including fruit juices. These drinks provide little nutritional value and make your child feel full to eat healthier foods.
      • Sit down together for family meals. Discourage eating in front of screen. This leads to fast eating and lowered awareness of how much you're eating.
    • Healthy Eating continued
      • Limit the number of times you eat out, especially at fast- food restaurants. Many of the menu options are high in fat and calories.
      • Fasting or extreme caloric restriction is not advisable for children. Balanced diets with moderate caloric restriction, especially reduced dietary fat, used successfully in treating obesity.
      • Nutrition education
      • Diet management with exercise
      • Behavior modification, such as self- monitoring
    • Behavior Modifications
      • Record food intake and physical activity
      • Slowing the rate of eating.
      • Limiting the time and place of eating
      • Using rewards and incentives for desirable behaviors.
      • Problem- solving training involved identifying possible weight control problems.
    • Physical activity
      • Limit recreational screen time to fewer than two hours a day. Other sedentary activities also should be limited.
      • Emphasize activity, not exercise. Doesn’t have to be structured exercise program. Free-play activities are encouraged.
      • Find activities your child likes to do, such as swimming, biking, dancing, cheerleading, and sports.
      • If you want an active child, be active yourself. Vary the activities, and get involved with your children.
    • Medications
      • Drugs that can be used for adolescents
      • Merida(sibutramine) Approved for adolescents older than 16, makes the body feel fuller more quickly
      • Xenical (Orlistat) approved for adolescents older than 12 prevents the absorption of fat in the intestines.
      • Alli- nonprescription approved by FDA similar to Orlistat but lower in strength. Not approved for children or teenagers under age 18.
    • Weight loss surgery
      • Safe and effective option for severely obese adolescents who have been unable to lose weight using conventional methods.
      • Potential risks and long-term complications. Long-term effects of weight loss surgery on a child’s future growth and development are unknown.
      • Uncommon in adolescents, but may be considered if child’s weight poses greater health threat than do the risks of surgery.
      • No guarantee that your child loses all excess weight.
    • Coping and Support for Obesity
      • Parents play a crucial role in helping children who are obese.
      • Build your child’s self –esteem. Talk to your kids directly, openly, and without being critical or judgmental.
      • Praise child’s efforts. Celebrate small incremental changes, but don’t reward with food.
      • Talk to child about his or her feelings Help child find ways to deal with emotions that don’t involve eating.
      • Help your child focus on positive goals
    • Prevention
      • Schedule yearly well-child visits
      • SET A GOOD EXAMPLE- Eat healthy foods and exercise regularly to maintain your weight.
      • Avoid food related power struggles with your child.
      • Emphasize the positive, such as healthy lifestyle, the benefits of exercise
      • BE PATIENT
    • Prevention cont.
      • Obesity is easier to prevent than treat.
      • Prevention focuses in large on parent education
      • Infancy- Parent education should center on promotion of breastfeeding, recognition of signals of satiety, and delayed introduction of solid foods.
      • Early childhood, education should include proper nutrition, selection of low-fat snacks, good exercise/activity habits, and monitoring of TV viewing
      • Where hereditary factors are involved, parent education should be on building self-esteem.