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Obesity prevention program

Obesity prevention program

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  • 2. What is considered obese?
    • Obesity is defined an excessive accumulation of body fat
    • Obesity is present when total body weight is more than 25% fat in boys and more than 32% fat in girls.
    • Childhood Obesity is defined as a weight for height in excess of 120% of the ideal.
    • Growth Charts BMI( Body Mass Index)
    • Greater than 95% for infants and children on growth charts
    • 5%-25% of children and teenagers in US
    • VARIES WITH ETHNIC GROUP 5%-7% of Black and white children
    • 12% of Hispanic boys
    • 19% of Hispanic girls (Office of Maternal and Child Health, (1989)
    • 1. FAMILY- genetic predisposition. The risk of becoming obese is greatest among children who have two obese parents.
    • 2. Low- energy EXPENDITURE. Obesity is greater among children and adolescents who frequently watch TV. Only 1/3 of elementary children have daily physical education, and fewer than 1/5 have extracurricular physical activity programs at schools.
    • 3. Heredity- Infants born to overweight mothers have been found to be less active and to gain more weight.
  • 5. Risk Factors
    • Diet- regular consumption of high calorie foods, such as fast foods, vending machine snacks and baked goods.
    • Inactivity.- Sedentary kids are more likely to gain weight because they don’t burn calorie through physical activity.
    • Genetics- If your child comes from a family of overweight people, the child may be genetically predisposed to put on excess weight, where high- calorie food is always available.
  • 6. Risk Factors continued
    • Psychological factors. – Some children overeat to cope with problems or deal with emotions, such as stress or boredom.
    • Family factors- Parents are responsible for putting healthy foods in the kitchen at home and leaving unhealthy foods in the store. Parents need to control access to unhealthy foods.
    • Socio- economic factors- Children from low income backgrounds are at greater risk of becoming obese. Poverty and obesity go hand in hand .
  • 7. When to seek medical advice
    • Not all children carrying extra pounds are overweight or obese. Some children have larger than average body frames.
    • If as a parent you are worried then talk to your doctor or health care provider. He or she can provide a complete weight assessment, your family’s weight for height history, and where your child lands on the growth charts
    • Determine if your child’s weight is in an unhealthy range.
  • 8. Tests and Diagnosis
    • Doctor calculates your child’s body mass index (BMI)
    • And determines where it falls on the national BMI- for age growth chart. The BMI indicates if your child is overweight for his or her age and height.
    • Cutoff points on these growth charts, established by CDC - BMI for age between 85 th and 94 th percentiles
    • Overweight. BMI for age 95 th percentile or above- obesity
  • 9. Diagnosis continued
    • Doctor evaluates your family’s history of obesity and weight related health problems.
    • Your child’s eating habits and calorie intake.
    • Your child’s activity level
    • Other health conditions your child may have.
  • 10. Medical Complications
    • Type 2 Diabetes
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • High blood pressure
    • Asthma and respiratory problems
    • Sleep disorders
    • Liver disease
    • Early puberty or menarche
    • Eating disorders
    • Skin infections
  • 11. Social and Emotional Fallout
    • Low self-esteem and bullying. Increased risk of depression
    • Behavior and learning problems. Overweight children tend to have more anxiety and poorer social skills than normal- weight children. Stress and anxiety can interfere with learning.
    • Depression.- Social isolation and low self-esteem create overwhelming feelings of hopelessness in some overweight children.
  • 12. Treatment and Drugs
    • Based on your child’s age and if he or she has other medical conditions
    • Changes in child’s diet and level of physical activity.
    • Treatment may include medications or weight loss surgery.
    • Children under age 7 who have no other health concerns, the goal of treatment may be weight maintence rather than weight loss
    • Weight loss is typically recommended for children over age 7 or younger who have related health concerns.
  • 13. Weight Loss
    • Should be slow and steady, anywhere from 1 pound a week to 1 pound a month, depending on your child’s situation.
    • Methods -1. Child needs to eat healthy diet and increase his or her physical activity. Parents need to be committed to helping your child make healthy diet changes.
    • Healthy eating. Parents are the ones who buy food, cook, the food and decide where the food is eaten.
  • 14. Healthy Eating
    • When buying groceries choose fruits and vegetables over convenience foods high in sugar and fat. Always have healthy snacks available. Never use food as a reward or punishment
    • Limit sweetened beverages, including fruit juices. These drinks provide little nutritional value and make your child feel full to eat healthier foods.
    • Sit down together for family meals. Discourage eating in front of screen. This leads to fast eating and lowered awareness of how much you're eating.
  • 15. Healthy Eating continued
    • Limit the number of times you eat out, especially at fast- food restaurants. Many of the menu options are high in fat and calories.
    • Fasting or extreme caloric restriction is not advisable for children. Balanced diets with moderate caloric restriction, especially reduced dietary fat, used successfully in treating obesity.
    • Nutrition education
    • Diet management with exercise
    • Behavior modification, such as self- monitoring
  • 16. Behavior Modifications
    • Record food intake and physical activity
    • Slowing the rate of eating.
    • Limiting the time and place of eating
    • Using rewards and incentives for desirable behaviors.
    • Problem- solving training involved identifying possible weight control problems.
  • 17. Physical activity
    • Limit recreational screen time to fewer than two hours a day. Other sedentary activities also should be limited.
    • Emphasize activity, not exercise. Doesn’t have to be structured exercise program. Free-play activities are encouraged.
    • Find activities your child likes to do, such as swimming, biking, dancing, cheerleading, and sports.
    • If you want an active child, be active yourself. Vary the activities, and get involved with your children.
  • 18. Medications
    • Drugs that can be used for adolescents
    • Merida(sibutramine) Approved for adolescents older than 16, makes the body feel fuller more quickly
    • Xenical (Orlistat) approved for adolescents older than 12 prevents the absorption of fat in the intestines.
    • Alli- nonprescription approved by FDA similar to Orlistat but lower in strength. Not approved for children or teenagers under age 18.
  • 19. Weight loss surgery
    • Safe and effective option for severely obese adolescents who have been unable to lose weight using conventional methods.
    • Potential risks and long-term complications. Long-term effects of weight loss surgery on a child’s future growth and development are unknown.
    • Uncommon in adolescents, but may be considered if child’s weight poses greater health threat than do the risks of surgery.
    • No guarantee that your child loses all excess weight.
  • 20. Coping and Support for Obesity
    • Parents play a crucial role in helping children who are obese.
    • Build your child’s self –esteem. Talk to your kids directly, openly, and without being critical or judgmental.
    • Praise child’s efforts. Celebrate small incremental changes, but don’t reward with food.
    • Talk to child about his or her feelings Help child find ways to deal with emotions that don’t involve eating.
    • Help your child focus on positive goals
  • 21. Prevention
    • Schedule yearly well-child visits
    • SET A GOOD EXAMPLE- Eat healthy foods and exercise regularly to maintain your weight.
    • Avoid food related power struggles with your child.
    • Emphasize the positive, such as healthy lifestyle, the benefits of exercise
  • 22. Prevention cont.
    • Obesity is easier to prevent than treat.
    • Prevention focuses in large on parent education
    • Infancy- Parent education should center on promotion of breastfeeding, recognition of signals of satiety, and delayed introduction of solid foods.
    • Early childhood, education should include proper nutrition, selection of low-fat snacks, good exercise/activity habits, and monitoring of TV viewing
    • Where hereditary factors are involved, parent education should be on building self-esteem.