Local Highways and Climate
Resilience Workshop
9th July 2013
Sustainability East
Cambridge
Welcome
John Onslow
Director of Infrastructure Management and
Operations
Cambridgeshire County Council
Video Message
From the Department for Transport
Norman Baker MP
Parliamentary Under Secretary for Transport
Michael Lord
Senior Advisor – Climate Change
Environment Agency
Climate change adaptation –
the national picture
Michael Lord
Senior Advisor – Climate Change
9 July 2013
Climate change - overview
The global climate is changing – land surface
temperatures have risen by around 0.7C since 1970s...
2003 heat wave: normal by 2040s, cool by 2080s?
observations
Medium-High emissions (modelled)
Source:PeterStott,HadleyCent...
The need to adapt to climate change
UK is already vulnerable to extreme weather
LAs already manage these risks
Preparing f...
National adaptation policy
Climate Change Act 2008
Climate Change Risk Assessment
National Adaptation Programme
Adaptation...
Climate Ready
New role for Environment Agency in 2012
Climate Ready is a service that aims to help key sectors increase th...
UK Climate Change Risk Assessment
National overview of climate change risks
Detailed analysis of 100 risks in 11 sectors
R...
National Adaptation Programme
National Adaptation Programme issued 1st July
Government‘s response to the CCRA -
describes ...
Department for Transport
DfT considers that ―adapting transport .... is an
important part of developing and maintaining a
...
Adaptation at the Highways Agency
Adaptation given high priority at HA
HA made detailed plans for long-term
resilience
Car...
Research – Climate Change &
Transport
Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate
Change Adaptation
Climate Resilient Infrastr...
John Onslow
Director of Infrastructure Management and
Operations
Cambridgeshire County Council
Climate Change & Local
Infrastructure
Perspective from the Profession:
Local Authority
10:10-10:20
Climate Change & Highways – The
Impacts
• The climate is changing in the UK
• Despite mitigation efforts we are committed
...
Vulnerabilities of local highways
Increasing temperature
Melting surfaces &
deformation of asphalt
More intense rainfall &...
Vulnerabilities of local highways
Rising sea levels, coastal
erosion & flooding
Permanent loss of
infrastructure
High wind...
The Big Challenges
• Increasing frequency of
severe weather events
• Austerity & budgets
• Place services competing
for sm...
What to consider……
• Identifying the risks– example in guidance
document from Cheshire West & Chester
• Wider service deli...
Opportunities
• Make the link between people and place
• Resilient local highways network = resilience
for business, schoo...
ISSUES IN THE EAST OF ENGLAND?
• Challenges of roads on peat soils
• Cold winters
• Drought damage
• Under-investment and ...
Climate Change & Highways – The
Impacts
• The climate is changing in the UK
• Despite mitigation efforts we are committed
...
Vulnerabilities of local highways
Increasing temperature
Melting surfaces &
deformation of asphalt
More intense rainfall &...
Vulnerabilities of local highways
Rising sea levels, coastal
erosion & flooding
Permanent loss of
infrastructure
High wind...
The Big Challenges
• Increasing frequency of
severe weather events
• Austerity & budgets
• Place services competing
for sm...
What to consider……
• Identifying the risks– example in guidance
document from Cheshire West & Chester
• Wider service deli...
Opportunities
• Make the link between people and place
• Resilient local highways network = resilience
for business, schoo...
Questions & Audience Discussion
1. Share local highway related
weather/climate issues that you have
experienced in your organisation
1. Identify key futur...
Refreshment Break
Welcome Back
David Sprunt
Strategy & Engagement Manager
Essex County Council
Perspective from the Profession:
Resources available from
UKRLG, HMEP, CIHT, ICE, CIRIA
11:40-11:50
Interdependencies
Engineering the future
http://www.engineeringthefuture.co.uk/
Timelines research
Asset management
• HMEP...
CIHT
• Transport system as a whole
– Assets
– Public Transport Providers
– Encouraging walking and cycling
• Climate Chang...
Winter guidance
Flooding/SCOUR
Pavements
Local Transport Adaptation Steering
Group
• Aim
The Local Transport Adaptation Steering
Group will lead the way in taking ...
Local Transport Adaptation Steering
Group
• How to use this guidance in conjunction
with UKCIP09 data/Met office data
• Up...
Perspective from the Profession:
Resources available from
UKRLG www.ukroadsliaisongroup.org/
HMEP www.dft.gov.uk/hmep/
CIH...
Dr Stuart Arnold
Director
Smith and Wallwork
Dr Stuart Arnold
Climate projections in use
Cambridge University Boat House, Ely
Background to the project
• CUBC require a new home in Ely
• Complex site selection process
• Site constraints
1. River Gr...
Key considerations
• Direct impact of flood waters
• Breaking through existing flood defence line
• Flood mitigation
• Sur...
Entrance layout
Retaining
sightlines
Protection
level
Flood
mitigation
Exceedence
events
Highway design
DRAW X-SECTION !!!
Peat erosion
Topsoil
slippage
Movement
tolerance
Clay core
shrinkage
Subsoil
movement
Hy...
Surface water drainage
Pervious Paving
Swales
Ponds/basins
R/W harvesting
Summary/lessons learnt
• Effects of climate change should be considered – even for seemingly small projects.
• Some impact...
www.smithandwallwork.com
Eddie Gibson
Senior Manager
East of England Local Government Association
Thinking Climate in
Highways
Procurement
Infrastructure – some
―Spending Review‖ headlines
£28Bn highways investment 2014-20
– Includes £10Bn to tackle repair back...
LEP Funding Allocations
2014-20
Greater Cambridge & Greater Peterborough 75.5
Hertfordshire 69.5
New Anglia 94.5
South Eas...
Procurement Context
New EU Procurement Directives due in late
2013
New ―National Procurement Strategy for Local
Government...
―Thinking Climate…?‖
Early Market Engagement
http://data.gov.uk/dataset/government-construction-
pipeline/resource/f64e155...
―Thinking Climate…?‖
Much Ado About Nothing
The Winter‘s Tale
As You Like It
Measure for Measure
All‘s Well that Ends Well
Questions & Audience Discussion
Workshop Discussion
1. Identify current barriers to embedding
climate change into your plans.
2. What changes and support ...
Summary & Next Steps
Close
• Thank you for attending
• A link will be mailed to all presentations
• Please complete the feedback survey
Close
• Thank you for attending
• A link will be mailed to all presentations
• Please complete the feedback survey
WHY ADAPT? RISK......
Climate Change
Reputational risk
Health & safety risk
Strategic riskFinancial risk
Operational risk
...
WHY ADAPT? COST......
Avoiding unexpected costs:
• Service interruption
• Cost of repairing damage
• Increased insurance p...
SUPPORT AVAILABLE
• Climate UK – Network across the UK
• Sustainability East
• Working in Partnership with the
Environment...
Climate change adaptation – the
national picture
Michael Lord
Senior Advisor – Climate Change
9 July 2013
Climate change - overview
• The global climate is changing – land surface
temperatures have risen by about 0.7C since 1970...
2003 heat wave: normal by 2040s, cool by 2080s?
observations
Medium-High emissions (modelled)
Source:PeterStott,HadleyCent...
The need to adapt to climate change
• UK is already vulnerable to extreme weather
• LAs already manage these risks
• Prepa...
National adaptation policy
The Climate Change Act 2008 creates a framework
for adaptation in the UK and includes:
UK Clima...
Climate Ready
• New role for Environment Agency in 2012
• Climate Ready is a service that aims to help key sectors
increas...
UK Climate Change Risk Assessment
• National overview of climate change risks
• Detailed analysis of 100 risks in 11 secto...
National Adaptation Programme
• NAP issued 1st July
• Government’s response to the CCRA - actions
by Government and others...
Department for Transport
• “Adapting transport .... is an important part of
developing and maintaining a network that supp...
Adaptation given high priority at HA
Carried out assessment of climate risks
Made changes in response such as:
increasing ...
Research – Climate Change &
Transport
• Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate
Change Adaptation
• Climate Resilient Infr...
Making It Happen
Local Case Studies
12th July 2013
Warrington
• Insert slides here by local speaker about local
case study
Case studies
— Climate UK and Partners resource
to accompany events
— 5 contrasting case studies
— Slapton Line Partnershi...
Slapton Line Partnership
— Shingle ridge road between the sea and a lagoon
— Formation of a community partnership to devel...
Worcestershire County Council
— Mapping and interpreting climate data
— Producing risk alert maps for drought, high temper...
3CAP Partnership
— Partnership between Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Leicestershire County Councils
and Scott Wilson
— P...
Drain London
— Surface water flood risk is most likely cause of flooding in London
— Drain London Forum formed by the Grea...
Southampton Highways Services Partnership
— Living Places Highways Services Partnership
— Engineering solutions now to red...
Questions
Local Highways and Climate Change Event 9th july 2013
Local Highways and Climate Change Event 9th july 2013
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Local Highways and Climate Change Event 9th july 2013

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Sustainability East hosted this event as part of a series of events across the country in partnership with ADEPT, the Department for Transport and Climate UK.

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  • IPCC foresees a further rise of between 1°C and 6°C by the end of the century. Average UK summer temperature is likely to rise by at least 3-4°C by the 2080s. (50th percentile in UKCP09) This would mean that a record-breaking summer like that in 2003 would become normal or even coolUKCP09The UK Climate Projections provide climate information for those needing to plan how they will adapt to a changing climate.Include projections for temperature, precipitation, cloud, humidity, sea level riseThe projections are presented for three different future scenarios representing high, medium and low greenhouse gas emissions. UKCP09 reflects scientists' best understanding of how the climate system might change in the future – but allows for a degree of uncertainty in the evidenceRegional projections (change to your region)Change by 2050s in the North East (based on UKCP09 central estimate (50th percentile) for medium emissions scenario based against 1961-1990 baseline)Summer mean temperatures are projected to increase on average by 2.3 degrees Winter mean temperatures are projected to increase on average 2.2 degrees 11% more rain in the winter 19% less rain in the summer Sea levels could rise by up to 22cm As a result of climate change we are also likely to see an increase in extreme and unpredictable weather
  • The summer of 2003 was exceptionally hot throughout Europe. 30,000 deaths attributed to the heat wave as well as economic losses of £7.5bnA summer this hot could well become normal by 2040s – and cooler than average by 2080s(black line is the observed temperature and shows the spike in 2003. Red line is modelled temperature under medium-high emissions scenario)
  • We need to prepare for the changing climateClimate change does not introduce new risks but changes the nature of existing risksThe UK is already vulnerable to extreme weather, including flooding and heatwaves, and we have to manage these present day risks So local authorities will already have measures in place to manage many climate risks, but the message is we could do better as a country to manage current risks – we’re often shown not to be resilient to the current weather; and many climate risks (in terms of magnitude and likelihood) are likely to increaseSo climate risks need to be assessed and actively managedClimate change projections are not certain, but the evidence is good enough to risk assessment and adaptation and planning.Adaptation is not a separate corporate interest and the ideal is not to have people with adaptation specialists, but for long-term climate risks to be managed as part of other business processesClimate adaptation in this context is not a green issue – it’s about resilient services.
  • UK is one of the only countries to have addressed climate change adaptation in a systemic way through legislation. Climate Change Act 2008 established a statutory framework for adaptation and set in place a five-year cycle for the Government which includes: climate change risk assessmentnational adaptation programmethe adaptation reporting powerWill be saying more about CCRA and NAP in a momentAdaptation Reporting Power Allows Government to direct certain organisations to submit a report on their climate risks. Power used in 2010 and reports submitted in 2011 – now available on Gov.ukFor the second round of the reporting power the Government will not issue directions, but will invite first round respondents to submit an update, and invite a handful of other organisations to report for the first timeSo most operators of strategic infrastructure in UK have given fairly in-depth consideration to their climate risks and published their plans to manage those risks. However local authorities were not directed to report – and will not be invited for the second round either. So local transport potentially a gap. (Highways Agency and Transport for London did submit reports.)Adaptation Sub-CommitteeClimate Change Act set up the Committee on Climate Change to advise the Government on climate change policy, and the Adaptation Sub-Committee (ASC) to advise on adaptation. ASC has identified infrastructure, including transport, as a priority for adaptation.It plans to release a report on infrastructure and adaptation in 2014.
  • Climate ReadyIn 2012 the Government asked EA to take on a new role on climate change adaptation (picking up work of UKCIP)Led to “Climate Ready” - support service to help organisations prepare for the changing climate. We worked with key partners – e.g. ones with logos shownClimate Ready provides general information on climate change – e.g. .... Helpdesk, Wizard, Bacliat etc Also carries out sector-specific projects in certain sectors, including infrastructure, and offers tailored support to organisations in those projects. Climate Ready service has sponsored these workshops.Climate UK & Climate LocalBriefly mention that Climate Ready works with these regional / local initiatives which have national coverageEA internal adaptation roleWe also have an important job to adapt ourselves to climate change – ensuring that we we take climate change into account in carrying out our functions, e.g flood risk management and managing water resources, and protecting the water and wetland environment.
  • The first UK CCRA came out in 2012 – a wide-ranging study involving– based on the projections in UKCP09 Drew evidence from literature reviews, expert elicitation and more detailed quantitative analysis and 100s of stakeholders identifies 100 potential impacts from climate change across 11 sectors, including transportStrategic highways were part of the CCRA analysis but not local roads, so it is important to address this gap and develop an understanding of the potential climate risks to local roads.KEY MESSAGESFlood risk is projected to increase significantly across the UKThe biggest risks to infrastructure identified in the CCRA are associated with flooding. Annual damage to UK properties due to flooding from rivers and the sea is currently around £1.3 billion. For England and Wales alone, the figure is projected to rise to between £2.1 billion and £12 billion by the 2080sOther significant findingsThere will be increasing pressure on water resources with potential major supply-demand deficits in five river basin regions – Anglian, Humber, Severn, North West England and the Thames basin.Sensitive ecosystems that are already threatened by land use changes may be placed under increasing pressure due to climate change. Potential climate risks overseas are much greater than those in the UK. These international risks could have major consequences for the UK through their impact on global health, political stability and international supply chains Significant gaps in evidence still exist. For example, further work is needed to improve understanding of the relationships between different climate risks and of how climate risk compares to risks from pressures such as population growth and land-use change
  • NAPThe Government released the first National Adaptation Programme in July 2013. It’s Government’s response to CCRAGovernment worked with industry, local government and civil society to develop NAPContains adaptation actions to tackle risks identified in the CCRA (by businesses, communities and civil society as well as Govt)Structured around seven themes: Built Environment; Infrastructure; Healthy and Resilient Communities; Agriculture and Forestry; Natural Environment; BusinessNAP is primarily a Programme for England but also covers reserved, excepted and non-devolved matters including a commitment from the Environment Agency’s Climate Ready service to help councils improve the resilience of local transport infrastructure. This commitment led to NAP – infrastructure sectionGovernment’s vision of a well-adapted infrastructure network is one that is resilient to today’s natural hazards and prepared for the future changing climate.Weather-related damage to infrastructure can be costly and can cause significant disruption to large numbers of people and the economy. There are potential economic consequences from local transport failure with knock-on implications for other sectors.Current NAP actions related to local transport1. LGA’s “Climate Local” initiative offers local transport authorities a framework for identifying how their infrastructure will be vulnerable to a changing climate. It sets out options to help them address risks along with supporting resources. 2. Climate change is highlighted in the UK Roads Liaison Group’s (UK RLG) Code of Practice for Well Maintained Highways. Future updates of other codes for management of highway assets will include more detailed references to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Future NAP actions related to local transport (this workshop supports both actions below...)1. DfT, UKRLG, ADEPT* and Climate UK will work together to build capacity and knowledge on local transport climate resilience 2. EA Climate Ready will support the LGA’s Climate Local initiative signpost advice, tools and examples that help councils improve the resilience of local transport infrastructure [*ADEPT = Association of Directors of Environment, Economy, Planning and Transport]
  • First quote is from DfT’s departmental adaptation plan (update in 2011)Local Transport Act 2008 placed a new duty on Local Transport Authorities to have regard to the government’s adaptation policies and guidance in their Local Transport Plans DfT’s Guidance on Local Transport Plans (2009) states: “it is important that local authorities put in place measures to improve the resilience of local transport to the impacts of climate change, such as flooding and the deterioration of roads, in line with the Government’s Adapting to Climate Change Programme ... and the UK Climate Projections”(Chapter 3 paragraph 12) From NAP:Department for Transport (DfT) is working with industry to increase climate resilience in the planning and design of transport infrastructure. DfT will continue to build adaptation into its major plans and strategies, thereby ensuring that project management and appraisals take the need to adapt into account – e.g. Roads Strategy 2013DfT has produced or contributed to specific climate related guidance, e.g.: ‘Maintaining Pavements in a Changing Climate’‘The effects of climate change on highway pavements and how to minimise them’And DfT has amended guidance documents to include the consideration of long term climate impacts, e.g.:‘Guidance on Local Transport Plans’‘Guidance for Local Authorities seeking Government funding for major transport schemes’‘Whole Life Costing for Option Appraisal of Maintenance Schemes for Local Authorities’ (soon to be published on the Transport Advice Portal)DfT leads or contributes to reserach in this areas. The Bridges Board are involved in a Highways Agency project ‘Assessment of Scour at Highway Structures’ to establish an appropriate standard in the ‘Design Manual for Roads and Bridges’. Local Authorities can chose to adapt this work (when complete) for application to bridges and structures on the local road networks.
  • Approach to Climate Change AdaptationHighways Agency is planning to adapt its assets – worth > £100 billionCCA is a priority on the corporate risk register (monthly reporting)CC factored into design; construction; maintenance and operationsHA does not think the cost of adaptation will be significant – but will help avoid costs associated with weather and climate impacts.Climate risksHA already experiences problems related to rain and high temperatures:2007 floods – many motorways blocked; 10,000 people stranded; cost of repairs £40-60M2009 floods - loss of several LA bridges; many people cut off from services such as schools and hospitalsClimate change will increase certain risks, e.g.:Heavy rain/flooding > reduced skid resistanceFlooding will lead to More scouring of bridge foundations; reduced performance of the network, congestion and accidentsrisk of LA routes becoming gridlocked if parts of strategic network are closed (most HA roads are at a higher elevation than local roads so if HA roads suffer fluvial flooding, it is likely that the adjacent LA roads will also flood)Range of factors, e.g. ineffective drainage, increased groundwater level, heat, changes in temperature, can damage pavementChanges in vegetation growth – due to longer growing season & lower summer rainPossibly more snow in winter – need more capability to deal with; drainage testedAll these risks could lead to higher costs due to more frequent renewal and incidents a and requirements for higher standardsOpportunitiesLess salt application in winterWarmer summers encouraging journeys by other meansHA actionsHA identified roads vulnerable to floodingDeveloped a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and FrameworkConsidering increased flood risk in design of embankments, culverts crossings, bridges etcMade changes to some technical standards to increase resilience e.g.HD33 drainage standard – increase capacity 20% – improved standard in Design Manual for Roads and BridgesRevised pavement specification (to French temperature standards) and introduced on parts of networkSpecified the design life of its assets from short life such as surface layer of pavement; up to assets which are expected to last 100+ years such as culverts, bridges and tunnels. So it’s more urgent to change these long-lasting ones.
  • Many reports and research projects in this areaInfrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation: ensuring services in an uncertain futureHigh-profile report by engineering institutions examine vulnerabilities in different sectors of the national infrastructure (energy, water transport, ICT) to climate change and the modifications thatwould be needed to increase resilience.Climate Resilient Infrastructure: Preparing Infrastructure for a Changing ClimateGovernment vision and policy on adapting infrastructure to climate change (2011)FUTURENET Investigating how transport network in 2050 that will be resilient to climate changeSimulates impact on travel of climate changeShows an increase in failed journeys is very likely – possibly a large increaseShows how delays propagate through the system eg (Landslip at Torbay and a flood in Birmingham caused widespread delays on the rail network from Plymouth to Edinburgh)BIOPICCCExploring adaptation strategies which ensure that infrastructures and health and social care systems supporting well-being of older people Found that disruption of road traffic and public transport networks are very important for access to health care during extreme weather events. Extreme weather (snow, ice and flooding) on the (local) road network have been shown to cause significant disruptions to health and social care. E.g.: problems for home care teams Supermarkets delivering food had no way of prioritising people most in needThere is a need for coordinated planning across county, district and local scales to ensure service continuity/contingency arrangements during extreme weather events ARCADIASeekingunderstanding of inter-relationships between climate impacts, the urban economy, land use, transport and the built environment For London tube – found that under a 2050 high scenario that all lines would experience complete or near-complete customer dissatisfaction with the thermal environment
  • The climate is changing – the evidence is overwhelming and we are beginning to feel the impacts in the UK. Important to remember the difference between weather and climate – weather is experienced over a short timescale (a day) and climate is the average for a locality over a period of 30 years – temperature and rainfall. The increase in the frequency and intensity of severe weather events in the UK is already having an impact on the local highways network. Five reasons to act Most highways infrastructure improvements require long term planning, significant financial investment and are expected to be robust and fully functional for decades to come. It is essential for local transport planning and highway authorities to build resilience for future climate change impacts into the decision making process for major schemes and routine maintenance activities. Five reasons to act now are:Regeneration: Reliable transport is essential for the local economyResilience: Strengthen the resilience and reliability of local transport now and in the futureEfficiency: Save money in the long term, by reducing the need for expensive maintenance and recovery operationsReputation: Maintain the council’s reputation and avoid adverse publicityDuty: The Local Transport Act 2008 placed a new duty on Local Transport Authori­ties to have regard to the government’s adaptation policies and guidance in their Local Transport Plans.
  • Vulnerabilities - UKCIP summary. In the guidance document in more detail. Increasing temperature (picture courtesy of Defra) Deformation of road asphalt & failure of expansion joints in concrete roads.Hardcore underpinning cracking – subsidence & heave. Heat affecting roadside equipment – specifically signalling, traffic management and telecoms equipment. Traveller discomfort & safety – overheating of drivers and passengers. Vehicle break-downs due to overheating. Changes in seasonal demand for transport. Changes in travel patterns, e.g. tourism. Risk to workers’ functioning and safety. More intense rainfall & flooding (picture courtesy of BBC)Intense rainfall overwhelming drainage systems. Flooding of the highway network, depots and other routes (pedestrian, cycling, and vehicular). Flood damage to roads surfaces, cycle ways and pavements. Rising water tables flooding underground networks, e.g. tunnels & underpasses. Scouring & weakening of bridge foundations with possible collapse. Embankments vulnerable to wash-aways or landslips. Flooding/failure of power sources and electrical equipment (road traffic management). Reduced visibility. Increased demand for car use. Potential increase in accident rates. Risks to travellers and workers’ safety.   
  • Rising sea levels, increased coastal erosion and flooding (Picture courtesy Hull Eastriding Mail) Permanent loss of routes and infrastructure at coastal sites due to erosion.Periodic flooding of coastal roads, pedestrian & cycling paths.Risk to travellers and workers’ safety.Increase in high winds, storms and storm surges (Picture courtesy BBC) High winds blow trees and other debris (signs, lights, equipment & street furniture) onto roads.Overhead power lines and street lighting columns blown down.Operational constraints at exposed locations, e.g. bridges, for high sided vehicles.High sided vehicles and freight wagons blown over.Sea inundating coastal infrastructure.Risk to travellers and workers’ safety.
  • Increasing frequency of severe weather events associated with climate change has brought new challenges for the highway maintenance service including, in some cases, considerable damage to the highway asset. This situation will need to be taken into account in authorities’ risk management strategies, together with research on new materials and practice to mitigate its effects.Add some impact detail here - £ and reputation from recent snow and ice, and last year floods Add local cost impacts for each region! Budgets – LA settlements ever decreasing and highways maintenance often the hardest hit. (update with recent budget announcement). New infrastructure takes account of climate change, maintenance does not! Roads are maintained to current standards – sticking together for the short term. 10% budget settlement reduction announced in spending review. Graph of Doom – stark reality of less of the total pot available for Place services and highways– doing nothing is an option, but will cost more longer term – business case needs to be developed including the impacts for wider service delivery – people impacts not just technical.
  • Risk management – changing climate and severe weather should be appearing on corporate risk registers in addition to service level registers. CWAC example of how to identify risks – use the climate projections for your locality to identify the likely impacts and identify the assets and services at risk. Wider Service Delivery – Adult Social Care, Schools, Waste Collection, – all LA services rely on local highways network – it must be resilient to shocks from extreme weather events and to the incremental impacts of a changing climate. Factoring this into the business case for investing in proactive maintenance of the local network is key. The example in the slide can be applied to many ‘people’ focussed services affected by local highways and lack of resilience. A resilient highways network that remains functional in times of severe weather (flooding, snowfall, ice) allows increased community resilience as community are able to step in for emergency service provision.Reputation – highways authorities often at receiving end of bad press in times of extreme weather. Communication is key, both at times of severe weather events and also to explain maintenance programmes and investment in adaptation measuresCost – making the business case for proactive maintenance. Awareness of constraints of capital vs revenue for adaptive measures eg ditch clearance and how to overcome this.
  • Building the business case for investment in the local highways network. Change the story! Investment in a resilient local highways network provides multiple health and wellbeing benefits as well as the technical benefits that this audience are well aware of. Use of language is important! Climate Change vs Resilient Infrastructure (when talking to Members) New health and wellbeing structures within local authorities provides an opportunity for recognition and awareness raising of the importance of timely adaptation across both the infrastructure and people agendas – building the business case for investing now for the future.
  • The climate is changing – the evidence is overwhelming and we are beginning to feel the impacts in the UK. Important to remember the difference between weather and climate – weather is experienced over a short timescale (a day) and climate is the average for a locality over a period of 30 years – temperature and rainfall. The increase in the frequency and intensity of severe weather events in the UK is already having an impact on the local highways network. Five reasons to act Most highways infrastructure improvements require long term planning, significant financial investment and are expected to be robust and fully functional for decades to come. It is essential for local transport planning and highway authorities to build resilience for future climate change impacts into the decision making process for major schemes and routine maintenance activities. Five reasons to act now are:Regeneration: Reliable transport is essential for the local economyResilience: Strengthen the resilience and reliability of local transport now and in the futureEfficiency: Save money in the long term, by reducing the need for expensive maintenance and recovery operationsReputation: Maintain the council’s reputation and avoid adverse publicityDuty: The Local Transport Act 2008 placed a new duty on Local Transport Authori­ties to have regard to the government’s adaptation policies and guidance in their Local Transport Plans.
  • Vulnerabilities - UKCIP summary. In the guidance document in more detail. Increasing temperature (picture courtesy of Defra)Deformation of road asphalt & failure of expansion joints in concrete roads.Hardcore underpinning cracking – subsidence & heave. Heat affecting roadside equipment – specifically signalling, traffic management and telecoms equipment. Traveller discomfort & safety – overheating of drivers and passengers. Vehicle break-downs due to overheating. Changes in seasonal demand for transport. Changes in travel patterns, e.g. tourism. Risk to workers’ functioning and safety. More intense rainfall & flooding (picture courtesy of BBC)Intense rainfall overwhelming drainage systems. Flooding of the highway network, depots and other routes (pedestrian, cycling, and vehicular). Flood damage to roads surfaces, cycle ways and pavements. Rising water tables flooding underground networks, e.g. tunnels & underpasses. Scouring & weakening of bridge foundations with possible collapse. Embankments vulnerable to wash-aways or landslips. Flooding/failure of power sources and electrical equipment (road traffic management). Reduced visibility. Increased demand for car use. Potential increase in accident rates. Risks to travellers and workers’ safety.   
  • Rising sea levels, increased coastal erosion and flooding (Picture courtesy Hull Eastriding Mail)Permanent loss of routes and infrastructure at coastal sites due to erosion.Periodic flooding of coastal roads, pedestrian & cycling paths.Risk to travellers and workers’ safety.Increase in high winds, storms and storm surges (Picture courtesy BBC) High winds blow trees and other debris (signs, lights, equipment & street furniture) onto roads.Overhead power lines and street lighting columns blown down.Operational constraints at exposed locations, e.g. bridges, for high sided vehicles.High sided vehicles and freight wagons blown over.Sea inundating coastal infrastructure.Risk to travellers and workers’ safety.
  • Increasing frequency of severe weather events associated with climate change has brought new challenges for the highway maintenance service including, in some cases, considerable damage to the highway asset. This situation will need to be taken into account in authorities’ risk management strategies, together with research on new materials and practice to mitigate its effects.Add some impact detail here - £ and reputation from recent snow and ice, and last year floods Add local cost impacts for each region! Budgets – LA settlements ever decreasing and highways maintenance often the hardest hit. (update with recent budget announcement). New infrastructure takes account of climate change, maintenance does not! Roads are maintained to current standards – sticking together for the short term. 10% budget settlement reduction announced in spending review. Graph of Doom – stark reality of less of the total pot available for Place services and highways– doing nothing is an option, but will cost more longer term – business case needs to be developed including the impacts for wider service delivery – people impacts not just technical.
  • Risk management – changing climate and severe weather should be appearing on corporate risk registers in addition to service level registers. CWAC example of how to identify risks – use the climate projections for your locality to identify the likely impacts and identify the assets and services at risk. Wider Service Delivery – Adult Social Care, Schools, Waste Collection, – all LA services rely on local highways network – it must be resilient to shocks from extreme weather events and to the incremental impacts of a changing climate. Factoring this into the business case for investing in proactive maintenance of the local network is key. The example in the slide can be applied to many ‘people’ focussed services affected by local highways and lack of resilience. A resilient highways network that remains functional in times of severe weather (flooding, snowfall, ice) allows increased community resilience as community are able to step in for emergency service provision.Reputation – highways authorities often at receiving end of bad press in times of extreme weather. Communication is key, both at times of severe weather events and also to explain maintenance programmes and investment in adaptation measuresCost – making the business case for proactive maintenance. Awareness of constraints of capital vs revenue for adaptive measures eg ditch clearance and how to overcome this.
  • Building the business case for investment in the local highways network. Change the story! Investment in a resilient local highways network provides multiple health and wellbeing benefits as well as the technical benefits that this audience are well aware of. Use of language is important! Climate Change vs Resilient Infrastructure (when talking to Members)New health and wellbeing structures within local authorities provides an opportunity for recognition and awareness raising of the importance of timely adaptation across both the infrastructure and people agendas – building the business case for investing now for the future.
  • Engineering the Futureis an alliance of professional engineering institutions and national organisations that between them represent 450,000 professional engineers.Through Engineering the Future, the engineering profession speaks with one voice on engineering issues of national and international importance.They provide independent – and expert – engineering advice to government and aim to promote understanding of the critical contribution that engineering makes to national policy and to addressing the grand challenges.The issue of climate change and adaptation is a focus for this alliance.Timelines research provides a good indication of the interdependencies between infrastructure assets. Helps practitioners and managers consider the key links between different types of infrastructure – for example how the energy industry affects transport, how transport effects the water sector and so on.Asset Management is critical. Critical highway infrastructure is considered to be those assets where failure would result in significant impact to the local, and potentially the national, economy. Critical infrastructure assets form a crucial part of the highway network and may include assets such as major bridges and tunnels. There are many potential risks and threats to the function of critical infrastructure, such as climate change, including impacts from flooding, rising temperature, changing sea levels, high winds and drought. The UK Roads Liaison Group has endorsed and taken ownership of the new ‘Highway infrastructure asset management’ guidance funded and developed through the Highways Maintenance Efficiency Programme (HMEP).
  • Chartered Institution of Highways & TransportationCIHT is a membership organisation representing over 12,000 people who work in the highways and transportation sector.CIHT members plan, design, build, operate and maintain best-in-class transport systems and infrastructure, whilst respecting the imperatives of improving safety, ensuring economic competitiveness and minimising environmental impact. CIHT looks at the wider economic, social and environmental aspects of transport and how transport underpins what society wants and needs.  CIHT has a Sustainable Transport Panel and this has been important for promoting Smarter Travel.  The panel has been working with Government to ensure that planning and transport’s critical role in adaption and mitigation policy in the context of climate change is properly considered.  CIHT want to ensure that authorities consider the transport system as whole - including maintaining assets, working with partners including public transport providers, and encouraging walking and cycling - so as to ensure that there is access for all. In CIHT’s manifesto calls for UK Governments to act to reduce the impact that the highways & transportation sector will have on the environment.  UK Governments need to implement behavioural change policies, including Travel Planning and Smarter Choices, which will contribute to a reduction in an individual’s carbon footprint.   The UK has seen transport carbon emissions increase whilst other sectors have managed to achieve significant reductions.  UK figures have shown that any improvement in the fuel economy of new vehicles has been negated by the continual increase in road traffic levels. CIHT believe that through the introduction of an incentive and reward approach that promotes a more efficient use of cars through the price of fuel, greater promotion of eco-driving and better enforcement of speed limits, significant carbon savings could be made.   CIHT’s ‘Climate Change & Sustainable Transport Report (2008) outlined areas where the impact of the transport sector on climate change should be addressed.  These include:   Managing Demand (Planning Policies, Impact of Retail and Freight Demand Management)Changing Behaviour (Use of Smarter Choices and ways to alter travel behaviour)Accessibility and Social Equity (Promoting Walking & Cycling, Making Use of the Current Asset, Public Transport Provision and Social Sustainability)Technology and SafetyAlternative Fuels, Changes to Design Standards CIHT run a number of events, and recently hosted a seminar (available online at www.ciht.org.uk/hmepdrainage) on the Management of Drainage Assets based on guidance from the Highways Maintenance Efficiency Programme.  CIHT also provide the Secretariat to the UK Roads Liaison Group and provided support to the review:  Lessons from the Severe Weather February 2009’. 
  • WinterThere have been a number of reviews following the period of severe weather in 2009. The UKRLG was commissioned back then to undertake a review to increase the resilience of Local Highways – as shown on the screen, ‘Lessons from the Severe Weather February 2009’ was published in July 2009, the review made recommendations in four themes: winter service resilience, preparation for and operation of winter service, communications, procurement.The recommendation that highway authorities adopt a winter service resilience standard will ensure that preparation for winter service is more rigorous and that more resources, especially salt, are available to respond to severe conditions (Recommendation 8). Following another severe winter period, the Government this was followed by the Quarmby Review. This was an independent review into the response of England’s transport system to severe winter weather was announced by the then Secretary of State on 30th March 2010; Lessons Learned from the Severe Weather of Winter 2009-10. The review, steered by a panel of three leading independent experts, considered the resilience of our Transport systems to periods of severe winter weather and reported in two stages, with an interim report published in July 2010 and final report published in October 2010.Guidance contained within Well-maintained Highways has been updated to account of both of these reviews.Just recently, the RAC Foundation recently reported that good progress had been made by local highway authorities and that the local network was more resilient to periods of snowfall: as David Quarmby noted: Overall, the picture he paints is a positive one. It was notable that, without exception, local authorities are maintaining their level of spending on winter resilience despite general budget cuts. There was also evidence of cooperation between adjacent and intertwined county, district and parish councils. This activity was underpinned by improved consultation with local communities and better communications with the media and the public.
  • FloodingHMEP published, fairly recently, guidance on the management of drainage assets. There is good case study material, for example from the Highways Agency on manage flood risk hotspots to targeting inspection regimes in Cornwall. The use of technology is also an important consideration here. You can find further information at www.ciht.org.uk/hmepdrainage One area vulnerable on the network is bridges. As you will know Scour is the result of the erosive action of flowing water, excavating and carrying awaymaterial from the bed and banks of streams and from around the piers and abutments of bridges.CIRIA is undertaking work on an update to the scour manual. CIRIA are updating their Manual on scour at bridges and other hydraulic structures (C551) which was written over ten years ago and became a reference standard for transportation and related infrastructure owners and operators together with government departments and local authorities. Structures built in or near rivers and other channels can be vulnerable to scour around their foundations. If the depth of the scour becomes significant, the stability of the foundations may be endangered, with a risk of damage or failure of the structure. Scour is not a new phenomenon, but the increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (at least in part as a consequence of climate change) over the past ten years has acted as a salient reminder as to the vulnerability of aged infrastructure assets and that the design basis for more newly constructed works may not be as robust as intended. CIRIA are also have a project on Managing urban flooding from heavy rainfall – encouraging the uptake of designing for exceedance which is of relevance to the highways sector. The Code of Practice – Management of Highway Structures will take account of the updates and a planned revision to the document will include a new chapter on risk and resilience.
  • Most highway authorities have already experienced the impacts of climate change on their operations in recent years which have caused damage, accelerated deterioration, disruption and increased costs. The Department for Transport commissioned TRL to improve the understanding among local highway engineers of the implications of the predicted change in climate parameters, such as rainfall and temperature, for highway pavements and how the impacts might be minimised. This report provides the detailed technical information which is the basis for a DfT guidance document, Maintaining Pavements in a Changing Climate. This technical report describes the impact climate has on the different types of pavement; asphalt, concrete, modular and unbound. The vulnerability of a pavement to climate depends on factors such as pavement type and condition, local geology, traffic flow and proximity to hydrological features. The key climate variables for pavements are temperature, precipitation and soil moisture. The report describes the implications of changes in these variables for the maintenance of the different pavement types. Case studies are used to illustrate the types of impacts climate has had on highways. Recommendations are given on how to adapt to the changing climate and advice is provided for highway engineers on assessing the risk of different climate hazards for their network. The use of adaptive maintenance practices such as permeable pavements and polymer modified binders is encouraged. Other more general actions, such as improving the overall condition of the pavement and providing adequate drainage systems are also encouraged.
  • ObjectivesThe objectives of this group are to: provide leadership for taking adaptive action at a local level promote communication between central and local Government, business, infrastructure and transport organisations, agencies, forums, professional bodies etcprovide feedback on local transport issues to the Local Authority Adaptation Programme (LAAP) and representation at LAAP meetings act as a forum to bring together stakeholders to address interdependencies provide a framework for sharing experience, lessons, good practice, knowledge, evidence, skills etcinfluence national and local policy and strategy into supporting the adaptation of local transportexplore adaptation options that can be shared Reps from DfT, CIHT, ADEPT, UKRLG, ICE, CUK, EA/Climate Ready Group reports to the LAAP (Local Adaptation Advisory Panel)
  • Overview of upcoming work programme for the steering groupRequest for delegates to engage with the steering group to ensure work programme is relevant to issue highways authorities are facing on the ground. Updating code of practice – include picking up issues raised earlier such as new guidance on scour and updated winter appendix H due to be published shortly. This was highlighted in the RAC Foundation publication that was mentioned earlier.
  • Thank you for listening.Here are a number of website addresses where you can look to find further information.
  • So much for the Age of Austerity
  • £511M in the region over the next 6 years
  • Industry survey said that 70% of procurement processes were either the same or worse than previous yearsIn major construction areas, only Energy projects had a worse “certainty” rating than HighwaysLink is to Cabinet Office’s “Keeping the Country Running” report which includes a Resilience Checklist for Infrastructure OwnersOr use of the Government standard PQQ for restricted procurements
  • 2012 wettest year on record in England and 2nd wettest in the UKHow many homes in England at risk of flooding? One in sixHow much electricity infrastructure at risk of flooding? 14%Sea levels rose around the UK during the 20th Century by…? 10 cm15 warmest years on record in the UK all since….? 1990Number of potholes filled this year? 1.7M In 2006? 944KColder winters? Apparently not – from the last 50 years, only 1978-9 makes it into the coldest 50 winters in the UK. It’s wetter and still cold enough to freeze. Avoid tick-box assessment of policies etc.
  • Lot going on to prepare for climate change at the national levelImportant to understand national context of local response and to know what resources there are to help
  • IPCC foresees a further rise of between 1°C and 6°C by the end of the century. Further change is unavoidable and warming will continue over the next century at leastAverage UK summer temperature could rise by 3-4°C by the 2080s. (50th percentile in UKCP09) This would mean that a record-breaking summer like that in 2003 would become normal or even cool (see next slide)UKCP09The UK Climate Projections provide climate information for those needing to plan how they will adapt to a changing climate.Include projections for temperature, precipitation, cloud, humidity, sea level riseThe projections are presented for three different future scenarios representing high, medium and low greenhouse gas emissions. UKCP09 reflects scientists' best understanding of how the climate system might change in the future – but allows for a degree of uncertainty in the evidenceRegional projections (change to your region)Change by 2050s in the North East (based on UKCP09 central estimate (50th percentile) for medium emissions scenario based against 1961-1990 baseline)Summer mean temperatures are projected to increase on average by 2.3 degrees Winter mean temperatures are projected to increase on average 2.2 degrees 11% more rain in the winter 19% less rain in the summer Sea levels could rise by up to 22cm As a result of climate change we are also likely to see an increase in extreme and unpredictable weather
  • The summer of 2003 was exceptionally hot throughout Europe. 30,000 deaths attributed to the heat wave as well as economic losses of £7.5bnA summer this hot could well become normal by 2040s – and cooler than average by 2080s(black line is the observed temperature and shows the spike in 2003. Red line is modelled temperature under medium-high emissions scenario)
  • We need to prepare for the changing climateClimate change does not introduce new risks but changes the nature of existing risksThe UK is already vulnerable to extreme weather, including flooding and heatwaves, and we have to manage these present day risks So local authorities will already have measures in place to manage many climate risks, but the message is we could do better as a country to manage current risks – we’re often shown not to be resilient to the current weather; and many climate risks are likely to increase (in both magnitude and likelihood)So climate risks need to be assessed and actively managedClimate change projections are not certain, but the evidence is good enough to risk assessment and adaptation and planning.Adaptation is not a separate corporate interest we want long-term climate risks to be managed as part of other business processesClimate adaptation in this context is not a green issue – it’s about resilient services.
  • UK is one of the only countries to have addressed climate change adaptation in a systemic way through legislation. Climate Change Act 2008 established a statutory framework for adaptation and set in place a five-year cycle for the Government which includes: climate change risk assessmentnational adaptation programmethe adaptation reporting powerWill be saying more about CCRA and NAP in a momentAdaptation Reporting Power Allows Government to direct certain organisations to submit a report on their climate risks. Power used in 2010 and reports submitted in 2011 – now available on Gov.ukFor the second round of the reporting power the Government will not issue directions, but will invite first round respondents to submit an update, and invite a handful of other organisations to report for the first timeSo most operators of strategic infrastructure in UK have given fairly in-depth consideration to their climate risks and published their plans to manage those risks. However local authorities were not directed to report – and will not be invited for the second round either. So local transport potentially a gap. (Highways Agency and Transport for London did submit reports.)Adaptation Sub-CommitteeClimate Change Act set up the Committee on Climate Change to advise the Government on climate change policy, and the Adaptation Sub-Committee (ASC) to advise on adaptation. ASC has identified infrastructure, including transport, as a priority for adaptation.It plans to release a report on infrastructure and adaptation in 2014.
  • Climate ReadyIn 2012 the Government asked EA to take on a new role on climate change adaptation (picking up work of UKCIP)Led to “Climate Ready” - support service to help organisations prepare for the changing climate. We worked with key partners – e.g. ones with logos shownClimate Ready provides general information on climate change – e.g. .... Helpdesk, Wizard, Bacliat etc Also carries out sector-specific projects in certain sectors, including infrastructure, and offers tailored support to organisations in those projects. Climate Ready service has sponsored these workshops.Climate UK & Climate LocalBriefly mention that Climate Ready works with these regional / local initiatives which have national coverageEA internal adaptation roleWe also have an important job to adapt ourselves to climate change – ensuring that we we take climate change into account in carrying out our functions, e.g flood risk management and managing water resources, and protecting the water and wetland environment.
  • First UK CCRA came out in 2012 – a wide-ranging study based on the projections in UKCP09 Drew evidence from literature reviews, detailed quantitative analysis and 100s of stakeholders Identifies 100 potential impacts from climate change across 11 sectors, including transportStrategic highways were part of the CCRA analysis but not local roads, so it is important for local transport authorities to help address this gap and develop an understanding of the potential climate risks to local roads.KEY MESSAGESFlood risk is projected to increase significantly across the UKThe biggest risks to infrastructure identified in the CCRA are associated with flooding. Annual damage to UK properties due to flooding from rivers and the sea is currently around £1.3 billion. For England and Wales alone, this figure is projected to rise to between £2.1 billion and £12 billion by the 2080sOther significant findingsThere will be increasing pressure on water resources with potential major supply-demand deficits in five river basin regions – Anglian, Humber, Severn, North West England and the Thames basin.Sensitive ecosystems that are already threatened by land use changes may be placed under increasing pressure due to climate change. Potential climate risks overseas are much greater than those in the UK. These international risks could have major consequences for the UK through their impact on global health, political stability and international supply chains Significant gaps in evidence still exist. For example, further work is needed to improve understanding of the relationships between different climate risks, and of how climate risk compares to risks from pressures such as population growth and land-use change
  • NAPGovernment released the first National Adaptation Programme on 1 July 2013. It’s Government’s response to CCRAGovernment worked with industry, local government and civil society to develop NAPContains adaptation actions to tackle risks identified in the CCRA (by businesses, communities and civil society as well as Govt)Structured around seven themes: Built Environment; Infrastructure; Healthy and Resilient Communities; Agriculture and Forestry; Natural Environment; BusinessNAP is primarily a programme for England but also covers reserved, excepted and non-devolved mattersNAP annex: ‘Economics of the NAP’ which outlines the potential costs and benefits of climate changeNAP – infrastructure section:Government’s vision: a well-adapted infrastructure network is that is resilient to today’s natural hazards and prepared for the future climate.Weather-related damage to infrastructure can be costly and can cause significant disruption to large numbers of people and the economy. Local transport failure has economic consequences with knock-on implications for other sectors.Current NAP actions related to local transport1. LGA’s “Climate Local” initiative offers local transport authorities a framework for identifying how their infrastructure will be vulnerable to a changing climate. It sets out options to help them address risks along with supporting resources. 2. Climate change is highlighted in the UK Roads Liaison Group’s (UK RLG) Code of Practice for Well Maintained Highways. Future updates of other codes for management of highway assets will include more detailed references to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Future NAP actions related to local transport (this workshop supports both actions below...)1. DfT, UK RLG, ADEPT* and Climate UK will work together to build capacity and knowledge on local transport climate resilience 2. EA Climate Ready will support the LGA’s Climate Local initiative signpost advice, tools and examples that help councils improve the resilience of local transport infrastructure [*ADEPT = Association of Directors of Environment, Economy, Planning and Transport]
  • Quotation is from DfT’s departmental adaptation plan (update in 2011). Worth mentioning that infrastructure (incl transport) is high on the political agenda - for two reasons:i) we’re increasingly reliant on it and it needs to become more resilient ii) it’s necessary for economic growthEvidence of importance to Govt : National Infrastructure Plans, Infrastructure UK (in Treasury) and ‘Investing in Britain’ (in which Govt pledged £6billion for repairs to local roads)Local Transport Act 2008 placed a new duty on Local Transport Authorities to have regard to the government’s adaptation policies and guidance in their Local Transport Plans DfT’s Guidance on Local Transport Plans (2009) states: “it is important that local authorities put in place measures to improve the resilience of local transport to the impacts of climate change, such as flooding and the deterioration of roads, in line with the Government’s Adapting to Climate Change Programme ... and the UK Climate Projections” (chpt 3, para 12) From NAP: DfT is working with industry to increase climate resilience in the planning and design of transport infrastructure. DfT will continue to build adaptation into its major plans and strategies, thereby ensuring that project management and appraisals take the need to adapt into account – e.g. Roads Strategy 2013.DfT has produced or contributed to specific climate related guidance, e.g.: ‘Maintaining Pavements in a Changing Climate’‘The effects of climate change on highway pavements and how to minimise them’And DfT has amended guidance documents to include the consideration of long term climate impacts, e.g.:‘Guidance on Local Transport Plans’‘Guidance for Local Authorities seeking Government funding for major transport schemes’‘Whole Life Costing for Option Appraisal of Maintenance Schemes for Local Authorities’ (soon to be published on the Transport Advice Portal)DfT leads or contributes to research in this area. The Bridges Board are involved in a Highways Agency project ‘Assessment of Scour at Highway Structures’ to establish an appropriate standard in the ‘Design Manual for Roads and Bridges’. Local Authorities can chose to adapt this standard to their projects.
  • Approach to Climate Change AdaptationHighways Agency is planning to adapt its assets – worth > £100 billionCCA is a priority on the corporate risk register (monthly reporting)CC factored into design; construction; maintenance and operationsHA does not think the cost of adaptation will be significant – but will help avoid costs associated with weather and climate impacts.It’s worth learning from HA as they’ve has the resources to really think about climate riskClimate risksHA already experiences problems related to rain and high temperatures:2007 floods – many motorways blocked; 10,000 people stranded; cost of repairs £40-60M2009 floods - loss of several LA bridges; many people cut off from services such as schools and hospitalsClimate change will increase certain risks, e.g.:Heavy rain/flooding > reduced skid resistanceFlooding will lead to More scouring of bridge foundations; reduced performance of the network, congestion and accidentsrisk of LA routes becoming gridlocked if parts of strategic network are closed (most HA roads are at a higher elevation than local roads so if HA roads suffer fluvial flooding, it is likely that the adjacent LA roads will also flood)Range of factors, e.g. ineffective drainage, increased groundwater level, heat, changes in temperature, can damage pavementChanges in vegetation growth – due to longer growing season & lower summer rainPossibly more snow in winter – need more capability to deal with; drainage testedAll these risks could lead to higher costs due to more frequent renewal and incidents a and requirements for higher standardsOpportunitiesLess salt application in winterWarmer summers encouraging journeys by other meansHA actionsHA identified roads vulnerable to floodingDeveloped a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and FrameworkConsidering increased flood risk in design of embankments, culverts crossings, bridges etcMade changes to some technical standards to increase resilience e.g.HD33 drainage standard – increase capacity 20% – improved standard in Design Manual for Roads and BridgesRevised pavement specification (to French temperature standards) and introduced on parts of networkSpecified the design life of its assets from short life such as surface layer of pavement; up to assets which are expected to last 100+ years such as culverts, bridges and tunnels. So it’s more urgent to change these long-lasting ones.
  • [Only need to cover this slide if there’s time]Many reports and research projects in this areaInfrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation: ensuring services in an uncertain futureHigh-profile report by engineering institutions examine vulnerabilities in different sectors of the national infrastructure (energy, water transport, ICT) to climate change and the modifications thatwould be needed to increase resilience.Climate Resilient Infrastructure: Preparing Infrastructure for a Changing ClimateGovernment vision and policy on adapting infrastructure to climate change (2011)ITRC – Infrastructure Transitions Research ConsortiumProducing models and tools to help long-term planning of a robust national infrastructure systemBIOPICCCExploring adaptation strategies which ensure that infrastructures and health and social care systems support well-being of older people Found that disruption of road traffic and public transport networks are very important for access to health care during extreme weather events. Extreme weather (snow, ice and flooding) on the (local) road network have been shown to cause significant disruptions to health and social care. E.g.: problems for home care teams Supermarkets delivering food had no way of prioritising people most in needShows need for coordinated planning across county, district and local scales to ensure service continuity/contingency arrangements during extreme weather events FUTURENET Simulating transport network in 2050 and the impact of climate changeShows an increase (possibly large) in failed journeys is very likelyProduced model which shows how a failure in one or two locations can cause delays throughout the systemARCADIAExploring inter-relationships between climate impacts, the urban economy, land use, transport and the built environment For London tube – found that under a 2050 high scenario that all lines would be uncomfortably hot in summer
  • Local Highways and Climate Change Event 9th july 2013

    1. 1. Local Highways and Climate Resilience Workshop 9th July 2013 Sustainability East Cambridge
    2. 2. Welcome John Onslow Director of Infrastructure Management and Operations Cambridgeshire County Council
    3. 3. Video Message From the Department for Transport Norman Baker MP Parliamentary Under Secretary for Transport
    4. 4. Michael Lord Senior Advisor – Climate Change Environment Agency
    5. 5. Climate change adaptation – the national picture Michael Lord Senior Advisor – Climate Change 9 July 2013
    6. 6. Climate change - overview The global climate is changing – land surface temperatures have risen by around 0.7C since 1970s Some degree of further change is unavoidable and warming will continue over the next century at least UKCP09: • increases in summer and winter temperatures • increases in winter rainfall, decreases in summer rainfall • more days of heavy rainfall • rising sea levels.
    7. 7. 2003 heat wave: normal by 2040s, cool by 2080s? observations Medium-High emissions (modelled) Source:PeterStott,HadleyCentre Europeansummertemperatures
    8. 8. The need to adapt to climate change UK is already vulnerable to extreme weather LAs already manage these risks Preparing for climate change is crucial because: 1.We should improve resilience to the current weather 2.Climate change will increase current risks Adapting to climate change is about resilient services
    9. 9. National adaptation policy Climate Change Act 2008 Climate Change Risk Assessment National Adaptation Programme Adaptation Reporting Power Adaptation Sub-Committee
    10. 10. Climate Ready New role for Environment Agency in 2012 Climate Ready is a service that aims to help key sectors increase their resilience to climate risks Provides general information to help organisations adapt Offers a tailored support service and runs specific projects with partners (e.g. these workshops...)
    11. 11. UK Climate Change Risk Assessment National overview of climate change risks Detailed analysis of 100 risks in 11 sectors Risks evaluated by size and timing of impacts, and confidence in the assessment Flooding identified as biggest risk in most sectors, including transport CCRA should inform adaptation response
    12. 12. National Adaptation Programme National Adaptation Programme issued 1st July Government‘s response to the CCRA - describes actions Government and others are taking to adapt to climate change NAP highlights economic consequences of local transport failure Several actions to improve local transport resilience
    13. 13. Department for Transport DfT considers that ―adapting transport .... is an important part of developing and maintaining a network that supports long term economic growth― Local transport authorities have duty to improve resilience of local transport to climate change Adaptation guidance included in several pieces of DfT guidance In NAP DfT pledges to continue building climate resilience into its transport and roads strategies – e.g. Roads Strategy 2013
    14. 14. Adaptation at the Highways Agency Adaptation given high priority at HA HA made detailed plans for long-term resilience Carried out assessment of climate risks Made changes in response such as: increasing capacity of drainage standard introduced new pavement specifications HA believes its changes and plans will save money and protect its assets
    15. 15. Research – Climate Change & Transport Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation Climate Resilient Infrastructure BIOPICC FUTURENET ARCADIA
    16. 16. John Onslow Director of Infrastructure Management and Operations Cambridgeshire County Council
    17. 17. Climate Change & Local Infrastructure Perspective from the Profession: Local Authority 10:10-10:20
    18. 18. Climate Change & Highways – The Impacts • The climate is changing in the UK • Despite mitigation efforts we are committed to a level of climate change • Warmer summers, increased rainfall (intensity of rainfall & flooding), increase in storm surges and high winds
    19. 19. Vulnerabilities of local highways Increasing temperature Melting surfaces & deformation of asphalt More intense rainfall & flooding Bridge scour & possible collapse
    20. 20. Vulnerabilities of local highways Rising sea levels, coastal erosion & flooding Permanent loss of infrastructure High winds, storms & storm surges Debris blown onto roads
    21. 21. The Big Challenges • Increasing frequency of severe weather events • Austerity & budgets • Place services competing for smaller slice of the pie with People Services
    22. 22. What to consider…… • Identifying the risks– example in guidance document from Cheshire West & Chester • Wider service delivery & interdependency • Reputation • Cost
    23. 23. Opportunities • Make the link between people and place • Resilient local highways network = resilience for business, schools, social care • Public Health - link to health and wellbeing agenda
    24. 24. ISSUES IN THE EAST OF ENGLAND? • Challenges of roads on peat soils • Cold winters • Drought damage • Under-investment and fragile asset • SUDs • Economic growth / Transport strategies • Joining up “place” services
    25. 25. Climate Change & Highways – The Impacts • The climate is changing in the UK • Despite mitigation efforts we are committed to a level of climate change • Warmer summers, increased rainfall (intensity of rainfall & flooding), increase in storm surges and high winds
    26. 26. Vulnerabilities of local highways Increasing temperature Melting surfaces & deformation of asphalt More intense rainfall & flooding Bridge scour & possible collapse
    27. 27. Vulnerabilities of local highways Rising sea levels, coastal erosion & flooding Permanent loss of infrastructure High winds, storms & storm surges Debris blown onto roads
    28. 28. The Big Challenges • Increasing frequency of severe weather events • Austerity & budgets • Place services competing for smaller slice of the pie with People Services
    29. 29. What to consider…… • Identifying the risks– example in guidance document from Cheshire West & Chester • Wider service delivery & interdependency • Reputation • Cost
    30. 30. Opportunities • Make the link between people and place • Resilient local highways network = resilience for business, schools, social care • Public Health - link to health and wellbeing agenda
    31. 31. Questions & Audience Discussion
    32. 32. 1. Share local highway related weather/climate issues that you have experienced in your organisation 1. Identify key future threats you expect 1. Where do you currently get information and support on these issues from?
    33. 33. Refreshment Break
    34. 34. Welcome Back
    35. 35. David Sprunt Strategy & Engagement Manager Essex County Council
    36. 36. Perspective from the Profession: Resources available from UKRLG, HMEP, CIHT, ICE, CIRIA 11:40-11:50
    37. 37. Interdependencies Engineering the future http://www.engineeringthefuture.co.uk/ Timelines research Asset management • HMEP/UKRLG Highways Infrastructure Asset Management Guidance
    38. 38. CIHT • Transport system as a whole – Assets – Public Transport Providers – Encouraging walking and cycling • Climate Change & Sustainable Transport Report • Smarter Choices
    39. 39. Winter guidance
    40. 40. Flooding/SCOUR
    41. 41. Pavements
    42. 42. Local Transport Adaptation Steering Group • Aim The Local Transport Adaptation Steering Group will lead the way in taking action to adapt local transport infrastructure (in particular local highways) to the risks and opportunities of climate change.
    43. 43. Local Transport Adaptation Steering Group • How to use this guidance in conjunction with UKCIP09 data/Met office data • Updating of codes of practice • Forum to raise your issues – use us!
    44. 44. Perspective from the Profession: Resources available from UKRLG www.ukroadsliaisongroup.org/ HMEP www.dft.gov.uk/hmep/ CIHT www.ciht.org.uk/ ICE www.ice.org.uk/ CIRIA www.ciria.org/
    45. 45. Dr Stuart Arnold Director Smith and Wallwork
    46. 46. Dr Stuart Arnold Climate projections in use Cambridge University Boat House, Ely
    47. 47. Background to the project • CUBC require a new home in Ely • Complex site selection process • Site constraints 1. River Great Ouse 2. Middle Fen Bank flood defence 3. Flood zone 3 4. Dangerous existing site access 5. EA retain dredging and disposal rights 2 3 4 1 5
    48. 48. Key considerations • Direct impact of flood waters • Breaking through existing flood defence line • Flood mitigation • Surface water disposal • Pollution/water contamination • Vehicle site lines • Erosion of adjacent peat soils
    49. 49. Entrance layout Retaining sightlines Protection level Flood mitigation Exceedence events
    50. 50. Highway design DRAW X-SECTION !!! Peat erosion Topsoil slippage Movement tolerance Clay core shrinkage Subsoil movement Hydraulic surcharge
    51. 51. Surface water drainage Pervious Paving Swales Ponds/basins R/W harvesting
    52. 52. Summary/lessons learnt • Effects of climate change should be considered – even for seemingly small projects. • Some impacts can be numerically modelled, others are require a more subjective approach. • Consideration of exceedence/inundation events (to what degree?). • Multi-stakeholder input required (Developers, Environment Agency., Highways Authority, Internal Drainage Boards etc.). • Holistic approach to highway design, not just code compliance. • Extended skill set – highways engineering, pavement engineering, drainage engineering, architectural, landscaping, maintenance etc.
    53. 53. www.smithandwallwork.com
    54. 54. Eddie Gibson Senior Manager East of England Local Government Association
    55. 55. Thinking Climate in Highways Procurement
    56. 56. Infrastructure – some ―Spending Review‖ headlines £28Bn highways investment 2014-20 – Includes £10Bn to tackle repair backlog 221,000 miles of road re-surfaced £1.4Bn to upgrade A14 c. £2Bn on Flood protection 2015-20 165,000 new homes 2015-18 £7.6Bn to support low carbon generation
    57. 57. LEP Funding Allocations 2014-20 Greater Cambridge & Greater Peterborough 75.5 Hertfordshire 69.5 New Anglia 94.5 South East 185.9 South East Midlands 88.3
    58. 58. Procurement Context New EU Procurement Directives due in late 2013 New ―National Procurement Strategy for Local Government 2013‖ Public Service (Social Value) Act 2012 – Incorporation of economic, environmental and social benefits into public contracts http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/3/enacted
    59. 59. ―Thinking Climate…?‖ Early Market Engagement http://data.gov.uk/dataset/government-construction- pipeline/resource/f64e155d-800e-4c8b-bfd2-d6256a4d4ba9 Use of expertise and information https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/keeping-the-country-running- natural-hazards-and-infrastructure http://contracts.improvementeast.gov.uk/ Strategic leadership – EEDET & Eastern Highways Alliance
    60. 60. ―Thinking Climate…?‖ Much Ado About Nothing The Winter‘s Tale As You Like It Measure for Measure All‘s Well that Ends Well
    61. 61. Questions & Audience Discussion
    62. 62. Workshop Discussion 1. Identify current barriers to embedding climate change into your plans. 2. What changes and support is required to overcome these barriers? 3. What messages and information will you take away from today’s event? 4. Share a practical step you plan to take after today’s event
    63. 63. Summary & Next Steps
    64. 64. Close • Thank you for attending • A link will be mailed to all presentations • Please complete the feedback survey
    65. 65. Close • Thank you for attending • A link will be mailed to all presentations • Please complete the feedback survey
    66. 66. WHY ADAPT? RISK...... Climate Change Reputational risk Health & safety risk Strategic riskFinancial risk Operational risk Environmental risk Potential impacts on: Your business assets and activities
    67. 67. WHY ADAPT? COST...... Avoiding unexpected costs: • Service interruption • Cost of repairing damage • Increased insurance premiums • Future regulation, litigation or liabilities Exploiting opportunities: • Reputation: being prepared and taking action • Making services and buildings resilient for change
    68. 68. SUPPORT AVAILABLE • Climate UK – Network across the UK • Sustainability East • Working in Partnership with the Environment Agency (Climate Ready) & Defra.
    69. 69. Climate change adaptation – the national picture Michael Lord Senior Advisor – Climate Change 9 July 2013
    70. 70. Climate change - overview • The global climate is changing – land surface temperatures have risen by about 0.7C since 1970s • Some degree of further change is unavoidable • UKCP09: • increases in summer and winter temperatures • increases in winter rainfall, decreases in summer rainfall • more days of heavy rainfall • rising sea levels.
    71. 71. 2003 heat wave: normal by 2040s, cool by 2080s? observations Medium-High emissions (modelled) Source:PeterStott,HadleyCentre Europeansummertemperatures
    72. 72. The need to adapt to climate change • UK is already vulnerable to extreme weather • LAs already manage these risks • Preparing for climate change is crucial because: 1.We should improve resilience to the current weather 2.Climate change will increase current risks • Adapting to climate change is about resilient services
    73. 73. National adaptation policy The Climate Change Act 2008 creates a framework for adaptation in the UK and includes: UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) 2009 Climate Ready April 2012 CCRA repeated and NAP reviewed every 5 years
    74. 74. Climate Ready • New role for Environment Agency in 2012 • Climate Ready is a service that aims to help key sectors increase their resilience to climate risks • Provides general information to help organisations adapt • Offers a tailored support service and runs specific projects with partners (e.g. these workshops...)
    75. 75. UK Climate Change Risk Assessment • National overview of climate change risks • Detailed analysis of 100 risks in 11 sectors • Risks evaluated by size and timing of impacts, and confidence in the assessment • Flooding identified as biggest risk in most sectors, including transport • CCRA should inform adaptation response
    76. 76. National Adaptation Programme • NAP issued 1st July • Government’s response to the CCRA - actions by Government and others adapt • Highlights economic consequences of local transport failure • Several actions to improve local transport resilience
    77. 77. Department for Transport • “Adapting transport .... is an important part of developing and maintaining a network that supports long-term economic growth” • Local transport authorities have duty to improve resilience of local transport to climate change • DfT embeds adaptation in guidance • In NAP DfT pledges to continue building climate resilience into its transport and roads strategies – e.g. Roads Strategy 2013
    78. 78. Adaptation given high priority at HA Carried out assessment of climate risks Made changes in response such as: increasing capacity of drainage standard introduced new pavement specifications HA believes its adaptation plans will save money and protect assets Highways Agency
    79. 79. Research – Climate Change & Transport • Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation • Climate Resilient Infrastructure • ITRC • BIOPICC • FUTURENET • ARCADIA
    80. 80. Making It Happen Local Case Studies 12th July 2013 Warrington
    81. 81. • Insert slides here by local speaker about local case study
    82. 82. Case studies — Climate UK and Partners resource to accompany events — 5 contrasting case studies — Slapton Line Partnership — Worcestershire County Council — 3CAP Partnership — Drain London — Southampton Highways Services Partnership — Circulated to you and available online from www.climateuk.net
    83. 83. Slapton Line Partnership — Shingle ridge road between the sea and a lagoon — Formation of a community partnership to develop contingency plans — Developing resilience to cope with road closures — Planning ahead for potential realignment
    84. 84. Worcestershire County Council — Mapping and interpreting climate data — Producing risk alert maps for drought, high temperatures and flooding — Transferable tool now in use by other authorities — Project uncovered dependencies between types of infrastructure which can lead to ‗cascade failure‘
    85. 85. 3CAP Partnership — Partnership between Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Leicestershire County Councils and Scott Wilson — Produced a plan for seven key policy areas — Key success factor was involvement of front-line staff and managers — Identifying practical adaptations that are both affordable and politically acceptable
    86. 86. Drain London — Surface water flood risk is most likely cause of flooding in London — Drain London Forum formed by the Greater London Authority and other agencies — Equipping each Borough with a Surface Water Management Plan, and deepening awareness and understanding of flood risk across Boroughs — Supporting communities to consider how they would cope in a flood event
    87. 87. Southampton Highways Services Partnership — Living Places Highways Services Partnership — Engineering solutions now to reduce future maintenance — Deliver with reducing budgets — Transport Asset Management Plan assesses the structural integrity of a road and determines priority ranking
    88. 88. Questions
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