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Adam Vanbergen

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  • FD is weighted by species occurrence, so as species become rarer their contribution to functional diversity and pollination service provision is reduced
  • Mike Garratt: Basically this is from a cage experiment where we manipulated the visitation rate to each of the crops by each of the pollinators. The different colours represent the different pollinators and then the paler shades are lower visitation rates. 1, 2 and 4 average visits per flower for beans and 1 and 3 average visits per flower for OSR. The grey shades are no insect pollinator visits and hand pollination (or max pollination). The graph basically reflects the pollination efficiency of each of the pollinators for each of the crops. For beans BB, MB and HB > Hoverflies and also BB > HB and for OSR BB, MB and HB > Hoverflies but hoverflies are still better than no insect visits. The graph in the manuscript has letters to show these significant effects.
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    • 1. Pollination Services Sustainable Food Trust Workshop 3rd December 2013, Deans Yard, Westminster Dr Adam Vanbergen Science Co-ordinator of UK Insect Pollinators Initiative NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Edinburgh 0131 445 8527 AJV@CEH.AC.UK
    • 2. Talk Outline 1.Importance of pollinators 2.Pressures on pollinators 3.Crop pollination services
    • 3. Importance of Insect Pollination • Ecological Keystone: 78-94% of wild plants have some dependence on animal pollination (Ollerton et al. 2011) • Food Security: ~75% of crop species have some dependence on insect pollination (Klein et al 2007)
    • 4. Importance of Insect Pollination • Human Health: insect-pollinated crops provide crucial dietary diversity and nutrients (calories, protein, vitamins, calcium & fluoride) (Eilers et al 2011) •Economic value of pollination services to crops: - Globally $215 billion (2005 US$) (Gallai et al 2009) - UK ~£440 million (2007£) (National Ecosystem Assessment 2011)
    • 5. Multiple Pressures on Pollinators Vanbergen A.J. and the Insect Pollinators Initiative (2013). Threats to Climate in Ecology Land Use an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. FrontiersChange Climate Change (B) Climate Change Intensification and the Environment, 11, 5 : 251-259 doi: 10.1890/120126 Habitat loss & fragmentation, pesticides, mo nocultures urbanization Spatial and phenological mismatch Pests & Pathogens Alien Species Co-infection, pest-pathogen and pathogen synergies Competition, facilitation, disease spread
    • 6. Delivery & Resilience of Pollination Services 1. Pollinator abundance/flower visitation rate 2. Pollinator diversity (complementarity, redundancy or facilitation) 3. Diversity of functional traits (morphological and behavioural adaptations)
    • 7. Towards Sustainable Pollination Services for UK Crops Prof. Simon Potts Project Co -leader
    • 8. Apple Fruit Set • Garratt, M. P. D. et al. (2013). Journal of Pollination Ecology 50 Cox 45 Gala 40 % fruitset 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pollinator exclusion Open pollinated Hand pollinated Cox Pollinator exclusion Open pollinated Hand pollinated Gala
    • 9. Different Crops Require Different Pollinators Oil Seed Rape (canola) Field Beans 0.0006 0.000016 0.000014 Visits/flower/min 0.0005 0.000012 0.0004 0.0003 0.00001 0.000008 0.000006 0.0002 0.000004 0.0001 0 0.000002 0 Source: Garratt et al. (2014) Biological Conservation, 169 128–135.
    • 10. Modelling Pollination Services • Bee species richness extrapolated from occurrence records • Agricultural statistics (e.g. field bean cover) • Predicted pollination service: potential deficits? Source: Polce et al. (2013) PLoS ONE, 8, e76308
    • 11. Crop Pollination Services in Great Britain • Pollinator biodiversity has a role in crop productivity • Some potential for sub-optimal pollination (e.g. apple) and spatial gaps in species diversity of crop pollinators • Pollination service maps require care: spatial resolution & lack of abundance data • Functional relationship between pollinator biodiversity and crop yield/value remains unclear, especially at policy-relevant scales (i.e. farm to landscape)
    • 12. Thank You Adam Vanbergen 0131 445 8527 AJV@ceh.ac.uk www.insectpollinatorsinitiative.net
    • 13. Further information: insectpollinatorsinitiative.net A.J.Vanbergen & 59 co-authors www.insectpollinatorsinitiative.net go to publications page to download Adam J. Vanbergen, Matt S. Heard, Tom Breeze, Simon G. Potts and Nick Hanley ( Under Peer Review)