Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Mandela himself was qualified in law in 1942. his rise to become one of the world’s most prominent advocates of peace and racial harmony for all mankind was a rocky road. He joined the African National Congress in 1944. In 1947 Mandela was elected as the secretary of the African National Congress Youth League. The first black law firm was opened in 1952 by Mandela and Tambo. Soon after, Nelson became president of Transvaal ANC. Nelson Mandela then created and implemented the M-Plan stating that the ANC could operate from underground cells in order to prevent it being detected. On 5th December 1956 the South African government arrested 155 including the president of the ANC, Chief Albert Luthuli and Nelson Mandela people as a result of the Freedom Charter. On 29th March 1961 his trial came to an end and he was released. He then went underground to evade arrests and bans; he was dubbed “The Black Pimpernel”. In June of 1961 Mandela proposed his idea of a military unit to the ANC committee; he was given the go ahead to lead this action.
The ANC and the PAC set up military wings and Mandela headed the Umkhonte we Sizwe with the aim of targeting state buildings and not injuring people. Mandela was arrested in 1962 and sentenced to five years' imprisonment with hard labour On June 12, 1964, eight of the accused, including Mandela, were sentenced to life imprisonment. From 1964 to 1982, In 1994, Mandela became the president of South Africa. He has also worked hard to fight the AIDS epidemic in his country and in other parts of Africa. Mandela is a man who stood firm and took his country from the extremes of apartheid through to democracy. For this he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1993). Nelson Mandela has received more than 250 awards that are in every way honorable. The Nelson Mandela Children's fund supports children in South Africa with the aim to change the way society treats its children and youth. The Nelson Mandela stadium in Port Elizabeths, South Africa seats 46,500 and has been built in anticipation of the 2010 FIFA world cup. Since 2003 Mandela has supported the 46664 concerts to support HIV/AIDS victims and research. It is little wonder that July 18 (his birthday) has been named as 'Mandela Day'.
Young Reagan came to Hollywood in 1937 and three years later played George Gipp in his most acclaimed film, Knute Rockne — All American.
The Republican Party was impressed by his political views and charisma, and Reagan, who had not held public office before, was elected governor of California in 1966 with their backing
Reagan was the only California governor to become president of the United States.
Reagan obtained legislation to stimulate economic growth, curb inflation, increase employment, and strengthen the national military muscle
Reagan's economic program of tax cuts and deregulation helped stimulate and reinvigorate the American economy.
Historians cite Reagan's "finest hour" as his accomplishments during his second term.
The SALT treaty with Soviet Russia had failed. A new treaty called "START" was created in 1983.
In 1985, Reagan began nuclear disarmament talks began between the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1987, the two leaders signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, in which both countries agreed to destroy hundreds of nuclear missiles and permit on-site inspections to ensure treaty compliance. In a 1988 visit to the United States, Gorbachev announced an unprecedented reduction in Soviet armed forces and agreed to withdraw troops from Eastern Europe and Afghanistan. In 1994, Ronald Reagan announced that he had Alzheimer's disease. On June 5, 2004, he died from the neurological disorder.
VishwanathanAnand ViswanathanAnand was born December 11, 1969. is an Indian chess grandmaster National level success came early for him when he won the National Sub-Junior Chess Championship with a score of 9/9 in 1983 at the age of fourteen. He played games at blitz speed, earning him the nickname "Lightning Kid" ("Blitz chess" is known in India as "Lightning chess"). In 1987, he became the first Indian to win the World Junior Chess Championship. In 1988, at the age of eighteen, he became India's First Grandmaster. "Vishy", as he is sometimes called, burst upon the upper echelons of the chess scene in the early 1990s, winning such tournaments as Reggio Emilia 1991 (ahead of Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov). In 1991, he lost in a tie-breaker to Anatoly Karpov in the quarter finals of the FIDE Knockout World Chess Championship. Anand won three consecutive Advanced Chess tournaments in Leon, Spain where humans may consult a computer to aid in their calculation of variations. Anand has won the Chess Oscar in 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2004. His four Oscars ties him with Kasparov for the most ever, one better than Fischer's three.
ViswanathanAnand's game collection, My Best Games of Chess, was published in the year 1998 and was updated in 2001 After several near misses, Anand finally won the FIDE World Chess Championship in 2000 after defeating Alexei Shirov in final match held at Teheran, thereby becoming the first Indian to win that title. Anand is still deservedly considered to be the world's finest Rapid Chess player.He has consistently won almost all rapid events defeating many top players and his main achievements in this Category are at : Corsica , Leon , Amber events where he dominated almost all elite players . 1983 National Sub-Junior Chess Champion - age 14, 1984 International Master - age 15 1985 Indian National Champion - age 16, 1987 World Junior Chess Champion, Grandmaster 2000 FIDE World Chess Champion, 2003 FIDE World Rapid Chess Champion . Arjuna award for Outstanding Indian Sportsman in Chess in 1985 PadmaShri, National Citizens Award and Soviet Land Nehru Award in 1987 The inaugural Rajiv Gandhi KhelRatna Award, India's highest sporting honour in the year 1991-1992. British Chess Federation 'Book of the Year' Award in 1998 for his book My Best Games of Chess & Chess Oscar (1997, 1998, 2003 and 2004)
Amitabh Bachchan Amitabh Bachchan -- the ‘Shahenshah’ of Bollywood was born on October 11, 1942 to well-known poet HarivanshRai Bachchan in Allahabad. Amitabh went to Sherwood College, a boarding school in Nainital, and then to Kirori Mal College in Delhi University where he earned a double MA. He was a former stage actor, radio announcer and freight company executive in Shaw Wallace in Calcutta. It was K A Abbas who gave Amitabh his first break in ‘Saat Hindustani’ (1969). But the film failed miserably, with Bachchan going almost unnoticed. Amitabh played the lead role, for the first time in his career, in ‘PyarKiKahani’ (1971). Amitabh got an award for the best supporting actor for ‘Anand’ (1972), he was eclipsed by a stellar performance from Rajesh Khanna In no time the Indian film industry was declared a ‘One Man Industry’, and Bachchan its undisputed king. He is the only actor who achieved at least one hit every year for 15 consecutive years - from 1972 in Bombay to Goa (1972) to 1986 in AakhreeRaasta (1986). He launched a multi-faceted commercial enterprise known simply as Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Limited, or ABCL. ABCL is engaged in production, distribution and all other aspects of the movie industry.
In 1984, he was honored by the Indian government with the PadmaShri Award for his outstanding contribution to the Hindi film industry. Was one of the judges for the 1995 Miss World beauty pageant. Had a very close association with the former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her son Rajiv Gandhi (also Prime Minister) and he was elected to parliament with a huge majority from his home town of Allahabad. But his stint in politics did not last long Bollywood mega superstar Amitabh Bachchan and his gorgeous daughter-in-law AishwaryaRai visited a specialist charity centre in Leeds. Bachchan played the part of the inspirational tutor of a deaf-blind child in the 2005 film Black . An experience that taught him a lot. Bachchan was approached by Sense to visit the centre to raise awareness of deaf -blindness whilst he is in England for the International Indian Film Awards (IIFA) taking place in Sheffield. At the age of 58, he jumped from a height of 30 feet, along with co-star ManojBajpai, for his 2001 movie Aks (2001). He was named Actor of the Millennium in a BBC News Poll ahead of such luminaries as Charlie Chaplin, Sir Lawrence Olivier, and Marlon Brando. Has a mannequin of himself in Madam Tussaud's Museum in England. Along with Shahrukh Khan, AishwariyaRai Bachchan and Salman Khan.
PELE (EdsonArantes do Nascimento) EdsonArantes do Nascimento was born on 23 October 1940 A player synonymous with Brazil and impeccable football can be none other than EdsonArantes do Nascimento popular all over the world as Pele. Born in TresCoracoes on 23 October 1940 to Dondinho and Maria Celeste Arantes in a poor family. he was learned to football through his father, who too was a footballer. He is also referred to with another name which aptly defines him, 'The King of Football.' Pele was never allowed by the Government of Brazil to leave his motherland, declaring him a 'National Treasure. Pele began playing for Santos at 15, joined his National Team the ensuing year and won his first World Cup the subsequent year. Pele played his first match for Brazil when he was 16 years and 9 months old. In the FIFA World Cup 1958, he became the youngest player ever to score a goal in a World Cup final and to win the World Cup. His experiences in England had caused him to proclaim he would never again play in a World Cup.
Pele unleashed all he had with a team regarded as one of the best of all times and led Brazil to their third World Cup victory, defeating Italy in the finals. Pele's achievements have been far ahead of his contemporaries and successors. He has also been awarded 'Athlete of the Century' by International Olympic Committee in 1999. Having scored 1281 goals in total, he stands apart from the rest of the players. After retiring, Pele became an ambassador for football and was even Brazil's Minister of Sports in 1994. With the game in its dying embers, Clodoaldo weaved past tired Italian legs before the ball eventually found its way to the feet of Pele. Pele was soon to be carried high from the Aztec Stadium's pitch, able to take his leave of the World Cup for the final and most glorious occasion. Short listing honours3 World Cup winners medals. (Didn’t play in 1962 final through injury but was awarded a medal some years later)19 Domestic club honours.Named footballer of the century by FIFA. (Voted for by panel of experts. Maradona won an online public poll)Named athlete of the century by the International Olympic Committee.
Ray Kroc Ray Kroc was born in 1902. It was the age of William Durant and Henry Ford. It was the age of the great nation builders. When he was fifteen years old he lied about his age and landed himself the job of an ambulance driver for Red Cross. he tried his hand at a myriad things, finally settling down to be a salesman. He initially sold paper cups. Opportunity knocked on his door when he had a chance meeting with Earl Prince, the inventor of the five-spindle multimixer. Ray Kroc convinced Earl to give him exclusive marketing rights for the mixture and successfully sold it all over the country for the next decade and a half. In 1954 Ray Kroc opened his own McDonald's drive-in in Des Plaines, Illinois. He officially established the McDonald's Corporation. It was not an easy time for Ray Kroc. He was suffering from diabetes and arthritis. His gall bladder and thyroid gland had already been surgically removed. But the desire to succeed burnt throughout his body. The $2.7 million that Ray Kroc paid in 1961 for the McDonalds Corporation is considered to be one of the greatest acts of salesmanship of all time. In 1956 Ray Kroc set up the Franchise Realty Corporation, which bought land and leased it out to franchisees.
Once the domestic market was saturated with McDonald’s franchisees, Ray Kroc turned his attention overseas. It has opened outlets in more than sixty-five countries. McDonald’s tailor-made its offerings depending on the country in which it was operating. In order to make the chain's name more easily pronounceable for Japanese consumers, it was changed to Makudonaldo. In India and in the Middle East, pork is not served. In Ireland the promotions proclaimed, "Our name may be American, but we're all Irish.“ Today most companies who operate in the service industry have pricked up something or the other from the McDonalds way of functioning. They have learnt that ray Kroc was right when said that, "The organization cannot trust the individual; the individual must trust the organization.“ Ray Kroc constantly harped on the need for minute labor specialization and definition of the company’s value proposition. After handing over the operations to Fred Turner in 1968. He continued to monitor business of the newer franchisees. His paranoia regarding the success of McDonalds was intact as ever. Whenever he traveled he insisted that his chauffer drive him to at least six franchisees for him to conduct surprise checks. In 1977, Ray Kroc became the Senior Chairman. McDonald's had sold 65 billion hamburgers by 1987, the year before it opened its ten thousandth store. McDonald's now opens about one-third of its new restaurants in foreign markets. Ray Kroc passed away from old age in January 1984, at the age of eighty-one, just the ten months before McDonalds sold hamburger number fifty billion.
Prakash Padukone Prakash Padukone was born in Bangalore city in the year 1955 Prakash became the junior national champion in 1970. Padukone won the Indian national junior title in 1972. He also won the senior title the same year. He was now head and shoulders above every other player in the country and was promptly included in the Thomas Cup squad. He won the Indian national title consecutively for the next seven years, until 1979. Prakash’s decision to trade his defensive style for the more robust style of play of the Indonesians was to pay him rich dividends in the years to come. He won his first major international title, that of the Commonwealth games. Receiver of Padmashree award in the year 1982 National senior champion from 1971 to 1979
Winner of First Open Prize money tournament in Pune in the year of 1981 Receiver of Arjuna Award in 1972 Winner of Dutch Open in 1982 English Masters at royal Albert Hall of London in the year 1979 Gold medalist at commonwealth Games of 1978 Winner of hong Kong Open in the year 1982 Trained the team that bagged the silver medal in the Men's Event & bronze medal in the Women's Event, Commonwealth Games of 1998 Bagged bronze medal in the 1983 Copenhagen World championships. He was awarded with the PadmaShri in 1982. His Daughter, Deepika Padukone, is a well known movie actress.
Amartya Kumar Sen He was born on November 3, 1933 at Santiniketan, West Bengal, India. He won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1998. He became a Professor and Head of Department at Jadavpur University, Kolkatta at the age of 23 (1956-58) He taught at MIT as a visiting professor between 1960–1961. He taught at Delhi School of Economics (1963-71), Oxford (1977-88) as Professor of Economics at Nuffield College, the Drummond Professor of Political Economy and was a Fellow of All Souls College, London School of Economics(1971-77), Harvard (1988–1998) and Master of Trinity College, and Cambridge(1998–2004) becoming the first Asian academic to head an Oxbridge college. He returned to Harvard in January 2004. He is also a contributor to the Eva Colorni Trust at the former London Guildhall University. AmartyaSen developed the theory of social choice in late 1960s and 1970s. He published Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (1981) demonstrating that famine occurs due to inequalities in the distribution of food rather than mere lack of food.
His work on development economics influenced the formulation of the Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme. ‘More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing’, in the New York Review of Books analysis the impact of unequal rights on mortality between genders in the developing world. His ‘Collective Choice and Social Welfare’ (1970) addressed problems related to majority rule, individual rights, justice and equity, and the availability of information on issues of basic welfare. Sen’s work influenced Governments and international organizations handling food crises, finding ways to replace the lost income of the poor, and maintenance of stable prices for food. Some of his important works include Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny (Issues of Our Time), W. W. Norton, 2006. The Argumentative Indian, 2005. Lifetime Achievement Award by the Indian Chamber of Commerce (2003). International Humanist Award from the International Humanist and Ethical Union (2002). Leontief Prize (2000); Eisenhower Medal, for Leadership and Service USA (2000). Companion of Honour, UK (2000). Life Time Achievement award by Bangkok-based United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). Bharat Ratna (1999). Honorary citizenship of Bangladesh (1999 ).
LakshmiMittal Born in 15 June 1958 In Sadulpur ,Rajasthan,India.Nationality: IndianResidence: London, England.Religion Belief: HinduismEducation: B.Com in business and Accounting The World's Billionaires#3 LakshmiMittal No. 1 Richest person in Europe Chairman & CEO of ArcelorMittal group and LNM Group. Representing 10% of steel in world level Starting Ispat Indo in Indonesia Ispat international NV IspatKarmet Indo39th on the 2008 Fortune Global 500list Steel assets in Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, South Africa, Poland,Indonesia, Kazakhstan, the UnitedStates, Ukraine and other countries
2008: PadmaVibhushan 2007: Bessemer Gold Medal 2006: Person of the Year - Financial Times 2004: European Businessman of the Year –Fortune magazine 1998: Willy Korf Steel Vision Award - American Metal Market and Paine Weber’s World Steel Dynamics 1996: Steelmaker of the Year - New Steel
Yogi Deveshwar Date of birth: 4th February 1947. Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi in 1968. AMP Diploma from Harvard Business School, USA and also took Advanced Training in Hoteliering and Services at Cornell University, USA. Deveshwar is the Chairman of ITC Ltd along with ITC Hotels Limited and Surya Nepal Private Limited and is a Director on the Board of International Travel House Limited. Deveshwar was handpicked by the Government in 1991 to head the national carrier, Air India, as Chairman and Managing Director. He had a successful stint in this assignment till 1994, during which he was also a member on the Boards of Indian Airlines, International Airports Authority of India, Airports Authority of India and Air Mauritius Ltd. Deveshwar has been honoured with several recognitions within India. Honorary Fellowship of the All India Management Association.
The distinguished Alumni Award of the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. The Meridien Hotelier of the Year Award and the Marketing Man of the Year from A&M Deveshwar has also been honoured with the Manager Entrepreneur of the Year Award 2001, by Ernst & Young. Y C Deveshwar, Chairman of ITC Limited since January 1, 1996, is respected for the deep insight with which he steers a multi-business corporation like ITC, and is credited with several key strategic interventions which have positioned ITC as a well managed, well governed, value creating, top league company in India. Deveshwar serves on the Executive Committees of some of India's premier trade and industry bodies. He is the Vice President of the Confederation of Indian Industry as well as the Chairman of its Agriculture Council. He is a member of the Board of Governors of the Indian School of Business, Hyderabad The Government of India has also nominated him the Chairman of the Society and Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta. Mr. Deveshwar's leadership, ITC Ltd. has invested in rural initiatives across India, while embracing environmentally-friendly practices at its headquarters and field offices, including equipping all of its ITC-Welcomgroup Hotels, Palaces and Resorts with cutting-edge green building technologies.. ITC Ltd. is one of India's top agricultural exporters, and is ranked as one of