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Teaching skills workshop_newcastle_july_2011

Teaching skills workshop_newcastle_july_2011



Slides used at teaching skills for medical and dental teachers, July 2011, Newcastle University.

Slides used at teaching skills for medical and dental teachers, July 2011, Newcastle University.



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  • Welcome, thanks for coming, housekeeping
  • In traditional fashion let’s go round the room, and say who we are, where we are from and what you are hoping to get out of the day.
  • How many of us are pirates? We all know people who take materials they find on the internet and use them in their learning and teaching resources…. Managing risk and encouraging good practice Plagiarism well understood Refencing and citation = but that what about acknowledging sources in teaching materials? Where did that image com from? Whose is it? What are the barriers to adopting good practice in learning and teaching? And who is responsible for ensuring we do the best we can? Today we are going to examine why we should stop doing that, and look at some tools to help us change our practice, and start doing things differently from today.
  • The background is a huge recent investment in the UK in Open Educational Resources. A one year project we were involved in was one of 29 in the HEFCE (www.hefce.ac.uk) funded UK OER pilot programme which ran March 2009 – March 2010 The projects were administered by the Joint Information Systems Committee (www.jisc.ac.uk)and the Higher Education Academy (www.heacademy.ac.uk). Phase 2 of OER has recently been announced, with an extra 4 millions being committed in a climate of austerity, thus representing a significant policy movement in favour of OERs in the UK.
  • What are we talking about? This is my favourite definition – there are a lot of definitions
  • There is emerging evidence that 50% of staff time/resources on preparation for teaching can be saved by engaging with OER This rerent blog post sets out come compelling evidence for students using OER and that an OER approach can save time and money. The OU has also published work which indicates that student engage with OER prior to enrolling on the course, and only enrol when they know they can pass – so OER can improve retention rates at University.
  • New teachers taking over courses can save time if they know they can reuse the materials created by their predecessor….
  • Of course many HEIs will already have some kind of institutional repository, but we had outlined an API toolkit in our original plan and as APIs to many web 2.0 services are so readily available nowadays, and because we had recently recruited a great developer, we decided to have a go at a mashup of a number of APIs. The idea was to be able to make the process of putting your stuff out there, and enabling people to find it, as easy as possible, using only one form and one one interface….. James has a proof of concept using Picasa, YouTube, Delicious and Twitter working so far. Some other services are proving a bit more tricky because of the time it take to process the files when uploading them – e.g. Slideshare but we are still working on it. We think its going to be useful for the Subject Centre anyway, and know that the CORE materials project in Liverpool has been doing something similar..
  • There is definitely an appetite for change There are more and more tools to help make sharing openly easier and easier. Creative Commons licensed content is awesome, but attributing it properly can be difficult and confusing. The first rule for re-using openly licensed content is that you have to properly attribute the creator. There are specific requirements for what needs to go into that attribution, but those requirements can be confusing and hard to find. The solution: A simple tool everyone can use to do the right thing with the click of a button. That’s why we’re building Open Attribute, a suite of tools that makes it ridiculously simple for anyone to copy and paste the correct attribution for any CC licensed work. These tools will query the metadata around a CC-licensed object and produce a properly formatted attribution that users can copy and paste wherever they need to.
  • IPR is made up of Patents, Trade marks, Designs, and Copyright. This presentation focuses on Copyright as the most key IPR relating to OER. The others protect designs, functionality and appearances.
  • Copyright is typically split into OWNERSHIP and LICENCE. Anything which is EXPRESSED (drawn, written, documented) is automatically covered by copyright, whether the author wants it or not. Exceptions include where employees have signed over their rights to their employer. If you tell your friend about an idea that you have had in the pub, and they draw an image of it for you, then they will own the copyright.
  • Economic rights include the rights to financially exploit the creation, and moral rights include the right to have the author ’s name attributed on copies. Authors can (explicitly) waive, assign (as if to a publisher), licence or sell the ownership of their works.
  • Essentially if you re-use materials which are copyright to others then this counts as an INFRINGEMENT and the copyright holder may take you to court. If you re-use something that someone else has breached the copyright of then this is secondary infringement and is just as bad as the original offence. People often download un-attributed materials from the Internet thinking that they are safe to re-use; they are not.
  • There are occasions when you can copy copyright works, for example, if the copyright has expired, if it constitutes ‘fair dealing’, the work is covered by a licence or the author has given their permission (if you have permission then always cite the author and state ‘used with permission’).
  • To obtain permission then contact the author or their publisher (owner of the copyright).
  • Fair dealing does allow some rights to copy copyright works for specific purposes, however this is NOT an excuse for infringing another person ’s copyright. If in doubt, use materials which are licenced or ask for permission.
  • A licence is simply a legal statement saying what you can and cannot do with the copyright works. Some organisations (such as the Copyright Licencing Agency) use licencing schemes (standard legal clauses) which are well recognised. This makes it easier for owners to share, for users to understand the rules of use, and for both parties to observe protocol. Creative Commons provides some well-recognised licencing schemes.
  • One of the defining characteristics of OERs is that educational materials which have an open licence attached to them. There are several forms of open licence, of which Creative Commons is one. Probably the best known. Open educational resources are inextricably bound up with intellectual property issues, as most educational content is protected under conventional copyright terms that must be honored. Creative Commons , an organisation that provides ready-made licensing agreements that are less restrictive than the "all rights reserved" terms of standard international copyright , is a "critical infrastructure service for the OER movement.
  • Such as ‘by’ attribution only (meaning that others have to acknowledge you as the original author); non-commercial to prevent others from making money out of your copyright.
  • One of the conditions of the funding was that we release everything under CC licenses. One of the main characteristics of an Open Educational Resource, is that it has an open license attached to it. These work in addition to existing copyright, which is made up of 2 parts: ownership and licensing. The copyright part deals with ownership – Creative Commons deals with the licensing part, making explicit to users which they can do with the resource and under what circumstances. You always retain IPR. Creative Commons is the licensing regime we were required to apply, but its not the only one. There are others. CC has a range of licenses with varying degrees of which you are allowed to do, and whether or not you can make commercial use of materials. The simplest is attritbution only, the most restrictive is attribution-noncommerical-noderivatives. There are very good reasons you may choose that license – such as if you have material containing data which would be sensitive out of that particular context. We also had to tag everything with ukoer, and deposit materials or metadata into Jorum Open, the national repository at www.jorum.ac.uk Thinking about licensing is something we should be thinking about with all of our resources whether they are going into an open repository or not. If they are being uploaded into a VLE, or if you are distributing them by email, it is likely they are being reshared via email, social networking etc.Making the use of the material and understanding what can and can ’t be done with a resource is therefore essential to all of us. CC makes it easy.
  • Thanks for listening….. NOTES Chair of TEL strategy development group at DH is Dr Stuart Charney – elearning simulation and other tel systems. National eLearning Portal Kate Lomax: www.elearning.nhs.uk Forthcoming workshops on copyright and elearning – nb contact kate and see if collaboration useful Is the search on the readiness toolkit available to build services on top of? E.g does it have RSS? Elearning developers network – consent commons? CoP. Resources loads of useful stuff there. NLMS Jo Sidebottom
  • Think of job applications – should we be testing all new staff? IT and clerical staff are tested for their ability to preform the tasks required of their job. Should we make academics carry out an information retrieval exercise? Should we make them do a blog post or Tweet something? Networking and collaboration are essential to teaching, research and personal development. Is it acceptable to push social media to one side? Thinking about UKOER – the most successful projects seem to be the ones who engage fully with social media…. Do we tacitly accept that when an applicant says they use social media, that they actually do? As a personal tutor, do I eally need to know HOW to change privacy settings on Facebook? Whose job is it? Are these basic things part of, underpinning information literacy?
  • Is this useful? Will you use these tricks? You can filter all Google content by usage rights
  • While copyright is an automatic right, data protection is better described as a set of principles. Arising from the perspective of patient consent (patient data is classed as ‘sensitive’ under the DPAct1998) for patient materials used in teaching, we argue for additional tools to support consent from people. When creating open educational resources copyright doesn’t quite go far enough to recognise the rights of people who are represented to be respected (whether they have copyright or not). Representation could be a photograph, voice or video recording, data set or patient story. For example, if a person has agreed for their photograph to appear in your open educational resources (they are a student, a member of staff, an actor, etc.), and they pass away, what do you do if their family asks you to take down the OER? (What you are legally required to do may be different to what you would choose to do, in principle). Therefore you are essentially operating ‘policies’.
  • JW Then SH Here is the problem. OERs move across clinical and academic settings. The same person might be making and delivering materials. They may be, or the recordings used within them are collected by clinicians under rigorous guidance both at a national (GMC) level and a local trust of health authority level. When these materials are then delivered in an educational event in an academic setting things can go awry. This slide illustrates one of the things that is special to our project and other healthcare projects: Where we have clinicians who are paid by the NHS, who create materials in clinical settings, but deliver them in academic settings under an honorary contract with the university but who are not paid by that university Where then does risk and responsibility lie? Enlarging on this a bit further, what we have on the left is a very clear process for taking cosent for using recordings within a clinical setting for treatment, research and ‘ local ’ education. On the right however, we then wish to re-use images and incorporate them into VLEs, share materials, etc. But no evidence of consent, we don ’ t have access to the patient record. And so the location of risk is unclear. What we do know is that both the clinical organisation and the academic organisation both want to do what is right. It is not clear where the responsibilities of the clinical setting end – what happens once images left their patch? On the other side, universities are beginning to be aware of their responsibilities but have no mechanisms to handle them But all want to do the right thing. Mobilty of image around the world and the fact that resources are being shared whether they were intended to be shared or not Universties are not aware of their responsibilities in this setting Doctors want to do it properly Universities want to do it properly No mechanism is currently in place to support them doing that
  • The best way to safeguard yourself and your organisation against copyright infringement is to develop appropriate policies, advertise the policy clearly, train everyone in how to implement it, and follow it. For example, if you have a policy which says that ‘this material has been produced to the highest possible ethical standards and anyone with any concerns should contact xxx in writing after which the offending material will be removed within 10 working days pending investigation’. Then if someone contacts you, do what your policy says. Alternatively, you could just increase your annual insurance premiums to give you greater liability insurance in case of a breach (more on risk in a moment). Together with policies you could also use disclaimers: ‘the material provided on this site has been checked according to xxx however no warranties express or implied…’
  • A cross the UK staff and students are already uploading teaching and other materials to the Internet/web, especially to social networking sites. Failure to follow best practice doesn ’ t mean that you can ’ t do it, it just means that you need more insurance. If you have deep pockets and have little conscience you can put materials up, and wait for lawyers to get in touch. The ‘ best practice compliance ’ table developed in the OOER project was developed to assist institutions to understand how their policies measured up, in order to safeguard themselves from litigation brought against them, and also to establish their own rights in relation to their own copyrights. It is intended as a guide only and legal advice should be sought by those wishing to adopt good practice risk-management policies.
  • These are only a few of the many recommendations, but they are the ones which we want to highlight to you . We really need institutions to use CC licences on their works, to clarify exactly who owns what and how it may be used. Institutions frightened of giving away the ‘crown jewels’ may be perfectly happy with releasing up to 75% of a module or programme (which may still be useful to others). To protect ourselves and our colleagues into the future we need sophisticated searching (reputation based materials) and take down policies. We would like to know that staff can be rewarded for getting involved in this, as contributors and users of other people’s resources. We also had many recommendations for JorumOpen (the national repository) who we were working with to implement as many as we can.
  • A human consent version of a Creative Commons licence would enable much more sophisticated recognition of the role and rights of people (whether they are the ‘creators’ or not) to be treated fairly and with respect. We need new technologies to support the implementation of Consent Commons – such as the ability to inform users that a resource has been updated or ‘taken down’.
  • SH We would like to propose a consent commons to work alongside or with creative commons as a way of demonstrating due diligence in dealing with issues of consent and using patient data sensitively in learning and teaching with specific reference to being able to share.
  • JW The OOER project recommended just getting consent – and then we are clear. SH We feel this is something we should all be doing anyway – in the same way we collect and store consent for treatment and research. And in the same way as we reference in publications. It should be as easy and as embedded in practice as that. Its about good practice which is easy and practical to implement. It ’s about covering our backs and trying to think further down the line – making the consent status clear for other users who may use this recording in a different way. What a consent license could do is make the patients rights clear alongside the owner ’s rights.
  • Just as we expect students and junior staff to model professional behaviours in real life, we need them to do the same in the digital environment.
  • LliDA report
  • In one respect Its about assessing and managing risk – what are the threats?
  • This was the wording from a recent JISC digital literacies call
  • No point in blocking social networking sites, or in discouraging natural behaviours – students have to be students as the GMC itself points out Which presents us with somewhat of a dichotomy
  • Base level – understanding Then can move on to developing skills and competences Then enabling the individual to act professionally But information literacy often the only place it is formally addressed, and then siloed into library skills – and as we heard yesterday, students seem unaware of whay they are learning these skills
  • This raises some interesting points – IS there in fact a difference? We had an interesting debate on Twitter a couple of weeks ago which led to a longer Skype discussion between me, Natalie Lafferty at Dundee and AnneMarie Cunningham at Cardiff, who argued that Uni and NHS policies and procedures can already cope with this, which they may very well be able to do, but enacting good practice and offering guidance with the addition of permanence is challenging.
  • A TeachMeet is an organised (but informal) meeting (in the style of an unconference) for teachers to share good practice, practical innovations and personal insights in teaching with technology. Participants volunteer to demonstrate good practice they've delivered over the past year, or discuss a product that enhances classroom practice. TeachMeet events are open to all and do not charge an entry fee. Cake helps (for librarians anyway)
  • Would it be appropriate to start to think about a 23 things for ethics in social media?
  • 3 scenarios Full live cross search – fits in with ACErep project in Leeds Metadata exchange, search from entry website, only have to negotiate N3 gateway if need to download materials. Content package exchange – have everything in Jorum accessible from eLearning Repository and vice versa. No need to negotiate gateway.
  • Malcolm Teague from the NHS-HE forum, is helping us with questions of access, authentication and authorisation across N3 and JANET.
  • Managing risk and encouraging good practice Plagiarism well understood Refencing and citation = but that what about acknowledging sources in teaching materials? Where did that image com from? Whose is it? What are the barriers to adopting good practice in learning and teaching? And who is responsible for ensuring we do the best we can?
  • On the website you can find reports, the toolkit – version 3 will be significantly better in terms of the single interface, and available in November 2010. You can find information about OER2, PORSCHE and ACTOR projects, and find an increasing number of case studies – about 10 so far, though we have done about 60. Do get in touch with us and follow us on Twitter…..

Teaching skills workshop_newcastle_july_2011 Teaching skills workshop_newcastle_july_2011 Presentation Transcript