MAX IV – An ultra-brilliant synchrotron radiation facility
Our vision: A Nordic – Baltic laboratory
Åke Kvick, MAX-lab, Lu...
Synchrotron radiation produced by relativistic electrons in particle accelerators
Very intense X-ray beams - A unique reso...
MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund, Sweden • www.maxlab.lu.se
On a typical day in Stuttgart…
Development of synchrotron radiation sources
Electromagnetic radiation
Our main source of knowledge of nature
Unique beam ...
MAX I 550 MeV
MAX II 1500 MeV
MAX III 700 MeV
LINAC injector
MAX-lab - A National Laboratory for Synchrotron Radiation Res...
Among recent Nobel Prizes
ATP synthase, motors! Boyer, Walker; 1998
Ribosomes
K+ and water channels Agre, McKinnon; 2004
R...
Structure and Function of the Ribosome
8
2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz och Ada ...
X-ray tomographic investigations of microfossils
Experiments at SLS
Illustration provided by Stefan Bengtsson, The Swedish...
Chemical bonding and monolayer structure
Graphene and h-BN on lattice-mismatched substrates
Unit supercell [e.g. 12(C):11(...
404 402 400 398 396
N1sphotoelectronintensity(arb.units)
h-BN/Pt(111)
h-BN/Rh(111)
N2h-BN/Ru(0001)
Binding energy (eV)
N1
...
Dynamics: From seconds to femtoseconds
Not just pictures – we need movies!
• Growth
• Catalysis
• Fluid transport
• Chemic...
The Lund Nanowire technology platform
Complex heterostructures Nanowire trees
Ref: Nature Mat. 2004; 3, 380, Nano Lett. 20...
Smaller samples – down to the nm scale
Time resolved studies – From fs to ms and s
In situ studies
Dilute (real) samples
C...
Strategy for the MAX IV project
Most users require storage rings
Both soft and hard x-rays are important
Top-up
No short b...
MAX IV – Unique design
20
3 GeV ring 20 straight sections (0.24 nmrad)
540 m circumference
1.5 GeV ring 12 straight sectio...
Third generation synchrotron radiation facilities
in Europe
Facility Location Start of
operation
Circumf
(m)
Energy
(GeV)
...
Compact magnet design - Combined magnetic functions
MAX III – Prototype for MAX IV
An international comparison
What are the new opportunities due to the extreme
brilliance?
Very high resolution spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy
Elec...
What are the new opportunities due to the extreme
brilliance?
Coherence techniques
Holography
X-ray Photon Correlation Spe...
MAX IV
ESS
Science City
Photoelectron spectroscopy: Revolution in resolution and intensity
Core level spectroscopies: Use of energy tunability
Str...
Japan nov 2010_kvick
Japan nov 2010_kvick
Japan nov 2010_kvick
Japan nov 2010_kvick
Japan nov 2010_kvick
Japan nov 2010_kvick
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Japan nov 2010_kvick

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  • The Problem. We have some exquisite fossil embryo material from the Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The embryos are contemporaneous with the Cambrian explosion, and the emergence of body plans and Phyla. These problems can now be discussed from an embryological perspective. Minor changes in developmental processes can have major results on the morphology of an organism.
  • Japan nov 2010_kvick

    1. 1. MAX IV – An ultra-brilliant synchrotron radiation facility Our vision: A Nordic – Baltic laboratory Åke Kvick, MAX-lab, Lund, Sweden
    2. 2. Synchrotron radiation produced by relativistic electrons in particle accelerators Very intense X-ray beams - A unique resource for advanced research
    3. 3. MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund, Sweden • www.maxlab.lu.se On a typical day in Stuttgart…
    4. 4. Development of synchrotron radiation sources Electromagnetic radiation Our main source of knowledge of nature Unique beam properties Continuous spectrum – Polarized Pulsed (semi-continuous source) Dramatic improvement of sources Brilliance Stability Reliability Coherence Third generation facilities Optimized for undulators (and wigglers) Cut-off determined by electron beam energy
    5. 5. MAX I 550 MeV MAX II 1500 MeV MAX III 700 MeV LINAC injector MAX-lab - A National Laboratory for Synchrotron Radiation Research Third generation facility – Lund, Sweden A large number of beamlines used in parallel Cover many scientific disciplines Free access – Ranking of project proposals 24 h operation Large user communities
    6. 6. Among recent Nobel Prizes ATP synthase, motors! Boyer, Walker; 1998 Ribosomes K+ and water channels Agre, McKinnon; 2004 RNA polymerase Kornberg; 2006 How do we know the atomic structure of biomolecules? A key to understanding their function
    7. 7. Structure and Function of the Ribosome 8 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz och Ada E. Yonath Gradual improvement of the resolution
    8. 8. X-ray tomographic investigations of microfossils Experiments at SLS Illustration provided by Stefan Bengtsson, The Swedish Museum of Natural History
    9. 9. Chemical bonding and monolayer structure Graphene and h-BN on lattice-mismatched substrates Unit supercell [e.g. 12(C):11(Rh)] is determined by the mismatch Details of interfacial chemistry important! ?
    10. 10. 404 402 400 398 396 N1sphotoelectronintensity(arb.units) h-BN/Pt(111) h-BN/Rh(111) N2h-BN/Ru(0001) Binding energy (eV) N1 h-BN/Ir(111) Chemical bonding and monolayer structure h-BN morphology on lattice-mismatched substrates: N 1s PE [A. B. Preobrajenski et al., CPL 582, 21 (2007)] StrengthofchemicalbondingStrengthofchemicalbonding weak corrugation strong corrugation h-BN/Pt(111) h-BN/Rh(111) } } [A. B. Preobrajenski et al., PRB 75, 245412 (2007)] [Nanomesh - M. Corso et al. Science 303, 217 (2004)] N2 N1 N2 ”wire” ”pore”
    11. 11. Dynamics: From seconds to femtoseconds Not just pictures – we need movies! • Growth • Catalysis • Fluid transport • Chemical reactions • Crystallization • Magnetization • Heat transport • Electron dynamics Single atom steps and 50 nanometer Au particles control the motion of mesoscopic droplets!
    12. 12. The Lund Nanowire technology platform Complex heterostructures Nanowire trees Ref: Nature Mat. 2004; 3, 380, Nano Lett. 2005; 5(4) 635, Nano Lett. 2005; 5(10) 1943, Nano Lett. (2004), 4, 699, IEEE EDL, 27, 323 (2006), Adv. Mater 19, (2007) 1801, Nano Lett. 7, (2007), 2960, Nature Nanotechn 4, 50 (2009) Perfect Ordering Nanowire/cell interaction Quantum Physics A wide variety of complex, reproducible 0D, 1D, 2D, 3D structures! A great playground for science and well suited for applications Novel high speed/low power electronics on Silicon
    13. 13. Smaller samples – down to the nm scale Time resolved studies – From fs to ms and s In situ studies Dilute (real) samples Coherence techniques – Holography, correlation spectroscopy, phase contrast imaging etc. Synchrotron radiation source – storage ring Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser Need for new X-ray sources
    14. 14. Strategy for the MAX IV project Most users require storage rings Both soft and hard x-rays are important Top-up No short bunches in the storage rings Optimize rings for average brilliance (coherence) Linac driven source for short bunches and high peak brilliance Spontaneous emission and FEL The MAX IV project aims at building a second generation FEL A Linac/FEL program has already started at the MAX 500 MeV injector
    15. 15. MAX IV – Unique design 20 3 GeV ring 20 straight sections (0.24 nmrad) 540 m circumference 1.5 GeV ring 12 straight sections (5.6 nmrad) 96 m circumference 3 GeV linac Injection + short pulse facility
    16. 16. Third generation synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe Facility Location Start of operation Circumf (m) Energy (GeV) Emittance (nmrad) ELETTRA Trieste 1993 259 2-2.4 7-9.7 ESRF Grenoble 1994 850 6 4 MAX II Lund 1997 90 1.5 8.8 BESSY II Berlin 1998 240 1.7 5.2 SLS Villigen 2001 288 2.4-2.7 5 SOLEIL Paris 2007 354 2.5-2.75 3 DIAMOND Oxford 2007 562 3 2.74 Operating facilities - Emittance less than 10 nmrad Facility Location Status Circumf (m) Energy (GeV) Emittance (nmrad) PETRA III Hamburg Constr. 2300 6 1 MAX IV Lund Proposed 530 3 0.24 Planned or under construction - Emittance 1 nmrad or less
    17. 17. Compact magnet design - Combined magnetic functions MAX III – Prototype for MAX IV
    18. 18. An international comparison
    19. 19. What are the new opportunities due to the extreme brilliance? Very high resolution spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy Electron spectroscopy – RIXS A world-class laboratory for structural biology Small crystals - screening of large number of crystals Membrane proteins Time dependent studies Unique micro- and nanofocussing capabilities - 10 nm or less Materials science Nanotechnology Environmental science New imaging capabilities Micro and nanotomography Phase contarst imaging (coherence)
    20. 20. What are the new opportunities due to the extreme brilliance? Coherence techniques Holography X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy In situ studies of reactions and processes Spectroscopy - Diffraction Studying dynamics Ultrafast dynamics (fs) Follow processes in real time Medical applications
    21. 21. MAX IV ESS Science City
    22. 22. Photoelectron spectroscopy: Revolution in resolution and intensity Core level spectroscopies: Use of energy tunability Structural studies Imaging Micro- and nanofocussing Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

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