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Tim Fenn

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  • 1. Tim Fenn November 2009 Building Real Ecotowns: NW Bicester Ecotown 88 St James’s Street London SW1A 1PL
  • 2. What do most people expect when large scale housing developments are announced? Past Design Criteria Problems & Public Concerns • Units per acre • Traffic congestion • Cars/traffic/parking • Strain on local services • Cheapest available building materials • Loss of open-space/urban sprawl • Existing supply chains and skills • Negative visual impact • Socio-economic environment • Environment & loss of diversity • Size & location • Increased flood risk • Amenities and 106 agreements • Loss of community • Local architecture & design guides • Loss in house value • “No Triple-bottom-line” thinking • Poor house performance • Unsustainable
  • 3. Renewable Energy • Zero Carbon • Energy from Waste Sustainable Construction • Community Energy Centre Sustainable Transport • Micro-energy generation • Low Energy Building/Zero carbon • 50% reduction in car travel • Local Materials • Cycling/walking • Climate Change Resilience • Public Transport Waste Management • Retro-fit Existing Stock • Biofuels • Zero Waste • Electric Vehicles • Waste as Resource • Materials from waste Local Employment Water Management • 1 Job per house • Recycled water • Rainwater harvesting • Virtual Business Centres • Green Roofs • Entice Green Businesses • SUDS • Promote Green Economy • Water catchment management Local Food • Urban Agriculture • Community Supported Agriculture • Community Orchards Bio-diversity • Green roofs • Community Gardens Healthy Lifestyles • Social Forestry • More Exercise Open spaces • Organic Food • More Exercise/Healthy Living • Access to Open Spaces •Social Forestry/Biomass • Healthy Buildings •Linkages to the Country-side
  • 4. Energy Efficiency: Highest standards of energy efficiency e.g. insulation, lighting, appliances. Energy use information systems (e.g. Smart meters) & develop awareness /ethos. Low energy livelihoods. Local food, transport etc Renewable Energy Generation: Applicable Eco-town Standards Energy Centre based on Anaerobic Digestion and biomass with community/local authority Zero Carbon buildings partnership. CHP 2t CO2/yr total emissions Optional micro-renewable energy add-ons to buildings, capitalising on forthcoming “Feed-in tariffs”.
  • 5. Transport Promote More Cycling! Bicester’s flat Amsterdam 284 km of cycle-ways 28% bike. York 22% through improved cycle-ways and traffic calming Applicable Eco-town Standards Hull 16% by bike Homes within 10 minutes walk of public transport & services Copenhagen 26% Access to and through the Eco-town priority to Basel 16% walking, cycling and public transport modes Hanover 16% The design of the Eco-town should enable at Holland: 36% increase in 17 years least 50% of trips originating from the site to be made by modes other than the car Cycling also promotes more walking and has obvious health benefits. Bicester? 60% of people commute!
  • 6. Transport Promote More Cycling! BUT..... Needs design , planning and enforcement/culture. “Promoting cycling without improving facilities is meaningless”.....
  • 7. Transport Wide Cycle lanes Dedicated cycle-ways Traffic calming Bike storage at schools, shopping centres, businesses and train/bus stations. Linkages to town centre and villages Bike trailers at shopping centres
  • 8. Transport Then there’s the Velomobile..... Ice’s (Inspired Cycle Engineering ltd, Cornwall) recumbent trike with Rainforest Designs ltd (Canada) fairing producing high speed velomobile.
  • 9. Water Management Applicable Eco-town Standards CSH 4 or 6 – 105/80l/p/d for water use Zero increase in net rainwater run-off No development outside Flood Zone 1 Key strategy opportunities Reduce potential for flooding in Bicester through storm water catchment management providing amenity and biodiversity. Waste water/AD integration. e.g. Zero water closed system. Design drainage networks to accommodate effects of climate change. Low household water consumption devices
  • 10. Open Space, Amenities & Community Supported Agriculture Applicable Eco-town Standards Provision of local services and amenities including 40% open space.. Local food production Key Strategies & Opportunities Open Spaces for food production/community supported Agriculture. Biomass for energy e.g. willows Cycling, hiking, sport, leisure, tourism development Eco-graveyard Environmental education/Eco-school
  • 11. The Green Economy Applicable Eco-town Standards 1 job per household (5,000 jobs) that can be reached by walking, cycling or public transport. Key Strategies & Opportunities Incorporate into master-plan including waste management, housing, energy, transport, business development tourism, leisure & education. Manufacture houses at a Bicester Factory. Ensure ?% of local content thus create demand for new local products. Promote innovation for SMEs e.g. Centre for Sustainable Design, Innovation Hubs, Environmental Investment Network (EIN). Create commercial centres for green business e.g. Community business centres, “The Goods Shed”, Virtual Offices, zero carbon commercial/educational. Encourage eco-tourism e.g. University of Chichester Promote Bicester: Corporate Social Responsibility/Triple Bottom Line thinking to organisations.
  • 12. Resource & Waste Management Applicable Eco-town Standards Plan for Zero Waste View Waste as a Resource Integrated Resource & Waste Management Consider Total Waste Key Strategies & Opportunities Waste to energy – anaerobic digestion (CHP) Exemplar internal and external waste storage including underground waste storage e.g. Septic tanks, recycling centre. Community benefit from business opportunities (e.g. Recycling, waste to building materials), employment and energy security. Waste prevention – education and awareness campaigns creating a community ethos. Zero waste to landfill
  • 13. The Modular Framing System Key Design Features • Flexible system for range of designs • High standards of energy efficiency (Passivhaus) • Rapid erection and zero waste • Air-tight construction • Internal thermal mass to prevent overheating • Products made from recycled materials & linkages to job creation/waste management • Low embodied energy in manufacture. • Low life-long costs Kirkland Frazer Moore
  • 14. What could an look like? Design Criteria and Opportunities: Applicable Eco-town Standards Zero Carbon/Passivhaus 30% Affordable Housing • Affordability • Energy & Water Efficiency • Desirability & Use • Biodiversity and Landscape • Durability (100 year plus) • Sustainability & Embodied Energy • Resilience to Climate Change • Building Materials from Waste • Employment, Skills & Rehabilitation
  • 15. Energy use in buildings
  • 16. Energy in homes: 4 Bed, 5 people Appliance Weekly Energy Use KWh Cost £ % Kettle 8.8 0.95 2.6 Hairdryer/tongs 21.3 2.30 6.3 Washing Machine 14.7 1.59 4.4 Tumble Drier 73.5 7.94 21.9 Lighting 92.7 10.01 27.6 TVs/DVD’s 21.5 2.32 6.4 Computers 13.4 1.45 4.0 Ironing 6.3 0.68 1.9 Other kitchen app 6.9 0.75 2.1 Fridge/Freezer 40.3 4.35 12.0 Dishwasher 7.6 0.82 2.3 Vacuum cleaner 0.75 0.08 0.2 Oven/Hob 14.1 1.52 4.2 Microwave 3.3 0.36 1.0 Other 11.2 1.21 3.3 Total 336.35 36.33
  • 17. Why is energy important? Energy Efficiency • CO2 emissions and climate change • Era of cheap energy is over. • Oxfordshire high energy use, Shiplake highest CO2 emissions in UK • 5 million people in the UK suffering from energy poverty & rising • Power stations coming to end of life, possibility of power cuts 3500 Future Heating Energy Costs 900 Future Heating Energy Costs: Ecotown vs other 800 Within Ecotown 3000 700 2500 Part L House 3% 600 Part L House 10% increase in heating 2000 increase in heating 500 cost per year cost per year 400 Code 4 house 3% 1500 Code 4 house 10% increase in heating increase in heating 300 cost per year 1000 cost per year 200 ECO2H2O house in ECO2H2O house in Ecotown 3% increse 500 100 Ecotown 3% increse in heating cost per £ per year year £ per year in heating cost per 0 0 year Year 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030 Bicester Eco-town: Resilient, bankable and desirable
  • 18. Eco-refurbishment • Upgrading existing housing stock creates link to existing town. • Links to sustainable construction training, job creation etc.. • Each house type will require different insulation strategy. • Renewable energy strategy site dependant
  • 19. GreenBook/Card: Institute of Sustainable Construction Employer Led Sustainable Construction Training & Accreditation
  • 20. Requirements of an Eco-build Training Framework • Primarily focussed on up-skilling existing workforce • Promotes Multi-skilled workforce development. • Promotes Specialist training/learning • Encourages companies/individuals to undertake training • Promotes/rewards life-long learning • Acknowledges short courses & on-site experience • Leads to highest accolades in training achievement (degrees) • Promotes self esteem and status of construction workers • Leads to “real” recognition of skill level • Leads to higher standards
  • 21. Sustainable Construction Skills Training Training Framework • Employer led Scheme (Leitch report) • Sustainable Builders Green Card • New skills relevant to Eco-refurbishments Opportunities • Construction led Green Jobs/Businesses • Retro-fit/Eco-refurbishments role-out to existing stock • Improved Standards • Bicester: centre of green technology and innovation • Lower CO2 emissions on existing housing stock
  • 22. Sustainable Construction Skills Training Core Awareness & Skills • Airtight construction/ventilation: Importance, testing, issues • Energy in Buildings: Insulation, windows/doors, CO2 emissions • Water & Waste management: Water use, dealing with waste, regs etc • Technology: Renewable energy, lighting, materials etc
  • 23. Green Builder Training Framework Buildings : New Build, Retrofits, Commercial,Government Craft Operative Site Manager Awareness Understanding Operational Knowledge Competence • Energy in buildings • Energy in buildings • Energy in buildings • Energy in buildings • Air-tight construction • Airtight construction • Air-tight construction • Air-tight construction • Water & waste • Waste & Water • Waste & Water • Waste & Water • Technology • Technology • Technology • Technology •Solar thermal •Thermal Storage/PCM Renewable • Micro-Wind Energy • PHPP Passivhaus Design • Thermal Mass • Framing Systems Modern Methods • Modular Construction
  • 24. Organisational Framework: Green Builders Other Regional Construction Training Groups Institute Sustainable Construction Additional Training Passivhaus Trust UK