1. Search Engine Optimization Confidential © 2012 Foetron Inc.
2. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
3. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
4. What is a Search Engine?Definition: An internet-based tool that searches an index of documents for a particular term, phrase or text specified by the user. Commonly used to refer to large web-based search engines that search through billions of pages on the internet.• Common Characteristics: • Spider, Indexer, Database, Algorithm • Find matching documents and display them according to relevance • Frequent updates to documents searched and ranking algorithm • Strive to produce “better”, more relevant results than competitors
5. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
6. How do Search Engines Work ?• Spider “crawls” the web to find new documents (web pages, other documents) typically by following hyperlinks from websites already in their database• Search engines indexes the content (text, code) in these documents by adding it to their databases and then periodically updates this content• Search engines search their own databases when a user enters in a search to find related documents (not searching web pages in real-time)• Search engines rank the resulting documents using an algorithm (mathematical formula) by assigning various weights and ranking factors
7. What is a SE Algorithm?• Top Secret! Only select employees of a search engines company know for certain• Reverse engineering, research and experiments gives SEOs (search engine optimization professionals) a “pretty good” idea of the major factors and approximate weight assignments• The Search Engine algorithm is constantly changed, tweaked & updated• Websites and documents being searched are also constantly changing• Varies by Search Engine – some give more weight to on-page factors, some to link popularity
8. Search Engine’s major tasks• Search engines have two major functions - crawling & building an index, and providing answers by calculating relevancy & serving results.• Crawling and Indexing• Providing results
9. Crawling and indexing :• The search engines need a way to “crawl” the entire city and find all the stops along the way, so they use the best path available – links.• Through links, search engines’ automated robots, called “crawlers,” or “spiders” can reach the many billions of interconnected documents.• To accomplish the monumental task of holding billions of pages that can be accessed in a fraction of a second, the search engines have constructed datacenters all over the world.
10. Providing Answers• Search engines are answer machines.• It is both “relevance” and “importance” that the process of SEO is meant to influence.• To a search engine, relevance means more than simply finding a page with the right words. In the early days of the web, search engines didn’t go much further than this simplistic step, and their results suffered as a consequence.• Today, 100s of factors influence relevance.
11. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
12. Search Engine Optimization Basics• What is SEO?• Why does my website need SEO?• Why cant the search engines figure out my site without SEO?
13. What is SEO?• Definition - SEO is the act of modifying a website to increase its ranking in organic (vs paid), crawler-based listings of search engines.• How do organic search listings work?• A spider or crawler which is a component of a SE gathers listings by automatically "crawling" the web• The spider follows links to web pages, makes copies of the pages and stores them in the SE’s index• Based on this data, the SE then indexes the pages and ranks the websites• Major SEs that index pages using spiders: Google, Altavista, Msn, Aol, lycos. “Spiders read only text, nothing else”
14. What is SEO? (Cond.)• SEO is the practice of improving and promoting a web site in order to increase the number of visitors the site receives from search engines.• There are many aspects to SEO, from the words on your page to the way other sites link to you on the web. Sometimes SEO is simply a matter of making sure your site is structured in a way that search engines understand.• Search Engine Optimization isnt just about "engines." Its about making your site better for people too.
15. Why does any website need SEO? (Cond.)• Although social media and other types of traffic can generate visits to your website , search engines are the primary method of navigation for most Internet users.• This is true whether your site provides content, services, products, information or just about anything else.• Search engines are unique in that they provided targeted traffic - people looking for what you offer.• Search engines are the roadways that makes this happen. If your site cannot be found by search engines or your content cannot be put into their databases, you miss out on incredible opportunities available to websites provided via search.
16. Why cant the search engines figureout my site without SEO?• The major engines are always working towards improving their technology to crawl the web more deeply and return better results to users. However, there is a limit to how search engines can operate.• In addition to making content available to search engines, SEO also helps boost rankings so that content will be placed where searchers will more readily find it.• The Internet is becoming increasingly competitive, and those companies who perform SEO will have a decided advantage in visitors and customers.
17. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
18. Search Engine key terms &terminologies• There are a few technical term which must be understood to learn search engine optimization.• Here are a few important items of SEO: Search Destination Keyword Display URL Queries URL PR – Priority PPR – Pay Per CTR- Click Ranking Click Through Rate
19. Search Queries• Search queries, the words that users type into the search box, carry extraordinary value.• Experience has shown that search engine traffic can make (or break) an organizations success.• Targeted visitors to a website can provide publicity, revenue, and exposure like no other channel of marketing.• Investing in SEO, whether through time or finances, can have an exceptional rate of return compared to other types of marketing and promotion.
20. Keyword Types:• When it comes to SEM, it is crucial to evaluate keyword type or keyword matching options.• There are four keyword match options that Google searches use to trigger your ads to appear including broad match, phrase match, exact match and negative match. • Broad Match Keywords • Phrase Match Keywords • Exact Match • Negative Match
21. Broad Match Keywords• Broad match keywords allow your online ad to appear on similar and relevant variations of the search terms. This is crucial because every searcher is different. Each individual searcher uses a vast assortment of keywords and variations in their search terms. Using broad match is sure way to make sure you effectively reach all of your search audiences.Eg.• Keyword: buy flowers • May show for these queries: • buy flower • buy red flowers • flowers buy • new york buy flowers • buy tulips
22. Phrase Match Keywords• Phrase match is much more targeted than broad match.• Phrase match keywords only allow your ad copy to show if the searcher types in keywords that are located within the phrase . This is very effective because it ensures that only a specific target audience is reached. This is vital in generating quality leads to your website.Eg. For Keyword: “buy flowers”May show for these queries: • where can I buy flowers • buy flowers in new delhiBut not for these queries: • buy red flowers (there is an extra word in between) • flowers buy (the words are reversed) • buy flower (this is the singular) • Buy tulips (the words are different)
23. Exact Match• Exact match keyword options are perfect for narrowing down your search target audiences. An exact match keyword only allows your advertisement to reach searches that match the exact keyword or phrase exclusively.Eg. • Keyword: [buy flowers] • May only show for the query: • buy flowers • Buy Flowers (capitalization doesn’t matter)
24. Negative Match• A negative match keyword option is used when you don’t want searchers to find your site if they are searching a specific keyword or phrase.• Using negative match keywords are useful when people are searching terms or phrases that are irrelevant. There is no reason to pay for misleading traffic. This is especially important when the words give a negative connotation to your site.Eg. Keyword: -cheap, flowers • Your ad will never show for these queries: • Buy cheap flowers • Cheap flowers in New York
25. More advanced match type• Single word phrase match • Only show my ad when the query contains my keyword • E.g. “flowers” may show for “buy flowers” but NOT “floral arrangements” or “tulips”• Negative exact match + Broad match • Only show the ad for variations of my keyword • E.g. “flowers” and –[flowers] may show for “flowers delivered” but not “flowers”
26. Some SEO terminologies• PR = Page Rank a system for ranking web pages developed by Google - http://toolbar.google.com• PPC = Pay Per Click online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying click-through.• CTR = Click Through Rate advertising term indicating the percentage of viewers who click on a banner advertisement and follow the link• BLOGS = a frequent, chronological publication of personal thoughts and Web links• RSS = Real Simple Syndication
27. Display URL vs Destination URLThe Display URL is the URL that The Destination URL, is theappears below your ad text when specific location within your siteyour ad is shown. The Display URL where you’d like to take a usershould be no longer than 35 that has clicked on your ad.characters and is often the same It does not have to match theURL as a site’s homepage. display URL, but should be in the same domain.(e.g. www.foetron.com). (e.g. www.foetron.com/cloud).
28. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
29. SEO strategies & techniques There are many SEO strategies, that are popular in helping your site show better in search results. Few of them are :1. Domain name strategies- domain names are traffic magnets > 63 million domain names registered > 4.7 million domain names registered 1st quar- choose a domain name that will increase your search engine ranking. How?- simple, short, no hyphens, no numbers- use keywords, common words, advertising terms, product names- choose a keyword that is important for your business
30. SEO strategies & techniques2. Linking strategies - the more inbound links the higher the SE ranking - if the site linking to you is already indexed, spiders will also receive your site - quality of inbound links is critical - how to increase links: a) good content b) good outbound links c) target a list of sites from which you can request inbound links - links for the sake of links can damage your search rankings “Link relevancy is critical in getting your site indexed by search engines” “A small number of inbound links from high-quality, relevant sites is more valuable than many links from low-traffic, irrelevant sites.”
31. SEO strategies & techniques3. Keywords - important in optimising rankings - keywords are words that appear the most in a page - the spider chooses the appropriate keywords for each page, then sends them back to its SE - your web site will then be indexed based on your keywords - can be key phrases or a single keyword - do not use common words eg ‘the’ ‘and’ ‘of’: spiders ignore them - write keyword-rich text - balance keyword-rich and readability - always have text in your page: at least 100 words
32. SEO strategies & techniques4. Title tags - important in optimising rankings - the first thing that a search engine displays on a search return - must keywords in title to be ranked no. 1 - should have the exact keyword you use for the page - every single web page must have its own title tag - you can use up to 65 characters eg Ebay http://www.ebay.com/ (title is littered with keywords)5. Meta description tags - the next important - displayed below the title in search results - use dynamic, promotional language - use keywords
33. SEO strategies & techniques Meta keywords tags - no longer carry weight with major SEs - a myth that meta keywords alone affect rankings6. Alt tags - include keywords in your alt tags7. Submit your website to SEs for indexing - submit your site to search engine directories, directory sites and portal sites - indexing takes 1 wk to 3 months
34. SEO strategies & techniquesSEO - what is NOT recommended• Flash and shockwave - spiders do not pick up these files• Image only sites - spiders do not pick up images• Image maps - spiders cannot read image maps. Do not use them on your home page or critical pages.• Frames - only one page can be titled (titling is critical in search rankings) - If the spider cannot read the complete page (because of the frames), - it will not be indexed properly. - Some spiders may not even read a frames web site• Password protected pages – spiders cannot enter password protected pages
35. SEO strategies & techniques• PDF files - can be problematic for spiders. Although some search engines can index them, the pages must be interpreted into HTML and can lose much of their content. - place PDFs lower down in your site• Dynamic pages - spiders cannot index some content on pages using ASP, CGI or other dynamic languages. - Make sure important pages are HTML, no dynamically generated content.• Drop down menus – spiders cannot read them
36. Site submission to Search Engine• Major SEs to submit to:• Google http://www.google.com/addurl.html (Search engines that also use this database - Yahoo)• Altavista http://addurl.altavista.com/sites/addurl/newurl (Search engines that also use this database - Looksmart)• The Open Directory Project (DMOZ) http://dmoz.org/add.html (Search engines that also use this database - Ask Jeeves, Lycos, Netscape )• Fast http://www.alltheweb.com/add_url.php (Search engines that also use this database - Lycos)• Inktomi http://submitit.bcentral.com/msnsubmit.htm (Search engines that also use this database - AOL, Excite, MSN, Overture)• MSN http://submitit.bcentral.com/msnsubmit.htm• Yahoo http://docs.yahoo.com/info/suggest
37. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
38. Limitations of Search Engines• The major search engines all operate on the same principles - Automated search bots crawl the web, follow links and index content in massive databases.• They accomplish this with a type of dazzling artificial intelligence that is nothing short of amazing.• There are technical limitations of all kinds that cause immense problems in both inclusion and rankings.• The most common are listed below: • Spidering and Indexing Problems • Content to Query Matching • Interpreting Non-Text Content
39. Limitations (Contd.)Spidering and Indexing Problems• Search engines arent good at completing online forms and thus any content contained behind them may remain hidden.• Websites using a CMS (Content Management System) often create duplicate versions of the same page - a major problem for search engines looking for completely original content.• Errors in a websites crawling directives (robots.txt) may lead to blocking search engines entirely.
40. Limitations (Contd.)Content to Query Matching• Text that is not written in common terms that people use to search. For example, writing about "food cooling units" when people actually search for "refrigerators".• Language and internationalization subtleties. For example, color vs colour. When in doubt, check what people are searching for and use exact matches in your content.• Location targeting, such as targeting content in Polish when the majority of the people who would visit your website are from Japan.• Mixed contextual signals. For example, the title of your blog post is "Mexicos Best Coffee" but the post itself is about a vacation resort in Canada which happens to serve great coffee. These mixed messages send confusing signals to search engines.
41. Limitations (Contd.)Interpreting Non-Text Content• Although the engines are getting better at reading non-HTML text, content in rich media format is traditionally difficult for search engines to parse.• This includes text in Flash files, images, photos, video, audio & plug-in content.
42. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
43. SEO information from Google Webmasters GuidelinesGooglers recommend the following to get better rankings in their searchengine:• Make pages primarily for users, not for search engines. Dont deceive your users or present different content to search engines than you display to users, which is commonly referred to as cloaking.• Make a site with a clear hierarchy and text links. Every page should be reachable from at least one static text link.• Create a useful, information-rich site, and write pages that clearly and accurately describe your content. Make sure that your <title> elements and ALT attributes are descriptive and accurate.• Use keywords to create descriptive, human friendly URLs. Provide one version of a URL to reach a document, using 301 redirects or the rel="canonical" element to address duplicate content.
45. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references
47. Good SEO Practice– Create CrawlableStructure • A crawlable link structure - one that lets their spiders browse the pathways of a website - is vital in order to find all of the pages on a website. • Hundreds of thousands of sites make the critical mistake of structuring their navigation in ways that search engines cannot access, thus impacting their ability to get pages listed in the search engines indices.
48. • In the example above, Googles spider has reached page "A" and sees links to pages "B" and "E". However, even though C and D might be important pages on the site, the spider has no way to reach them (or even know they exist.)• This is because no direct, crawlable links point to those pages. As far as Google is concerned, they might as well not exist - great content, good keyword targeting, and smart marketing wont make any difference at all if the spiders cant reach those pages in the first place.
50. Agenda What are Search Engines How Search Engines work What is SEO Search Engine key terms & terminologies Search Engine optimization strategies Search Engine’s limitations Recommendations by Search kings Good and poor practives in SEO Sources and references