Biomes

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This slideshow discusses the different biomes found throughout the world.

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  • I vaguely remember learning this stuff in highschool, good quality refresher!
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Biomes

  1. 1. <ul><li>Broad categories of ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar vegetation and wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassland and Tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.sustainableplanet.yolasite.com </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/biomemap.htm World Biomes
  3. 3. <ul><li>Deserts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropics – low moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-latitudes, equator – higher moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East coast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low moisture, low temperature </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate – low moisture, interiors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High elevation – rapid temperature change, variable precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plate boundaries </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Evaporation > Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hottest temps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driest climate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More fluctuation in temps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp extremes </li></ul></ul>http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/climate_systems/tropical_desert.html http://www.sethwhite.org/high%20arctic%20scenery.htm
  6. 6. <ul><li>Small leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Deep roots and shallow roots </li></ul><ul><li>Store biomass in seeds </li></ul><ul><li>low growing </li></ul><ul><li>wax on leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Store water in leaves </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>hair on leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit air circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficient photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only open stomata at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer stomata </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Avoid Heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hibernate, use shade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissipate Heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporate from mouth, large ears, dark colours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retain Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burrowing, food sources, solid wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquire Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants (cacti), recycle water, retain moisture from air </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Slow recovery time – poor resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Slow plant growth </li></ul><ul><li>Low species diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Slow nutrient cycling – little bacterial activity </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of water </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Transition – desert and forest </li></ul><ul><li>annual precipitation suitable grasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazing by large herbivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional fires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra or polar </li></ul>http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Experiments/Biome/biograssland.php
  11. 11. <ul><li>Warm temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Two-drought seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Wetter rest of year </li></ul><ul><li>Large herds of hoofed animals </li></ul><ul><li>Resource partitioning </li></ul>http://biomea.wikispaces.com/Grassland?f=print
  12. 12. <ul><li>Large plains of North and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Hot summers, cold winters </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven, sparse precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Rich organic layers, fertile soil </li></ul>http://www.champaignschools.org/index2.php?header=./jefferson/&file=../staffwebsites/hamiltja/index http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/regions/southwestern/MillsCanyon/images/mills_canyon_grassland_lg.jpg
  13. 13. <ul><li>Treeless plains </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme cold, ice, snow </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly snow, little precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Most growth in 6-8 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Permafrost – perennially frozen layer of soil </li></ul><ul><li>Animals – burrow, thick coats of fur, feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition slow </li></ul><ul><li>Low decomposer populations </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is poor – organic matter and nutrients </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of grazers – cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of grazers, fire, convert to pasture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil erosion – Dust Bowl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource development – Oil and Gas </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Moderate to high precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of trees and lower vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreen Coniferous </li></ul>http://www.tropicalisland.de/borneo.html http://www.geography.hunter.cuny.edu/~tbw/wc.notes/15.climates.veg/notes_chap15.htm
  16. 16. <ul><li>Equatorial </li></ul><ul><li>Hot, moisture-laden air </li></ul><ul><li>Daily rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Broadleaf evergreen plants </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow roots, wide bases </li></ul><ul><li>Dense canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphytes, vines </li></ul><ul><li>2% land surface, half biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Little litter, rapid decomp </li></ul>http://travelwithkids.about.com/od/stluciaresorts/ig/Coconut-Bay-/Rainforest---zip-line.htm http://www.geography.hunter.cuny.edu/~tbw/wc.notes/15.climates.veg/veg.images/rainforest/huge.tree.cut.down.jpg
  17. 17. <ul><li>Warm summers, moderate-cold winters </li></ul><ul><li>abundant precipitation, even distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Broadleaf deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>More leaf litter, slow decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Richer ground layer </li></ul><ul><li>Most upper-level predators removed </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Evergreen coniferous </li></ul><ul><li>Cone-bearing, needles </li></ul><ul><li>Northern hemisphere, south of tundra </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to short summers </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity low </li></ul><ul><li>Deep layer of needles – duff </li></ul><ul><li>Acid soil, nutrient poor </li></ul><ul><li>Bogs, water-logged soil </li></ul>http://wc-zope.emergence.com:8080/WildernessCommittee_Org/campaigns/wildlands/boreal/reports/Vol11No07/deforestation http://nrm.salrm.uaf.edu/~dverbyla/bnz_synthesis_CD/chapter9/index.html
  19. 19. <ul><li>25% land surface </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme variations – short distances </li></ul><ul><li>Climate, vegetation, soil </li></ul><ul><li>Active geomorphic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Islands of biodiversity – forests </li></ul><ul><li>Endemic species </li></ul><ul><li>Control hydro cycle </li></ul>http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/LivingWith/Historical/LewisClark/volcanoes_lewis_clark_october_30_1805.html http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2006/06/07/1149359779154.html
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>www.sustainableplanet.yolasite.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thanks for viewing! </li></ul>

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