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Memory

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Transcript

  • 1. Memory
  • 2. Memory
    • the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information
    • 3 Basic Processes:
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retrieval
  • 3. Three-System Memory Theory
    • Sensory memory
      • the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant
      • types are dependent on the source of sensory information (iconic memory, echoic memory)
      • can store information for only a very short time, but its precision is high
      • can be destroyed or replaced with a new one
  • 4.
    • Short - term memory
      • memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds
    • Chunk
      • a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory
      • can be individual letters or numbers, or may consist of larger categories such as words or meaningful units
  • 5.
    • P B S F O X C N N A B C C B S M T V N B C
  • 6.
    • PBS FOX CNN ABC
    • CBS MTV NBC
  • 7. Rehearsal
    • the repetition of information that has entered short-term memory
    • information is maintained in the short-term memory or may transfer into long-term memory
    • Elaborative rehearsal
    • occurs when information is considered and organized in some fashion
    • expanding, linking to another memory, turning to image, transforming to some other way
    • Mnemonics
    • formal techniques for organizing information in a way that makes it more likely to be remembered
  • 8. Working Memory
    • Some theorists view short - term memory as a working memory, in which information is retrieved and manipulated. In this view, it is a central executive processor involved in reasoning and decision-making
    • a set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information
      • 3 systems
      • visual store (visual and spatial information)
      • verbal store (speech, words, numbers)
      • episodic buffer (episodes or events)
    • It uses significant amount of cognitive resources during its operation. In turn, it makes us less aware of our surrounding.
  • 9.
    • Long - term memory
      • memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve
    • Serial position effect
    • the ability to recall information in a list depends on where in the list an item appears
    • primacy effect
    • items presented early in the list are remembered better
    • recency effect
    • items presented late in a list are remembered best
  • 10. Memory Modules
    • Declarative memory
    • memory for factual information
    • Semantic memory
      • for general knowledge and facts about the world as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used infer other facts
    • Episodic memory
      • memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context
    • Procedural memory
    • memory for skills and habits
  • 11. Semantic Networks
    • mental representations of clusters of interconnected information
    • Spreading activation
    • activating one memory triggers the activation of related memories
  • 12. Neuroscience of memory
    • Hippocampus
    • aids in the initial encoding of information
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • where information is stored
    • Amygdala
    • involved with memories involving emotion
  • 13. Recalling Long-Term Memory
    • Tip -of-the-tongue phenomenon
    • the inability to recall information that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory
    • Retrieval Cue
    • is a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is in long-term memory
  • 14.
    • Recall
    • memory task in which specific information must be retrieved
    • Recognition
    • memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives
  • 15.
    • What are the names of the seven dwarves in the Disney Movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs?
    • Which of the following are the names of the seven dwarves in the Disney Movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs?
    • Goofy Bashful
    • Sleepy Sneezy
    • Smarty Happy
    • Scaredy Doc
    • Dopey Crazy
    • Wheezy Donald
  • 16. Levels-of-processing Theory
    • emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed
    • the amount of information processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the information is ultimately remembered
      • information is processed in physical and sensory aspects
      • translated to meaningful units
      • analyzed in terms of meaning (wider context, associations)
    • the deeper the initial level of processing of information is, the longer the information will be retained
  • 17. Forms of Memory
    • Explicit memory
    • intentional or conscious recollection of information
    • Implicit memory
    • memories of which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior
      • unclear dislike for an acquaintance
      • prejudice and discrimination
  • 18.
    • Priming
    • a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept (prime) later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept
    • Name the moon of Mars.
    • _ _ obos
  • 19. Flash bulb Memories
    • memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event
    • memories that are exceptional are more easily retrieved (although not necessarily accurate) than are those relating to events that are commonplace
    • romantic experience, witnessing car accident, first airplane flight
  • 20.
    • Source amnesia
    • when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it before
  • 21. Constructive Processes
    • processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events
    • experiences, guesses, inferences affect the memory we produce when we retrieve information
    • Schemas
    • organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled
    • are based not only on the specific material to which people are exposed, but also on their understanding of the situation, their expectations, and awareness of motivations of others
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • A basic principle is that some information gets lost during each process. You notice only a small part the world that confronts you; you encode only a small part of what you notice; and you retrieve only part of what was previously stored in your memory.
  • 24. Memory in the Courtroom
    • eyewitness on trial
      • wordings of questions
      • weapons
      • Age
    • repressed memories - recollections of events that are initially shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious
    • false memory - inaccurate or even wholly false
      • experience or imagination
  • 25. Autobiographical Memory
    • incompatible with the way in which we currently see ourselves
    • particular periods of life are remembered more easily than others
  • 26. Why We Forget
    • Failure of encoding
    • Decay - loss of information in memory because of nonuse
    • Interference - the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information
    • Cue-dependent forgetting - forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to revive information that is in memory
  • 27. The Before and After of Forgetting
    • Proactive interference
      • interference in which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material
    • Retroactive interference
      • interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material
  • 28. Memory Dysfunctions
    • Alzheimer’s disease
    • an illness characterized in part by severe memory problems
    • Amnesia
    • memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties
    • retrograde amnesia
    • in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event
    • anterograde amnesia
    • in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury
  • 29. Improving Memory
    • keyword
    • encoding specificity
    • organization cues
    • effective note taking
    • practice and rehearse
    • don’t believe claims about drugs that improve memory