Green IT stands for Green Information Technology. Information Technology is
essentially the design, implementation and management of computers that both individuals
and businesses use.
The Green IT is composed of two things:
1. Minimizing the negative impact of information technology use on the environment
2. Using information technology to help solve environmental issues
Green IT is a set of practical measures designed to ensure that Information Technology is
developed, delivered and used in a way that is environmentally friendly, sustainable and
energy efficient. Green IT is a collection of strategic and tactical initiatives that directly
reduces the carbon footprint of an organization’s computing operation. The study and
practice of using computing resources in an efficient, effective and economic way
Green IT starts with manufacturers producing environmentally friendly products and
encouraging IT departments to consider more friendly options like virtualization, power
management and proper recycling habits. Increasing hardware utilization, reducing life-cycle
costs and looking for ways to cut down on computer waste.
Why greens IT
Rising energy demand with a more limited supply and increasing utility costs
Management of hazardous waste and electronic equipment disposal (e-waste)
Increasing gasoline costs, which drive up employee commuting costs leading to
Increasing real estate costs
Rising airline ticket costs and travel complexities
A stronger regulatory climate at the federal, state and local levels
The green IT concept can be applied in to any of organization in following ways.
Reducing Environmental Waste
The first step to take in going to a green IT system is to look at ways that can reduce
office’s electronic waste. The office can start with the computers of its employees use and
how dispose of them. A typical desktop computer contains a kilogram of lead and a number
of dangerous chemicals that includes arsenic, boron, and nitric acid. Computers become
outdated within a few years and need to be replaced regularly to keep office efficiency up.
Before dispose of old computers, consider other ways that can use them. For starters, office
could salvage them for parts needed for hardware repairs or could donate the old computers
to families who can make use of them, thus keeping them out of landfills.
Improving Energy Efficiency
One great initiative that can help makes the IT department greener while also saving
the company money is to encourage better energy consumption. Many offices leave their
computers on at all times, which over one year creates carbon emissions equal to over 2,000
cars on the road for a day. By turning off computers at night or when not in use for a long
period of time, can save thousands of kilowatts of electricity and dramatically decrease the
company’s energy bill at the same time. The IT department can also adjust power settings on
computers so they go into standby after shorter period of inactivity, thus saving power during
meetings or on lunch breaks.
Green IT Purchasing
Another green information technology step that can take involves controlling
company’s purchasing of new equipment. Evaluate company needs carefully and determine
what technology will help the environment while saving money at the same time. When
ordering new monitors, choose LCD monitors to use less energy. Encourage the use of
laptops or tablets over more wasteful desktop models. Seek out laser printers and copiers that
have effective hibernation modes that leave them powered down when not in use. Most
importantly, go to a paperless system wherever possible. One of the biggest wastes in any
office comes from the massive amount of paper needless used on a daily basis.
3.Approaches with example
The green computing and the green IT is the same concept. So, we can identify the below
approach under the green IT.
We use the more natural resource, when we develop new computer. But we can make the
reused part of that product and fixed it .Then product life time can be extend. As example the
manufacturing a new PC makes a far bigger ecological footprint than manufacturing a new
RAM module to upgrade an existing one, a common upgrade that saves the user having to
purchase a new computer.
Ex/ manufacturing a new RAM module to upgrade an existing one.
The efficiency of algorithms has an impact on the amount of computer resources required for
any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs in writing programs.
As computers have become more numerous and the cost of hardware has declined relative to
the cost of energy, the energy efficiency and environmental impact of computing systems and
programs has received increased attention.
Ex/switching from a slow search algorithm to a fast is reduce the search time and the power
In this approach used algorithms which can also be used to route data to data centers where
electricity is less expensive. Some university in the world tests these algorithms successfully.(
As Example Carnegie Mellon University and Akamai.) This help to save 40 percentage
electronic cost .Also a similar approach has been used to cut energy usage by routing traffic
away from data centers experiencing warm weather; this allows computers to be shut down to
avoid using air conditioning.
EX/energy allocation algorithm used routes traffic to the data centers location with the
cheapest energy costs.
Here the system administrator could combine several physical systems into virtual machines
on one single, powerful system, thereby unplugging the original hardware and reducing
power and cooling consumption. Several commercial companies and open-source projects
now offer software packages to enable a transition to virtual computing.
Example:- Intel Corporation and AMD have also built proprietary virtualization
enhancements to the x86 instruction set into each of their CPU product lines, in order to
facilitate virtualized computing.
Terminal servers have also been used in green computing. When using the system, users at a
terminal connect to a central server; all of the actual computing is done on the server, but the
end user experiences the operating system on the terminal. These can be combined with thin
clients, who use up to 1/8 the amount of energy
of a normal workstation, resulting in a decrease
of energy costs and consumption. There has
been an increase in using terminal services with
thin clients to create virtual labs. There has been
an increase in using terminal services with thin
clients to create virtual labs.
Examples: Terminal Services for Windows, Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) for the
Linux operating system.
Here consider the advance power management technique to control the power –saving aspect
of the under Lear hardware in the computers. The Advanced Configuration and Power
Interface (ACPI), an open industry standard, regarding the power saving. This allows a
system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set
periods of inactivity. In addition, a system may hibernate, where most components (including
the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off. ACPI is a successor to an earlier IntelMicrosoft standard called Advanced Power Management, which allows a computer's BIOS to
control power management functions.
Older power supply machine are have 70-75% of the efficient. But under new Energy Star
4.0-certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient. Sothis usage again saves the world
power usage and reduces the power wastage in computers
Operating system support
Modern operating systems which are developed by the deferent company are supports to
more power saving methods. Operating system timers, processor power management and
display panel brightness are some of feathers support by the modern operating system. Also
there is a significant market in third-party PC power management software offering features
beyond those present in the Windows operating system. Most products offer Active Directory
integration and per-user/per-machine settings with the more advanced offering multiple
power plans, scheduled power plans, anti-insomnia features and enterprise power usage
reporting. Ex/Multiple power plans, Third-party PC power management software
Smaller form factor hard disk drives often consume less power per gigabyte than
physically larger drives .The manufacturers of the world's fastest Solid State Storage devices,
managed to reduce the carbon footprint and operating costs of MySpace data centers by 80%
while increasing performance speeds beyond that which had been attainable via multiple hard
disk drives in Raid 0.Also MySpace was able to permanently retire several of their servers,
including all their heavy-load servers, further reducing their carbon
Also most organization used the online or offline database
server and backup to store data. The increase in online storage has
increased power consumption. Reducing the power consumed by
large storage arrays, while still providing the benefits of online
storage, is a subject of ongoing research.
EX/ My space, solid-state drives
LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent
bulb to provide light for the display. Some newer displays use an
array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place of the fluorescent
bulb, which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display.
Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury,
and hexavalent chromium out of landfills, and can also replace equipment that otherwise
would need to be manufactured, saving further energy and emissions. Computer systems that
have outlived their particular function can be re-purposed, or donated to various charities and
non-profit organizations. So these metals can be reused to the developed different equipment
tools. Then we can reduce the environment pollution.
Due to the vast quantities of electricity needed to power and cool the center, the data
center is often one of the costliest portions of an IT organization. Facilities issues, including
expensive and inefficient cooling methods, can be improved or eliminated to make the data
center more environmentally friendly.
In addition to the high IT organizational costs, data centers contribute greatly to
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the long term, the best answer to the power and cooling
issues is greater design focus at the component level, coupled with the ability to manage
power at a high level. CIOs also need to plan on building future data centers in a modular
way, so that power consumption can be scaled with growth.
In the shorter term, organizations can use their wallets to push vendors toward
creating energy-efficient systems that can operate within targeted power and heat limits. IT
organizations can undertake green data center initiatives directly in two areas: facilities,
which include cooling, and hardware, which includes servers and virtualization.
Data centers should,
Eliminate energy leaks
Use innovative and more efficient cooling methods
Replace high-density servers with virtual servers
Use alternative storage tactics
Reconfigure data center floor layouts
Explore alternative energy sources
Figure 2: Green mountain data center- Norw
4. Advantages of Green IT
1. Reducing carbon and other GHG emissions
Proper asset disposal practices can eliminate toxic waste from entering landfill
systems. Recycling old equipment, when possible, decreases waste and can offer
potential cost savings to organizations that reuse IT assets. It can reduce the carbon
and other GHG emissions. In modern world increased legislation surrounding energy
efficiency, toxic materials, and greenhouse gases (GHG) in the United States,
European Union, and China.
2. Increasing cooling efficiency in the data center
By leveraging local climates and using chilled loop and free cooling strategies,
IT organizations can decrease energy consumption through cooling practices.
3. Reducing energy costs
Rising energy costs over the past five years. Cloud Computing can be used to
reduce the energy costs. Green computing could save substantial amount of energy,
cloud computing involves replacing regular servers with the virtual ones. The
different areas where cloud computing finds application includes data storage,
networking, operating systems and software applications. The practice of switching
off computers at night helps in saving a considerable amount of energy. The power
supplied to scanners and printers should be cut off whenever these devices are not in
use. This practice can also save a considerable amount of energy.
4. Companies are saving tons of money
Green IT can save precious energy, time and money spent in manufacturing
these electronic items. Resources used and money spent in manufacturing an
electronic item from scratch are far greater than those needed for recycling it.Green IT
measures can be used for improving the algorithmic efficiency of computers. An
efficient algorithm makes minimum use of resources. Therefore, the productivity
increases diversely and saving money.
5. Reducing the amount of space need for servers
Cloud computing involves replacing regular servers with the virtual ones.
Therefore cloud computing can be used to reduce the need for servers. Virtualization
is a large part of reducing the amount of space need for servers, but there are other
solutions that businesses are implementing that helps green up their servers.
6. Helping to minimize their environmental impact
Green IT is reducing the carbon and other GHG emissions. As it focuses on
purchasing computing equipment that is more energy efficient and environmentally
friendly and includes programs to extend equipment useful life, recycle and engage
with suppliers that demonstrate a commitment to reducing hazardous materials in
their manufacturing, packaging and factory waste management programs.
7. Green IT is a simple concept to understand and apply. 
5. Problem and limitation of Green IT
Much of the technology associated with green living does provide benefits to the
environment but often at a much higher cost than their traditional counterparts. For instance,
the use of solar panels can potentially save you money on your energy bills, but they can cost
thousands of dollars to install. Energy-efficient appliances are designed to use less electricity
and water but they often come with a high price tag. The use of data centers established in
cold places like North Pole region also causes in unnecessary cost due to high maintenance
and high quality and high cost equipment.
2. Payback period.
The time factor is also an issue in terms of the payback rate of certain green living
investments. For example, replacing regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs
(CFLs) can help the environment and save money, but it typically takes about four months for
them to pay back the difference in their cost. Also for producing green IT products takes
more cost while it unable to use for a long time.
3. Rapid technology change
With the rapid change in technology, world is innovating more consumer efficient
product day by day. Because of that whether the product is sufficient with the need;
consumers are willing to buy the same product with new features. So it causes in dump the
previous version. It also affect in the green IT concept. People are inventing new
environmental friendly IT product, but with the rapid technology change the product are not
in use at the end. It increases the cost and wastage. 
6. Global Trends in Green IT
Green Data Centers
The move towards green in data centers, which are the largest part of the
power-hungry IT ecosystem, is evolving. Data Centers may be contributing to over
15% of total energy usage by some organizations. Better efficiencies, smarter cooling,
use of alternative energy, and smarter utilization of data resources are all part of this
Create a Green ROI Formula
A Green IT Return-on-Investment is a formula for both selling and justifying
the need to change, and what capital or investments in people or equipment will need
to deliver on for Green IT plan. If invest X, what will be the ROI? Will it be in
customer appreciation? Reduced costs? New business opportunities?
Green IT Innovator
The key innovations in moving data, services, people, transactions and
systems that will demonstrate the commitment to being a Green IT innovator. Finding
clear green innovations that can implement in how move data, people, paper, systems,
transactions and communications is becoming a new trend in Green IT.
Serve Customers Smarter with Green IT
Green IT is an excellent way to serve customers and grow market share by
being an innovator. Green will affect customer buying decisions. Organizations
should keep in mind, most customers are green supporters, and they expect your
organization to make change. Also, organizations can use Green IT to teach their
customers how to become green. 
Green IT is also called as green computing. It includes the study and the use of
computer resources in an efficient and effective way. Green IT starts with manufacturers who
should produce environmentally friendly products and it encourage IT departments to
consider about more friendly options like virtualization, power management and proper
recycling habits. The governments have also recently proposed new compliance regulations
which would work towards certifying data centers as green. Some criteria include using lowemission building materials, recycling, using alternative energy technologies, and other green
According to the our study we have identified how it works, it’s applications,
advantages, limitations and also future trends of Green It concept.