Precision
Agriculture

Precision
Management
for Ecosystem
Services
Interventions
& gradients

Critical
biodiversity

Ecosystem
Services

Goods

Increased precision
of nutrient &
pesticide i...
Interventions
& gradients

Critical
biodiversity

Ecosystem
Services

Goods

Increased precision
of nutrient &
pesticide i...
Interventions
& gradients

Critical
biodiversity

Biodiversity

1

Goods

Ecosystem
Services
2

Service
delivery

Driver /...
2 Diversity and

1

Land use intensity
and diversity

Soil Hydraulic
Conductivity (ks/mm/h)
Hydraulic conductivity ks/mm/h...
Examples of trade-offs and synergies between Ecosystem Services delivered
by field margins under different ELS options.
Cu...
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Rosie Hails

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Rosie Hails

  1. 1. Precision Agriculture Precision Management for Ecosystem Services
  2. 2. Interventions & gradients Critical biodiversity Ecosystem Services Goods Increased precision of nutrient & pesticide inputs Diversity of invertebrates, bacteria & algae in soil & water Nutrient removal Clean water Gradients in soil nutrient concentrations Plant communities on river banks Agrochemical attenuation Stabilising vegetation Clear water Regulation of water flow Grazing of algae Gradients in land use intensity Plant, pest, natural enemy & pollinator diversity Reduced tillage Management of buffer strips Crops Food Preferred groups of plants, birds, butterflies Wild species diversity Wildlife Specific species of birds & fish Game birds & Coarse fish Game & fish
  3. 3. Interventions & gradients Critical biodiversity Ecosystem Services Goods Increased precision of nutrient & pesticide inputs Diversity of invertebrates, bacteria & algae in soil & water Nutrient removal Clean water Gradients in soil nutrient concentrations Plant communities on river banks Gradients in land use intensity Plant, pest, natural enemy & pollinator diversity Reduced tillage Management of buffer strips Agrochemical attenuation Stabilising vegetation Clear water Regulation of water flow Grazing of algae Crops Food Preferred groups of plants, birds, butterflies Wild species diversity Wildlife Specific species of birds & fish Game birds & Coarse fish Game & fish Framework
  4. 4. Interventions & gradients Critical biodiversity Biodiversity 1 Goods Ecosystem Services 2 Service delivery Driver / gradient Biodiversity • Univariate comparisons: species richness, indices encompassing evenness & dominance, all at multiple spatial scales: α, β, γ diversity • Multivariate comparisons: Community composition – Identify indicative taxa, pairwise comparisons of community similarities • Extend both to assessments of functional traits and/or phylogenetic diversity (proxy)
  5. 5. 2 Diversity and 1 Land use intensity and diversity Soil Hydraulic Conductivity (ks/mm/h) Hydraulic conductivity ks/mm/h process 1200 1000 800 600 400 Value of diversity 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Species Richness Worm species richness 18 Earthworm species Earthworm species richness richness (No./) m2) (number / m2 1400 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Conventional tillage Low/Min/No tillage Grassland / Margin Regulate water flow (reduce overland flow) Clear water (reduced sediment load)
  6. 6. Examples of trade-offs and synergies between Ecosystem Services delivered by field margins under different ELS options. Cultivated margin (EF11) Pollen and nectar mix (EF4) 6m grass buffer strip (EE3) Pollination -+ + + + ++ ++ + - Arable flora ++ -- -- Farmland birds ++ - + Water quality Pest control Bradbury et al 2010 Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 986-993
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