1 STUDENTS VERBAL ACTIONS AND INTERACTION PATTERNS IN EFL CLASSROOM 1 Susilo Abstract: This study aims at investigating the verbal actions the students perform when they join the course of Translation I in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classroom and how they behave in relation to their teacher and among peers in such EFL class. It focuses on describing the students’ verbal actions and the interaction patterns occuring during the classroom interaction. This is a classroom-based research using an observational case study as its design. The subjects of the study are undergraduate students of the English Department, FKIP Muhammadiyah University Jember. To collect the data, a non-participant observation was used. Discourse Analysis, and Qualitative Interaction Analysis were used to analyize the data. The results of the study reveal that the students verbal actions tend to form four moves, each of which has different types of verbal actions on the basis of the purposes the students intend to do. The four moves are 1) Soliciting Move; 2) Responding Move; 3) Reacting Move, and 4) Bidding Move. Meanwhile, there are five patterns of interaction found in the classroom process, i.e. 1) Teacher - class interaction with verbal response; 2) Teacher - class interaction with non-verbal response; 3) Teacher - student with verbal response; 4) Teacher -student with non-verbal response; 5) Teacher- student - Teacher interaction. Key Words: Verbal Action, interaction pattern, EFL Classroom.INTRODUCTION After for a long time having been preoccupied with a "traditional" research inwhich the basic concern is issue within the researchers perspective centers, appliedlinguistics researchers (e.g. Rounds, 1996; Polio, 1996; Kuiper and Plough, 1996;Markee, 1996, Larsen-Freeman, 1996) started to talk about, and do the classroom-based researches (Cf. Sato, 1982; Saville-Troike, 1984; Pica and Doughty, 1985;Day, 1984, 1985). An increasing attempt in investigating what is really going on inthe classroom seems to be the focus of such a research. The types and quantities ofinstructional and non instructional tasks, the relative amounts of participation by theteacher and the students, and the functions and forms of language in the interaction,1 Susilo is a lecturer of Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Kaltim.
2(Chaudron, 1988), among other things, are issues under the intensive investigation ofthe classroom-based research. At the same moment, various personality, attitudinal,cognitive, and other individual or social factors which are thought of to influenceobservable classroom behaviors are investigated as well. Thus, the ultimate goal ofsuch a research is to identify those characteristics of classrooms leading to theefficient learning of the instructional content. The student classroom behavior is oneof the general issues concerning the effectiveness and efficiency of the classroominstruction. Researches on such issue have been done focusing on the students verbal andsocial interactions. For example, a research conducted by Sato (1982) investigatedcultural differences in learners classroom production. This research was conductedin two university ESL classes, trying to find out the different turn-taking styles ofAsian and non-Asian students. She found that Asians as a group took significantfewer self-selected turns than non-Asians, with the Asians adhering more strictly toa pattern of bidding for turns in class instead of just speaking out. To know thestudents classroom behavior leads us to the further investigation of the contributionof the learners to Second Language Acquisition. An attempt to such investigation isof primary importance in the area of Second Language Acquisition because in theclassroom language learners can develop their L2 in three ways, i.e. by producing thetarget language more frequently, more correctly, and in a wider circumstances, bygenerating input from others, and by engaging in communicative tasks that requirenegotiation of meaning (Chaudron, 1988). That is why, researches on the studentsbehavior in the classroom are getting more important to conduct, especially being
3conducted in classroom-based designs in order to know exactly what really happenswith such behavior in the classroom. This notion is in line with the concept brought by the American philosopher,John Dewey, in his populer concept of “the theory of social constructivist”. The ideaof this tenet is that there is a triangular relationship for the social construction ofideas among the individual, the community, and the world. In Dewey’s view,learners do not learn in isolation; the individuals learn by being parts of thesurrounding community and the world as a whole (Rebecca, 1997). That is why inthe constructivist model, learners bring with them prior knowledge and beliefs;learners then construct what they learn and deepen their knowledge by sharedexperiences; and learners and teachers learn from each other. Thus, teachers look forsignals from learners so that they may facilitate understanding. Related to thisconcept, in terms of language learning and teaching, it is quite an illusion that weignore the issues of immediate linguistic and socio-educational environments,culture, community, etc. The fact of the matter is that such issues in a great extentinfluence the language learning. That is why, researchers taking an interactioniststance naturally also recognize the importance of environmental factors, such as thesocial and linguistic roles played by caregivers, teachers, siblings, and peers inproviding language input (Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991). This study is a classroom-based research conducted in a Translation Icourse, one of the courses established by the English Department, FKIP,Muhammadiyah University Jember. This study aims at investigating the verbalactions the students perform when they have a Translation I course in the EFLclassroom and how they behave in relation to their teacher and among peers, that is
4to say how they form interaction patterns in such an EFL class. This study does notsearch the teachers talk, though it cannot be away from the researchers observation,Thus, the main focus of the study are two things, i.e. students talk and interactionpatterns. The following are research questions which are formulated based on thebackground above: 1. What verbal actions do the students perform during the classroom interaction? 2. What patterns of interactions occur during the classroom interaction?METHODOLOGY This is a classroom-based research, using an observational case study. Thisresearch was conducted in classroom setting of Translation I course in the EnglishDepartment, FKIP, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jember. The events investigatedwere limited to the students verbal actions and interaction patterns taking place inTranslation I” class. The procedures suggested by Miles and Huberman (1983) was used in thisstudy. The first step was the Data Collection, in which the researcher was collectingthe raw data from the transcription and fieldnotes. Secondly, on the basis of thecollected data, the researcher was creating categories and classifying these data intosuch categories (i.e. Data reduction), and the patterns can be found afterward. Next,the classified patterns can be displayed in the Data Display. Finally, the patternswere analyzed to identify the verbal actions and interaction patterns. The data of this research are verbal interactions which were taken from thetranscriptions and fieldnotes. Those data were collected through recording andobserving the class interactions. The recording was done during the teaching-learningprocess. Sony Stereo Cassette-Corder CFS 1000S tape recorder was used to record
5the data. The tape recorder was placed in the researchers pocket, which the studentswere not aware of. Furthermore, the teacher did not tell the students that they wereunder the research recording. During the recording process, non-participant observation was done in orderto allow the researcher to write fieldnotes in which non-linguistic features (i.e. hand-raising, gestures, etc) can be detected. In this case, the researcher was present in theclassroom but did not interact either with the students or the teacher during theteaching-learning process. The subjects of the research were undergraduate students taking "TranslationI" course in the third semester of their study in the English Department of FKIP,Universitas Muhammadiyah Jember. There were approximately 43 students in theclassroom. Those data collected were analyzed to identify the verbal actions of hestudents and the interaction patterns occurred in the classroom. Discourse Analysis(Coulthard, 1977) and Qualitative Interaction Analysis (van Lier, 1988) were used toanalyze the data.RESULTS This study aims at describing the verbal actions the students perform during theclassroom and the patterns of interactions occuring during the classroom interaction.Thus, the aspects discussed in the results of the study are the verbal action andinteraction patterns found in the classroom.Students Verbal Actions It is found that the students verbal actions tend to form four moves each ofwhich has different types of verbal actions on the basis of the purposes the students
6intend to do. The four moves are 1) Soliciting Move; 2) Responding Move; 3)Reacting Move, and 4) Bidding Move. The following parts are the presentation ofeach.Soliciting Move Soliciting Move is a move where the students intend to evoke teachersresponses. This move occurs when the students feel unclear about the lessondiscussed so that they want the teacher to clarify the unclear parts. This moveconsists of three types, i.e. 1) eliciting for clarification, 2) eliciting forcomprehension, and 3) eliciting for confirmation. Eliciting for Clarification It is a verbal action that is meant to evoke theteachers response for the sake of the students clarification of unclear parts of thelesson discussed.T :OK, remember, the pairs of the alternative parts. Jadi di atas ada pasangan-pasangan Literal and faithful .... What is literal?LLL : [Silent]T : In Indonesian, it is arti harfiah.F :Kata per kata - nya, pak!T :Ya Word by word.Eliciting for Comprehension It is a verbal action which is intended to evoke the teachers response forcomprehending the discussed lesson. This occurs when the students want tounderstand fully the discussed lesson.T : In Indonesia it is arti harfiah.F : Kata per kata - nya, pak?T : Ya Word by word.M : Etymology!T : YeahEliciting for Confirmation
7 It is a verbal action that aims at calling up the teachers response forconfirming something. This occurs when the students want to make sure what theyhave already understood.T : So, that answer is incorrect…OK another?…another opinion? No?! So, everyone agrees with the answer?M : Sir, [raising hand] "Ririn menyanyikan sebuah lagu dengan indah /merduF : Betul!T : Yes, .., thats right.T : OK very beautifully, remember, very beautifully.LL : Adverb!T : Yeah, adverb. So?Responding Move Responding Move is a move where the students intend to respond theteachers eliciting. This move occurs when the students answer the teachersquestions. Based on the way this move occurs, there are three types of respondingmove, i.e. a) choral response; b) sub-group of class-response; and c) individualresponse. Choral Response is is a verbal action done by the students in the classroomaltogether. Usually this verbal action occurs when the question is easy so that allstudents can answer, leading to the choral answers.T : The singing ... or the song?LLL : The singing ... xx ... menyanyi-nya.T : So . . that answer is incorrect ... OK, another? Another opinion? ... No?! So, everyone agrees with the answer? Sub- group of class- Response means a verbal action don by some students ofthe class at a particular time. It happens when some of the students can answer theteachers questions while some other cannot.T : OK, listen! "Ririn menyanyikan lagu yang Indah" yang indah ini menyanyi-nya atau lagu-nya?LL : Lagu- nya.
8M : Menyanyi-nya. Individual Response is a verbal action done by an individual student. Thishappens when an individual student can answer the question without being followedby other students.T : Dasar?! No ... thats the first one ... principal? M HeadmasterT : Yes, thats the same with headmasterReacting Move Reacting Move is a move where the students intend to modify (by clarifying,synthesizing or expanding) and/or to rate (positively or negatively) what has beensaid previously. This verbal action can happen after the teachers eliciting, informingaction or the other students responding actions. Usually, it is used for acceptance,objection, correction or rejection.T : Maupun ... atau ... the other?F : I dont know.M : Sabani makan sate juga soto.F : Lo ... negatif kan.Bidding Move Bidding Move is a move where the students verbal action is meant to signifya desire to speak. This is about the way the students start to speak. There are twotypes of bidding, i.e. 1) by asking permission to speak; and 2) by calling the teacher.Bidding by asking permission to speakT : ... and "should possess the style of the translation". What is possess?M : Excuse me, possess apa process, sir?F : MempunyaiT : Possess ….. possessive, possess… memiliki.Bidding by calling the teacherT : So, ... That answer, is incorrect, OK, another? Another opinion? No?! Everyone agrees with the answer?
9M : Sir, ... "Ririn menyanyikan sebuah lagu dengan indahnya/merdu".LL : Betuul!Interaction Pattern By considering who initiates and participates in the classroom process as acategory in the data analysis, it is found that there are five patterns of interactionoccurred in the classroom process. The five interaction patterns are 1) Teacher - classinteraction with verbal response; 2) Teacher - class interaction with non-verbalresponse; 3) Teacher - student with verbal response; 4) Teacher - student withnon-verbal response- 5) Teacher - student - Teacher interaction.Teacher - Class Interaction Pattern Teacher - class interaction consists typically of two types, i.e. teacher - classinteraction with verbal responses and teacher - class interaction with non-verbalresponses. This pattern is an eliciting exchange in which the teachers question isfollowed by the students choral answers both verbally and non-verbally. Thereby,the interaction between the teacher and the class happens.T : The singing ... or the song?LLL : The singing ... xx ... menyanyi-nya. (T - C Interaction with verbalresponses)T : Kalau principal [writing down the word "principal" and "principle" on the whiteboard] Like this? ... What is it?LLL : [silent](T - C Interaction with non-verbal responses)Teacher - Student Interaction Pattern Similarly, teacher - student interaction consists typically of two types,namely, teacher - student interaction with verbal responses and teacher - studentinteraction with non-verbal responses. An eliciting exchange occurs in this
10interaction, producing the pattern in which the teachers question is followed by thestudents answer individually both in verbal or non-verbal forms of answer.T : Dasar?! ... No, ... thats the first one ... principal?M : Headmaster. (Teacher - student interaction with verbal response)T : All right, number seven. "A translation should read as a contemporary of the original" What is contemporary? Fatoni?MI : [silent] (Teacher - student interaction with non-verbal response).Teacher - Student - Teacher Interaction Pattern This pattern occurs when the teachers question is followed by the studentsanswer, which is then followed by the teachers comments toward that answer. Or, ithappens when the students answer is not appropriate or correct, so that the teacherneeds to correct the answer or elicit other answers from other students.T : Dasar?! ... No, ... thats the first one ... principal?M : Headmaster.T : Yes, thats the same with headmaster. So, you remember? This is Kepala Sekolah [pointing to the word "principal"] and that one is ... prinsip [pointing the word "principle"]. Jadi, ini adalah dasar-dasar. You study about The Principle of Translation.DISCUSSIONSStudents Verbal Actions It is obvious that the findings of this study show us four moves in theclassroom where we can find different types of students verbal actions. First,soliciting move consists of three types of verbal actions, i.e. 1) eliciting forclarification, 2) eliciting for comprehension, and 3) eliciting for confirmation.Second, responding move includes such verbal actions as choral response, sub-groupof class-response and individual response. Third, reacting move contains responding
11for acceptance, objection, correction or rejection. Fourth, bidding move where twoways of signifying a desire to speak are used, i.e. by asking permission to speak andby calling the teacher. It is not surprising to see the fact that there are various moves in the classroominteraction because the class consists of several components potential to formconversational interaction among peers and between teacher-students. Thisphenomena hinges on what the so-called “scaffolding”, the terms derrived from thecognitive psychology and L1 research applied in L2 acquisition. In L2 acquisition,scaffolding refers to the provision through conversation of linguistic structures thatpromote a learner’s recognition or production of those structures or associated forms.This aids learners in gradually incorporating portion of sentences, lexical items,reproducing sounds, etc., in meaningful ways rather than in mechanical repetition orlengthy monoloques. Interactive features of classroom behavior such as turn-taking, questioning andanswering, negotiation of meaning, etc., are of great importance in terms of languageacquisition. Therefore, the appearance of the variation of moves and interactionpatterns in EFL class gives positive impact in the process of L2 learning. Furthermore, these findings confirm what Flanders (1970) in Choulthard(1977) mentioned in the "ten categories" as the basic system in classroominteraction. Flanders (1970) identified ten categories based on the analysis of theclassroom interaction. The ten categories can be divided into seven for teacher talk,two for pupil talk and one for silence or confusion.
12 I . Accepts feeling 2. Praises or encourages Response 3. Accepts or uses ideas of pupils Teacher Talk 4. Asks questions 5. Lecturing Initiation 6. Giving direction 7. Criticizing or justifying authority Pupil Talk Response 8. Pupil response Initiation 9. Pupil Initiation Silence 10. Silence or confusion Figure 1: Flanders’ Ten Interaction Categories Of the four moves, two moves are in line with what Flanders (1970) calledpupil response, that is, soliciting move and responding move; meanwhile the othertwo moves which belong to pupil initiation are reacting move and bidding move. It is apparent that the four moves that the students form in the findings of thisresearch are one of the ways learners develop their L2. By making responses andinitiations, according to Chaudron, (1988), the students under the investigationdevelop their L2 by producing the target language more frequently, more correctly(since the teacher will correct them when they make an error/s), and , of course, inwider circumstances. At the same time, the initiation to produce the target languageis the behavior in which the notion of input generation can be measured (Chaudron,1988).Interaction Pattern The findings in terms of the patterns of interaction in this study is that thereare five-types of interaction pattern, i.e. 1) Teacher - class interaction with verbalresponse; 2) Teacher - class interaction with non-verbal response; 3) Teacher-student interaction with verbal response; 4) Teacher - student interaction with non-verbal response; and 5) Teacher - student - Teacher interaction.
13 According to Philips (1972) in van Lier (1988), there are four participationstructures found in the classroom in terms of speaker-audience relationships, leadingto the conclusion that these are important characteristics in L2 classroom. The fourparticipation structures are 1) Teacher - Whole class; 2) Teacher – Group, 3) Teacher- Individual learner; and 4) Group by itself. The interaction patterns found in this study are in line with what Philips(1972) revealed. However, of the five types of interaction patterns, pattern number 5(i.e. teacher - student - teacher interaction pattern) does not confirm exactly with thefindings found by Philips. Basically, somehow this particular pattern can be includedin what Philips (1,972) called Teacher - individual learner pattern though in differentversion. It is worth noting that conversation and instructional exchange betweenteachers and students provide the best opportunities for the learners to exercise targetlanguage skills and get useful feedback (Chaudron, 1988). The five types ofinteraction patterns as shown in the findings of this research indicate how thestudents make conversation and instructional exchange with their teacher. This, ofcourse, provide a chance for the students to practice their target language skills. It isobvious that the students in using the target language for practice in the classroomwill obtain much feedback from the teacher for they make interaction with theteacher.CONCLUSIONS
14 It is apparent that there are variations of verbal actions done by the studentsduring the interaction in the Translation I” class in the English Department, FKIP,Universitas Muhammadiyah Jember. These variations are consistent after they arecompared to other findings from different researchers. There are also variations ofinteraction patterns occurs in the Translation I class in the English Department,FKIP, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jember. This finding is also consistent aftercompared to other research findings. Students verbal actions and interaction patternsare availability of authentic TL input and opportunities in L2 classroom since greaterexposure to the target language (TL) inside the classroom can be gained by the L2learners. Students verbal actions and interaction patterns can be seen as exposure toauthentic language activities and input of foreign language classroom, REFERENCES
15Alright, Dick and Kathleen Bailey. 1991. Focus on the Language Classroom: An Introduction to Classroom Research for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Chaudron, Craig. 1988. Second Language Classroom: Research on Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Coulthard, Malcolm. 1977. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. Harlow Essex: Longman Group Ltd.Day, Richard R. 1984. Students Participation in the ESL Classroom or Some Imperlection in Practice. In Chaudron, Craig. 1988. Second Language Classroom: Research on Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Day, Richard R-1-984. The Use of the Target Language in Context and SL Proficiency. In Chaudron, Craig. 1988. Second Language Classroom: Research on Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Kuiper, Lawrence and India Plough. 1996. Classroom-based Research as Collaborative Effort. In Schachter, J. and Gass, Susan. 1996. Second Language Classroom Research: Issues and Opportunities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Larsen-Freeman, D. 1996. The Changing Nature of SL Classroom Research. In Schachter, J. and Gass, Susan. 1996. Second Language Classroom Research: Issues and Opportunities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Larsen-Freeman, D.and Long, M.H. 1991. An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. London: Longman.Van Lier, Leo. 1988. The Classroom and Language Learner, Harlow Essex: Longman Group Ltd.Markee, Numa. 1996. Making SL Classroom Research. In Schachter, J, and Gass, Susan. 1996. Second Language Classroom Research: Issues and Opportunities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Pica, Terese, and Cathy Doughty. 1985. Input and Interaction in the Communicative Language Classroom. In Chaudron, Craig. 1988. Second Language Classroom: Research on Teaching And Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Polio, Charlene. 1996. Issues and Problems in Reporting Classroom Research. In Schachter, J. and Gass, Susan, 1996. Second Language Classroom Research: Issues and Opportunities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Rebecca, L. 1997. Cooperative Learning, Collaborative Learning, and Interaction: Three Communicative Strands in the Language Classroom. The Modern Language Journal. 18 (IV): 443-445.Rounds, Patricia L. 1996. The Classroom - based Researcher as Fieldworkers: Strangers in a Strange Land. In Schachter, J. and Gass, Susan. 1996. Second Language Classroom Research: Issues and Opportunities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Sato, Charlene. 1984. Ethnic Styles in Classroom Discourse. In Chaudron, Craig. 1988. Second Language Classroom: Research on Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
16Saville-Troike, Muriel. 1984. What Really Matter in a Learning for Academic Achievement. In Chaudron, Craig. 1988. Second Language Classroom: Research on Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Schachter, J. and Gass, Susan. 1996, Second Language Classroom Research: Issues and Opportunities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Elbaum Associates, Publishers.Appendix 1 OBSERVATION INSTRUMENT
17 Student Talk Frequency per – three - second Interval 1. Student Response, Specific (SRS). 2. Student Response, Choral (SRC) 3. Student Response, Open - ended or student initiated (SRO) 4. Silent (Si 1) 5. Silent - AV (Si-2) 6. Confusion, work -oriented (CWO) 7. Confusion, non-work-oriented (CNWO) 8. Laughter (L)Adopted from Moskowitz (1968, 1970, 1971) in Chandron (1988)Notes:SRS : Responding to the teacher within a specific and limited range of available or previously shaped answers. Reading aloud.SRC : Choral response by the total class or part of the class.SRO : Responding to the teacher with students own ideas, opinions, reactions, feelings. Giving one from among many possible answers which have been previously shaped but which students must now make a selection. Initiating the participation.Si-1 : Pauses in interaction. Periods of quiet during which there is no verbal interaction.Si-2 : Silence in the interaction during which a piece of audio-visual equipment, e.g. a tape recorder, filmstrip projector, record player, etc, is being used to communicate.CWO : More than one person at a time talking, so the interaction cannot be recorded. Students calling out excitedly, eager to participate or respond, concerned with task at hand.CNWO: More than one person at a time talking, so the interaction cannot be recorded, students out - of - order, not behaving as the teacher wishes, not concerned with task at hand.L :Laughing, giggling by the class, individuals and/or the teacher.
19Appendix 2 THE TRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONS USED IN TRANSCIBING THE RECORDED VERBAL CLASSROOM INTERACTIONS (quoted from alright and Bailey, 1991:222)-------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------T :TeacherM :Unidentified Male learnerF :Unidentified Female learnerMI :Identified Male learn, using numbers (MI, M2, M3, etc)FI :Identified Female learn, using numbers (FI, F2, F3, etc)LL :Unidentified subgroup of classLLL :Whole classMT :Use to indicate some unidentified male speakerMFT :Use to indicate some unidentified female speakerM[= ] :Use to introduce a gloss, or translation, of speech.[ ] :Use for community to any kind (e.g. to indicate point in discourse where T mites an black board).( ) :Use for uncertain transcription.x :Incomprehensible item, probably one word only.xx :Incomprehensible item of phrase length.xxx :Incomprehensible item beyond phrase length… :Use dots to indicate pauses“ ” :Use to indicate anything read rather than spoken without direct text support.
20Appendix 3 A SAMPLE OF THE TRANSLATION Of VERBAL CLASSROOM INTERACTION TAKING PLACE IN SESSION 2 (Recording 2) Day : Saturday, 13 Oct 2001 Room :2.1 Subject :Translation I Time :07.30 - 09.00 Task :Practice and discussions of students works Lecturer :Drs. Hanafi Session :Recording 2T :OK, Ladies and gentlemen, to day we will discuss about your works.LLL :[mumbling] xxx xxxT :OK. Lets discuss your works, I feel some of you make mistake and some of you no. I see the name Erfan Sabam ... is he in this class?F :NoF :Last week, he followed the class.T :Last week he followed this class and not now. Actually this class is A or B.LLL :BT :No problem so I hope we can discuss together about your works…xxx…xxx. OK, for this time, Shofi read your answer! Read the question ... Read the English and then bahasa Indonesia-nya.MI :"Ririn sang a sorg beautifully in the party last week" ... "Ririn menyanyikan sebuah lagu dengan begitu indahnya pada perta minggu lalu"T :Alright…so there many kinds of answers, so please write your answer on the whiteboard.Ml :(going to the whiteboard and write the answer)T :OK, lets see "Ririn rnenyanyikan sebuah lagu dengan begitu indahnya pada pesta minggu lalu"T :Who has a different answer? Yes, Umi!F1 :"Ririn menyanyikan sebuah lagu dengan sangat merdu pada pesta minggu lalu"T :Dengan! LL :Merdu .. Dengan sangat merduT :Dengan sangat merdu OK!M :Dengan sangat bagus, pak?!T :Dengan sangat bagus yeah terus.M :Sangat indah
21LL :[mumbling]T :Oh, , va, ... ya, ... ya, Dengan sangat indah.M :/cik endahe/ [= betapa indahnya (Javanese) ]T :Oohh!?LLL :[Laughing] xxx ... xxxT :OK. Very beautifully ... remember, very beautifully.LL :Adverb!T :Yeah, adverb. So?LLL :Dengan sangat Indah.T :Yeah, adverb means dengan - apa. Can be dengan bagusnya, … indahnya, etc. Berarti semua betul.F :"Ririn menyanyikan lagu itu"! xxLL :[mumbling) xxx …xxxT :OK, listen "Rifin menyanyikan lagu yang indah yang indah ini menyanyi-nya atau lagu-nya?LL :Lagu-nya!lM :Menyanyi-nya!!T :The singing ... or the song?LLL :The singing ... xx ... menyanyi-nya.T :So ... that answer is in correct. OK! Another? Another opinion? ... no?… Everyone agrees with the answer?M :Sir, ... "Ririn menyanyikan sebuah lagu dengan indahnya/merdu".LL :Betuul I
22Appendix 4 A SAMPLE OF FIELDNOTES Day : Saturday, 6 Oct 2001 Room :2.1 Subject :Translation I Time :07.30 - 09.00 Task :The Principles of Translation Lecturer :Drs. Hanaft Session :(Recording 1) I arrived at thirty five minutes past seven, the time exactly when the lecturercame to the classroom. I was dressed as usual: formal dress. I brought my tape-recorder to the classroom and put it in front of the class. U turn on the recordingexactly when the lecturer started to teach. First of al I the students were staring atwhat I did, but as soon as the lecturer told them what I did for this class, the studentsfelt that my presence didnt influence their activity.Observers comments (OC): It seems that the lecturer do not want his students to be influenced by mypresence so he tries to explain that I just want to record his voice. And this class goeson as if I am not present as an observer.The situation was very noisy before the lecturer started to teach. Some students cameone or two minutes after the lecturer came to the class. So for the time being somestudents were moving here and there, talking one another and sometime yelling. Thelecturer was thinking to calm down the class by staring at one by one this students.Ten minutes later, the class could be handled and the lecturer started to open theclass.T :Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb. LLL Waalaikum salarn Wr. Wb. T Dont pay too much attention to Pak Susilo because he just want to record suara emas pak Hanafi. LLL [Laughing] xxx xxxT :OK, for the first I want to review the results of your works [holding piles of students works] terbaik, Uswatun Khoiriyah.
23 OC: The lecturer opens the class by giving rewards to these students after they did their homework in the previous meeting. The students are very happy with such kind of reward.In the next situation, the lecturer started to discuss the text about The Principles ofTranslation, lie started to lead the discussion.T :OK, lets discuss …kita coba number one until twelve …is about the principles.... What is principle ?LLL :Dasar.T :Kalau Principal [writing down the word "principal and "principle" on the whiteboard) Like this... What is it?LLL :[Silent]T :Principle …principal…Who knows?…Yang tidak bawa kamus termasuk kategori sombong.LLL :[Laughing]T What is it ?F :Yang penting.T :Yeah !?LL :Dasar.T :Dasar ?!…..That s the first one…principal ?T :One … principal? OC: The lecturer gave solicitation to arise the students reaction in order that they are active. This is good for the class interaction. Besides, the lecturer often made code-mixing or code-switching. It seems that he wanted to make his explanation clearer to their students.