Using An Informal Interactional Diversity Experience to Increase Students\' Openness to Diversity
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Using An Informal Interactional Diversity Experience to Increase Students\' Openness to Diversity



Lilly Conference on Teaching and Learning, Traverse City, MI, September 11,2009

Lilly Conference on Teaching and Learning, Traverse City, MI, September 11,2009



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Using An Informal Interactional Diversity Experience to Increase Students\' Openness to Diversity Using An Informal Interactional Diversity Experience to Increase Students\' Openness to Diversity Presentation Transcript

  • Using an Informal Interactional Diversity Experience to Promote Students’ Openness to Diversity Susan Sanner, PhD; Lillian Parker, PhD; Kathleen Cannella PhD; Jennell Charles, PhD Clayton State University Morrow, GA Lilly Conference on College & University Teaching Traverse City, MI September 25, 2009
  • Federal Funding to Support Nursing Student Success
    • “ Partnering to Increase the Nursing Workforce Diversity.” HRSA, Division of Nursing, NWD (D19HP08207-01-00) for $1,005,897 (07/01/07-06/30/2010).
  • “ Openness” (Pascarella, et al., 1996)
    • Defined as “an orientation toward enjoyment from being intellectually challenged by different ideas, values, and perspectives as well as an appreciation of racial, cultural, and ethnic diversity” (p. 6).
  • Gurin, et al. (2002)
    • Informal interactional diversity.
    • Involves the frequency and quality of inter-group interaction as necessary ways to experience meaningful diversity experiences during college.
  • Presentation Objectives
    • Define the meaning of diversity as it pertains to your institution.
    • Discuss an informal interactional diversity experience as a means of promoting understanding of diversity.
    • Determine the need for an informal interactional diversity experience at your institution.
    • Brainstorm a specific diversity experience that could be implemented at your institution that could promote understanding of the issues faced by vulnerable populations at your institution.
  • Diversity Defined
    • Categorization: Open-ended and ambiguous: “our institution needs more diversity”
    • Representation: depicts images of particular social groups defining them by race, gender, age, or socioeconomic status
    • Ideology: refers to a set of beliefs for the purpose of changing people’s attitudes.
    • Wood, P. (2003). Diversity: The invention of a concept. San Francisco: Encounter Books.
  • Benefits of a Diverse College Experience
    • Astin (1993):participation in cultural awareness workshops, and frequency with which students socialized with persons from different racial/ethnic groups, were positively associated with measures of student satisfaction with the undergraduate experience and with measures of academic development, including increased cultural awareness and commitment to promoting racial understanding.
  • Informal Interactional Diversity Experiences Explored in Higher Education
    • Pascarella et al. (1996): explored ways in which institutions instilled in students a greater openness to racial, cultural, and value diversity.
    • Assessed the extent to which an individuals enjoyed being challenged by different ideas, values, and perspectives.
    • Developed the Openness to Diversity and Challenge Scale (ODCS).
  • Informal Interactional Diversity Experiences Explored in Higher Education: Determining Openness
    • Summers et al. (2002): administered the ODCS to students over a two year period.
    • Analyzed data according to gender, ethnicity and class rank.
    • Significant differences in scores based on gender and ethnicity.
  • Informal Interactional Diversity Experiences Explored in Higher Education: Study Abroad Programs
    • Wortman (2002)
    • Ismail et al. (2006)
    • Both found significant increases in students’ openness to diversity after the experience.
  • The Need for Informal Interactional Diversity Experiences at CSU
    • Diverse student populations.
    • Improve communication among students.
    • Develop racial/cultural understanding.
    • Dispel assumptions
  • Enrollment by Ethnic Group ( CSU Fact Book 2008-2009 ) 6,074 66.2 6,043 66.4 6,081 66.4 6,212 64.6 5,954 61.7 Total Enrollment % Minority 444 287 83 Unknown 1,608 1,746 1,963 2,196 2,279 White 13 14 14 15 22 Native American 247 275 317 356 343 Multiracial 172 167 161 169 145 Hispanic 3,291 3,241 3,200 3,173 2,892 Black 299 313 343 303 273 Asian/Pacific Islander Fall ‘08 Fall ‘07 Fall ‘06 Fall ‘05 Fall ‘04
  • CSU SON Student Diversity 73% 64% 55% 73% % Minority BSN Enrollees 33 30 22 35 Minority BSN Enrollees 45 47 41 48 BSN Enrollees 2007 2006 2005 2004
  • Purpose of the First Diversity Forum
    • To promote racial/cultural understanding among students and among faculty and students.
    • To develop culturally competent graduates who are sensitive to the needs of diverse patient populations.
  • 60 Countries Represented by CSU’s International Students Zimbabwe Sierra Leone Moldova India Czech Republic W. Sahara Senegal Mexico Hong Kong Cyprus Vietnam Romania Malaysia Guyana Cuba Venezuela Portugal Lithuania Grenada Congo U. K. Poland Liberia Ghana Colombia Ukraine Philippines Lebanon Germany China Trinidad Peru Laos France Canada Togo Panama Korea Ethiopia Cameroon Thailand Pakistan Kenya El Salvador Cambodia Tajikistan Nigeria Japan Ecuador Brazil Taiwan Niger Jamaica Dominica Antigua/ Barbados Spain Netherlands Iraq Djibouti Albania
  • CSU International Students by World Region Asia / Pacific Islands 18% Sub-Saharan Africa 24% Eastern Europe 13% Carib- bean 10% West. Europe 12% Latin America 15% North America (excluding U.S.) 2% Middle East 3% India / Pakistan 3%
  • The Activities
    • Keynote Speaker
    • Shared a Meal
    • Group Activity
    • Multidisciplinary Experience
  • Students’ Openness to Diversity
    • Measured using the Openness to Diversity/Challenge Scale (Pascarella, et al., 1996).
    • 8 question Likert-type Scale
  • Openness to Diversity/Challenge Scale Questions
    • I enjoy having discussions with people whose ideas and values are different from my own.
    • The real value of a college education lies in being introduced to different values.
    • I enjoy talking to people who have values different from mine because it helps me understand myself and my values.
    • Learning about people from different cultures is a very important part of my college education.
    • I enjoy taking courses that challenge my beliefs and values.
    • The courses I enjoy the most are those that make me think about things from a different perspective.
    • Contact with individuals whose background is different from my own is an essential part of my college education.
    • I enjoy courses that are intellectually challenging.
  • Results
    • The means and standard deviations for the total scores on the pretest and post-test were 33.70/5.718 and 36.34/4.833, respectively.
    • Scores ranged from 16 to 40 on the pretest and 20 to 40 on the posttest.
    • A significant difference was found between participants’ pretest and posttest scores
    • Results supported the research hypothesis that the students’ posttest scores on the ODCS would be significantly higher than their pretest scores.
  • Implications
    • An educational forum can promote racial/cultural understanding among students.
    • Racial and cultural understanding provides a critical foundation in promoting cultural competency among future nurses.
    • With the increasing diversity of patients and healthcare professionals, cultural competency is the key in the delivery of safe and effective health care.
  • Annual Cultural Diversity Forum
    • Sanner, S., Baldwin, D., Cannella, K., Charles, J., & Parker, L. The impact of a cultural diversity forum on students’ openness to diversity. To appear in the Journal of Cultural Diversity (accepted for publication, May, 2009).
  • Steps for Implementing a Diversity Forum or a Type of Informal Interactional Diversity Experience
    • Decide why a forum or informal interactional experience would be needed.
    • Consider your institution and department missions.
    • Consider student issues.
    • Identify how the activity may link to program outcomes.
  • Group Time! Discuss the Following
    • The need for diversity experiences at your institution/department.
    • Consider your department’s program outcomes and choose how a diversity experience could assist in meeting one or more program outcomes.
    • Brainstorm an experience that could provide your students an appropriate diversity experience.
  • Thank You! Any Questions?
  • References
    • Astin, A.W. (1993). Diversity and multiculturalism on campus: How are students affected? Change , 25(2), 44-49.
    • Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, D. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72(3), 330-366.
    • Ismail, B., Morgan, M., & Hayes, K. (2006). Effect of short study abroad course on student openness to diversity. Journal of Food Science Education, 1, 15-18.
    • Pascarella, E., Edison, M., Nora, A., Hagedorn, L., & Terenzini, P. (1996). Influences on students’ openness to diversity and challenge in the first year of college. Journal of Higher Education , 67(2), 174-195.
  • References
    • Summers, J., Svinicki, M., Gorin, J., & Sullivan, T. (2002). Student feelings of connection to the campus and openness to diversity and challenge at a large research university: Evidence of progress? Innovative Higher Education , 27(1), 53-64.
    • Swaminathan, R. and Alfred, M. (2003). Strangers in the mirror: Immigrant students in the higher education classroom.
    • Wood, P. (2003). Diversity: The invention of a concept . San Francisco: Encounter Books.
    • Wortman, T.I. (2002). Psychosocial effects of studying abroad: Openness to diversity. Dissertation Abstract International , 63(7): 2479-572.