Urban Transition Management


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Urban Transition Management

  1. 1. Urban Transition Management Dr. Derk Loorbach Manchester, 07-05-2009
  2. 2. Towards sustainable cities? <ul><li>Cities major contributor to CO2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Cities places of innovation and change </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to transform cities into sustainable cities in an innovative way </li></ul><ul><li> system and transition approach </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cities as social systems City Rotterdam Societal landscape City subsystems (regimes) Civil society and citizens Mobility subsystem Policy substem Energy subsystem Industrial subsystem Innovations and niches
  4. 4. Transition dynamics complex, uncertain and non linear Predevelopment Stabilization time Societal development Acceleration Take-off Macro-level (landscape, trends) Meso-level (regimes, institutions) Micro-level (Niches, individuals) From: Rotmans et al, 2000 From: Geels and Kemp, 2001
  5. 5. Governance framework for dealing with transitions Monitoring, evaluating and learning Developing images coalitions and transition-agendas Mobilizing actors and executing projects and experiments Problem structuring, establishment of the transition arena and envisioning Strategic (emphasis on system, cultures) Tactical (emphasis on subsystem, structures) Operational (emphasis on niches, practices)
  6. 6. Transition management radical change in incremental steps <ul><li>Complex system approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframing social problems and developing shared long term perspectives, interests and strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic tenets and framework guide experimental governance strategy development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visions, experiments, agenda’s, reflection inform one another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building up societal pressure on regime, and seducing regime actors to participate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-actor, frontrunners, experimenting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Framework for science-policy co-production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iteration between theory and practice </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. City of Rotterdam <ul><li>650.000 inhabitants, relatively young population, 50% immigrants, huge harbour/industry </li></ul><ul><li>Two historic transitions: from rural to city, from national to global harbour </li></ul><ul><li>Number of programs started to deal with persistent urban challenges </li></ul><ul><li> Three programs where TM was/is used in different ways </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rotterdam Climate Initiative <ul><li>50 % CO2 reduction in 2025 </li></ul><ul><li>Harbour/industry and city </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple projects, strategies and experiments, large focus on CCS </li></ul><ul><li>transformative evaluation: CCS, scenarios, visions, pathways, experiments, governance strategy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Monitoring and evaluation framework basis for indicator framework System Rotterdam Actors Rotterdam Rotterdam Climate Initiative Vision Icon- projects Vision Innovation projects External pressure Spaces for experiments Agendas and networks Agendas and networks System- changes Strategic Tactical Operational Trends Structure Niches Level of governance Level of development
  10. 10. Pact op Zuid <ul><li>1 billion Euro, 10 years, city and housing companies </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of projects in physical, economic, and social and cultural domain </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: to improve southern half of Rotterdam up to the level of north </li></ul><ul><li> evaluation from transition perspective; no clear focus on social challenge, no inspiring long-term vision, fragmentation on short term, limited stakeholder involvement, dominance of physical/economic </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social and policy transition Tijd Pact op Zuid City harbors Program-directors Self-organisation: Supply driven, Integral, Process oriented Innovative,/sustainable Co-production Fragmented Competition Individualism Distrust Short-term GGW Gideon Policy new style nwe stijl City marines SONS Bureau frontline Field-academy Activation Human centered concrete solutions Empowering Experimenting Learning Mono-actor Group portrets Participation visions Norm op Zuid Roffa 5314 Artroute
  12. 12. Cityharbours <ul><li>6+ billion redevelopment of 1600 ha. harbour area towards 2025 </li></ul><ul><li>City and harbour cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Three years of negotiation and regular planning and visions </li></ul><ul><li> Active involvement through arenas and strategy/policy development; raising ambition, developing new vision, selecting core themes, developing shared discourse and creating transition experiments </li></ul>
  13. 13. 5 strategies <ul><li>Re-inventing delta technology </li></ul><ul><li>Volume & Value </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing borders </li></ul><ul><li>Floating gentrification </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable mobility </li></ul>Long term : perspective 2040 Mid term : course 2025 Short term : action 2015 City harbours
  14. 14. Urban transitions (in Rotterdam) <ul><li>Three cases in different domains with common characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term and experimental focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit search for innovations in governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggles between optimisation and innovation/transition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cities ideal and most problematic level for TM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities as systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional attachment is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very concrete and relatively quick results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban transition composed of multiple subsystem transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility, energy, policy, health care, education, consumption, industry, food provision, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some can be actively ‘managed’ others can be stimulated, others need to be adapted to </li></ul>
  15. 15. Urban transition management <ul><li>Implementation of TM raises ambition, coherence and activism </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Transitionizing’ existing policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the concept of transitions to conceptualize, analyze and identify ongoing changes towards sustainability in different domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation of envisioning and goal formulation on the long-term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(re)structuring transition scenario’s and pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-scaling and initiating projects and experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection and evaluation of progress of transitions and (required) changes in governance </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion <ul><li>Urban transitions to sustainability are necessary </li></ul><ul><li>They require transition oriented strategies tailored to specific city </li></ul><ul><li>This requires skilled and knowledgeable actors, time, money and ambitious politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on policy and professionals, less on citizens </li></ul>