Understanding transitions and developing transition management strategies Dr. Derk Loorbach New Delhi, India, October 14 2...
You?
This mornings program:  an experiment <ul><li>Learning about  social  systems, transitions and transition management: </li...
System analysis
Why systems, transitions and governance? <ul><li>World is increasingly complex and interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>We fac...
<ul><li>Complex, long-term and uncertain </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in societal structures </li></ul><ul><li>Many actors i...
Manifestations of such problems <ul><li>Actors involved do not understand the complexity </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of actors...
How to analyze complexity <ul><li>Complex adaptive systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open, uncertain yet showing patterns  </l...
Regional stock and flow analysis Figure SCENE-model Parkstad Limburg as presented on February 17, 2002
Complex societal systems: multi-level thinking Societal system Innovations and niches Societal structures (regime) Laws an...
Challenge 1: static system analysis <ul><li>Define ±15 core attributes of a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System demarcatio...
Transition dynamics
Transitions <ul><li>fundamental shift in  structure ,  culture  and  practices  at the systems level </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Multi-level: a  possible  heuristic Meso-level  (regimes, institutions) Macro-level (landscape, trends) Micro-level  (Nich...
Multi-phase: ideal typical transition pattern From: Rotmans et al, 2000 Predevelopment Stabilization  time  Societal devel...
Multi-pattern: identifying different types of change <ul><li>Transition, lock-in, backlash, optimization </li></ul><ul><li...
Different types of transitions see also Berkhout et al (2004) <ul><li>Degree of purposiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of ...
Transition in Dutch water management <ul><li>Strategy of fighting water through dikes proved unsustainable </li></ul><ul><...
Challenge 2: transition analysis <ul><li>Define the dynamics in your system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of multi-level ...
Transition management approach
Transition management:  evolutionary governance <ul><li>Dealing with ongoing transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence s...
Goal: raising reflexivity <ul><li>Creating common understanding of complex social issues and persistency of problems  </li...
Transition management key ingredients - analytical <ul><li>Visions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability principles </l...
Energytransition in the Netherlands   Process design 2001
Energytransition in the Netherlands <ul><li>Started in 2001 as policy experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus on the over-a...
Emerging organizational structure 6 Directors general  of: EZ VROM LNV (agriculture) V&W (mobility) Foreign Affairs Financ...
Platform Green Resources <ul><li>Envisioning: 30% green resources in 2040: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% bio-fuels   <...
Transition pathways <ul><li>Sustainable biomass production   </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable import (chains) </li></ul><ul><...
Signs of progress <ul><li>Up-scaling of the ‘energy transition’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ More with energy’, ‘Clean and limi...
Example 2: ‘Roof Transition’ <ul><li>Esha group: market leader bituminous products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black roofs and t...
New agenda for the sector <ul><li>Ambition: to transform all black roofs into sustainable surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Princ...
The transition of “roofs & roads”
Roofs and Air Quality Air
Roofs and Energy Energy
Transition Black Grass Transitionlab  Black Grass Transitionlab  Black Grass Transitionlab  Black Grass Transitionlab  Bla...
Challenge 3: outline a transition agenda <ul><li>Define transition vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability principles ...
Implementing Transition management
Transition Management basic tenets <ul><li>Systems thinking as analytical basis </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term visions guide ...
Rationale <ul><li>Acknowledging a fundamental problem and the necessity to act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shared problem percep...
With whom? <ul><li>Social actors representative of the system complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments, business and i...
Governance framework  for dealing with transitions Monitoring, evaluating and adapting Developing sustainability images, c...
Reflexive thinking Reflexive attitude Participatory evaluation Adjustment of vision, agenda New experiments Adaptation Exp...
society Transitionarena Regular policy arena <ul><li>- Short term </li></ul><ul><li>- Peloton  </li></ul><ul><li>Increment...
Arena process:  you have just gone through it (too quickly)   <ul><li>Integrated system analysis and actor analysis </li><...
What are results? <ul><li>Increased sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared problem definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Transitionteam: who can manage? <ul><li>Domain experts, transition experts, problem owners </li></ul><ul><li>Iteration bet...
Transitionizing <ul><li>Through joint implementation of TM regular context can be transitionized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Con...
Transition research:  activist science Sustainability Sciences  History Policy sciences Complexity  research Sociology   E...
Final challenge 4: transition arena <ul><li>Select 15 participants (background and niche/regime mix) </li></ul><ul><li>Def...
Lessons learned
Transitions <ul><li>Structural changes in culture, structure and practices </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from the past show t...
Managing transitions <ul><li>Invest time and energy in frontrunners  </li></ul><ul><li>Bring together innovative niche- an...
People change the world <ul><li>Transition management:  </li></ul><ul><li>trying to combine system-down analysis and peopl...
Free access, open innovation <ul><li>Google:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ loorbach handle transition management’ </li></ul></u...
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Transitions for IHDP international Workshop, Delhi, India

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  • Systeemwijzigingen zijn nodig vanwege persistent problemen: diep geworteld in onze maatschappelijke structuren, cultuur en gedrag
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  • Ander type sturing nodig!
  • Transitions for IHDP international Workshop, Delhi, India

    1. 1. Understanding transitions and developing transition management strategies Dr. Derk Loorbach New Delhi, India, October 14 2008
    2. 2. You?
    3. 3. This mornings program: an experiment <ul><li>Learning about social systems, transitions and transition management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition management approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing transition management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. System analysis
    5. 5. Why systems, transitions and governance? <ul><li>World is increasingly complex and interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>We face enormous problems in terms of ecology, society and economy </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental change is necessary, but impossible to plan or enforce </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Complex, long-term and uncertain </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in societal structures </li></ul><ul><li>Many actors involved, all try to exert influence </li></ul><ul><li>Society and social preferences changing </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to ‘manage’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: energy, mobility, agriculture, education, health care, waste and water management, housing etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> multi-level, multi-domain, multi-actor and multi-phase </li></ul>Context: persistent problems
    7. 7. Manifestations of such problems <ul><li>Actors involved do not understand the complexity </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of actors want to exert influence but lack governance capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Economic value prevails over social values </li></ul><ul><li>Debate focuses on short term partial solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Shared vision and ambitions are absent </li></ul>
    8. 8. How to analyze complexity <ul><li>Complex adaptive systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open, uncertain yet showing patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System thinking as analytical instrument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To explore causalities in evolutionary manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To connect disciplinary and lay knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participatory tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To collectively develop similar images and language </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Regional stock and flow analysis Figure SCENE-model Parkstad Limburg as presented on February 17, 2002
    10. 10. Complex societal systems: multi-level thinking Societal system Innovations and niches Societal structures (regime) Laws and regulations Institutions Infrastructures / technologies Culture and paradigms Societal trends
    11. 11. Challenge 1: static system analysis <ul><li>Define ±15 core attributes of a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System demarcation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explore most important interrelationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characterize the dominant paradigm/culture </li></ul><ul><li>Characterize the problem at the level of the system </li></ul>
    12. 12. Transition dynamics
    13. 13. Transitions <ul><li>fundamental shift in structure , culture and practices at the systems level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture: dominant perspectives and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: institutions, routines, material structures, networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices: behaviour, individual choices, innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fundamental shift in thinking and acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shift in power from one regime to another </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Multi-level: a possible heuristic Meso-level (regimes, institutions) Macro-level (landscape, trends) Micro-level (Niches, individuals) From: Geels and Kemp, 2001
    15. 15. Multi-phase: ideal typical transition pattern From: Rotmans et al, 2000 Predevelopment Stabilization time Societal development Acceleration Take-off
    16. 16. Multi-pattern: identifying different types of change <ul><li>Transition, lock-in, backlash, optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Meso-meso, micro-meso, macro-meso </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence, coevolution, self-organization </li></ul><ul><li> transitions are processes of build-up and breakdown </li></ul>See also Van der Brugge et al 2005, Schot and Geels, 2007, De Haan 2007
    17. 17. Different types of transitions see also Berkhout et al (2004) <ul><li>Degree of purposiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Level of scale (high: society / low: subsystem of society) </li></ul>Biological Agriculture High aggregation Emergent Teleological Low aggregation High aggregation Low aggregation Low Coordination High Coordination Demographic Transition Economic Transition Revolutions ICT/internet From sailboat to steamship Civilization Globalisation Water transition Agricultural intensification (’60’s) Transition to Sustainable Agriculture Energy transition Wind Energy supply Solar Energy supply Biomass energy supply Mobility Biodiversity
    18. 18. Transition in Dutch water management <ul><li>Strategy of fighting water through dikes proved unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>increasing pressure from water on land and land on water </li></ul><ul><li>This has induced a shift in paradigm: </li></ul><ul><li>from fighting and controling to creating space for water </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift started decades ago among small group of actors outside the regime </li></ul><ul><li>visionaries from nature conservation and spatial planning </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of new paradigm ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>regime barriers complicate breakthrough </li></ul>
    19. 19. Challenge 2: transition analysis <ul><li>Define the dynamics in your system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of multi-level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define the state of the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of multi-phase and multi-pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define the transition management challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms new paradigm/culture </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Transition management approach
    21. 21. Transition management: evolutionary governance <ul><li>Dealing with ongoing transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence speed and direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulating and facilitating innovators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In policy, science, business and NGO’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reframing and restructuring social issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As transitions and sustainability challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><li> building up new structures and destabilising regime </li></ul>
    22. 22. Goal: raising reflexivity <ul><li>Creating common understanding of complex social issues and persistency of problems </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring alternative future together and opening up solution space </li></ul><ul><li>Co-producing experiments so as to influence and alter existing routines and practices </li></ul>
    23. 23. Transition management key ingredients - analytical <ul><li>Visions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability principles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying persistent problem and outlining desirable future perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Images and pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete translation of principles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio of strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments for learning and destabilisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexively evaluating progress, coherence and regime-impact </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Energytransition in the Netherlands Process design 2001
    25. 25. Energytransition in the Netherlands <ul><li>Started in 2001 as policy experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus on the over-all direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ safe, reliable, cost-effective, climate-neutral and robust energy-system’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Societal vision and debate on energytransition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More with Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanding transition community and support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political and social sense of urgency increases </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Emerging organizational structure 6 Directors general of: EZ VROM LNV (agriculture) V&W (mobility) Foreign Affairs Finance Task Force energy transition Interdepartmental projectdirectorate energy transition Platform sustainable mobility Platform New Gas Platform green resources Platform chain efficiency Platform sustainable Rotterdam Platform built environment exp exp exp exp exp exp exp exp exp exp
    27. 27. Platform Green Resources <ul><li>Envisioning: 30% green resources in 2040: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% bio-fuels  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25% chemicals/materials/products  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25% electricity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17% heat       </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Platform/ network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 150 partners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Combination of analysis and research with practical innovations and entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the level of platform, paths and experiments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of ideas and expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating space for innovation and competition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Transition pathways <ul><li>Sustainable biomass production   </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable import (chains) </li></ul><ul><li>Coproduction of chemicals, transport fuels, electricity and heat </li></ul><ul><li>Production of SNG (synthetic natural gas) for natural gas infrastructure  </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative use of green resources and greening of existing products and processes in chemical industry  </li></ul>
    29. 29. Signs of progress <ul><li>Up-scaling of the ‘energy transition’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ More with energy’, ‘Clean and limited use’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100 set up and financed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete goals, criteria and investement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass import, CCS, heating company, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network buildup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioplastics (bcpn), biofuels etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased ‘sense of urgency’ & societal debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary debate, increased involvement, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the level of national policy, between actors in platforms, at experiment level, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Example 2: ‘Roof Transition’ <ul><li>Esha group: market leader bituminous products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black roofs and tar roads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsustainable by-product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>waste, pollution, heat production in buildings, loss of functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach based on transition analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new business development based on open transition strategy </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. New agenda for the sector <ul><li>Ambition: to transform all black roofs into sustainable surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Principles: cradle to cradle, roofs solve local problems, sector as service provider,… </li></ul><ul><li>Images: energy-, water-, clean air- and safetyroofs </li></ul><ul><li>Evolving portfolio of pathways and experiments </li></ul>
    32. 32. The transition of “roofs & roads”
    33. 33. Roofs and Air Quality Air
    34. 34. Roofs and Energy Energy
    35. 35. Transition Black Grass Transitionlab Black Grass Transitionlab Black Grass Transitionlab Black Grass Transitionlab Black Grass Evolving transition agenda Emerging transition approach
    36. 36. Challenge 3: outline a transition agenda <ul><li>Define transition vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulate transition images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic or otherwise at sub-system level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify transition pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even possibly conflicting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(possibly mention a few experiments) </li></ul>
    37. 37. Implementing Transition management
    38. 38. Transition Management basic tenets <ul><li>Systems thinking as analytical basis </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term visions guide short-term action </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-actor approach </li></ul><ul><li>Taking multi-level dynamics into account </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping options open </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on learning, experiment and innovation </li></ul>
    39. 39. Rationale <ul><li>Acknowledging a fundamental problem and the necessity to act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shared problem perception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translate the problem in terms of a sustainability challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>integrative visions with different solutions and strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set out experiments in shared direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on innovation and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make choices and adapt goals and strategies based on experience </li></ul>
    40. 40. With whom? <ul><li>Social actors representative of the system complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments, business and industry, scientists, ngo’s, citizens, artists, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selected based on competences, backgrounds and character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to type of governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mix of regime and niche actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on phase and type of transition </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Governance framework for dealing with transitions Monitoring, evaluating and adapting Developing sustainability images, coalitions and joint transition-agendas Problem structuring, envisioning and organizing transition-arenas Mobilizing actors and transition- experiments Strategic (emphasis on system, culture) Tactical (emphasis on subsystem, structures) Operational (emphasis on niches, practices)
    42. 42. Reflexive thinking Reflexive attitude Participatory evaluation Adjustment of vision, agenda New experiments Adaptation Expert knowledge Structuring skills Transition monitoring Monitoring and evaluation Inventory of learning experiences Social learning Evaluation Project management Experiment portfolios Implementation Development Learning and communication Transition experiments, testing grounds Experimenting Innovation Operational Communication and consensus building Transition paths Innovation networks Coalition building Networking Thinking in terms of co-production, negotiation skills Transition agenda transition coalitions Exchange of goals, negotiations, shared goal -formulation Agenda-building Creativity, independence Transition images, transition paths Developing inspiring images, strategies Translating Tactical Communication and network skills, integrative capabilities Transition Arena, Integrated systems analysis Transition vision Exchange of perspectives, developing new discourse Reframing Creativity, guts, innovative ideas Transition Arena, Transition visions Envisioning Giving direction Systems thinking Integrated systems analysis System demarcation problem structuring Integration Strategic Capabilities Transition Instruments Activities Goals Type of governance activity
    43. 43. society Transitionarena Regular policy arena <ul><li>- Short term </li></ul><ul><li>- Peloton </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental change </li></ul><ul><li>Problem- and goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>- Long term </li></ul><ul><li>- Innovators </li></ul><ul><li>System-innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem- and goal searching </li></ul>The transition arena space for experimenting and envisioning
    44. 44. Arena process: you have just gone through it (too quickly) <ul><li>Integrated system analysis and actor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Problemstructuring </li></ul><ul><li>Envisioning and transition agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Network development </li></ul><ul><li> Develop joint understanding of complexity and activate individuals </li></ul>
    45. 45. What are results? <ul><li>Increased sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared problem definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared perspective and orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition and transition vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Space for innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental, institutional, financial, physical etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competent individuals with changed perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New elan and storng message/narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New coalitions and networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With shared transition agenda and experiments </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Transitionteam: who can manage? <ul><li>Domain experts, transition experts, problem owners </li></ul><ul><li>Iteration between analysis, process, implementation and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Managing’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis (structuring substance in terms of transitions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation (create space, support process) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuring (discussion, actions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting (actors, experiments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulating (discussion, competition, cooperation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link between regular and transition policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ TM-management’ </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Transitionizing <ul><li>Through joint implementation of TM regular context can be transitionized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context specifiek implementation is a craft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government: policy innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New mode of governance for sustainable development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companies: CSR+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactively creating new sustainable business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom line: it is about people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core question: how can we help individuals implement transition thinking to help their own practice? </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Transition research: activist science Sustainability Sciences History Policy sciences Complexity research Sociology Ecology MODE 1 Action Grounded theory consultancy Applied Participatory MODE 2
    49. 49. Final challenge 4: transition arena <ul><li>Select 15 participants (background and niche/regime mix) </li></ul><ul><li>Define the aim of the transition arena </li></ul><ul><li>Identify members of the transition team(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your own role: analyst, participant, initiator, facilitator, synthesizer, or…? </li></ul>
    50. 50. Lessons learned
    51. 51. Transitions <ul><li>Structural changes in culture, structure and practices </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from the past show that such changes are possible and inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions solve societal problems and simultaneously create new ones </li></ul><ul><li> not everything is a transition and not every transition is sustainable </li></ul>
    52. 52. Managing transitions <ul><li>Invest time and energy in frontrunners </li></ul><ul><li>Bring together innovative niche- and regime-actors in transitionarenas </li></ul><ul><li>Develop ‘shadow policy tracks’ </li></ul><ul><li>Set up transition experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Transform arenas and networks into social movement </li></ul><ul><li>Exert public and policy pressure </li></ul>
    53. 53. People change the world <ul><li>Transition management: </li></ul><ul><li>trying to combine system-down analysis and people-up innovation </li></ul>
    54. 54. Free access, open innovation <ul><li>Google: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ loorbach handle transition management’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next years google hits? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Jones transition PhD‘ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Arun TM india nuclear power’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Anna Z transitionizing slums’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ strategic niche manager Yohei’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Montana and Tapella Argentina transition arena’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Jing Chen sustainable journey China’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Gasmelseid transition consultancy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Kirsten solar transition experiment’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Adri bangladesh transition agenda’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Laffiteau Obama advisor’ </li></ul></ul>

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