Fountas andPinnell believe that early intervention can change the path of a child’s journey to literacy (2007) Research indicates that students who are reading below grade level at the end of grade one are more likely to continue reading below grade level for the rest of their formal education. Many researchers believe that reading difficulties can not only be preventable, but effective, systematic intervention can be reversed.These components can be found on Pg.1 and 2 of the program guide.
LLI teachers and classroom teachers should communicate. LLI students will not miss any component of their core ELA & Math instruction. LLI is a supplemental intervention not the core program. Thus, LLI is designed to run or occur alongside the regular ELA Program. Avoid disruption to intervention time at all costs.
Must be daily to provide the most benefit for the students. This time must be protected.
Allows for one on one and teaching specific to student needs.
LLI is designed to run between 18-24 weeks but instances where students need more time and support may arise. The LLI teacher, Coordinator, Ed. Psych, Literacy Coach and teacher should discuss if the student needs to stay in LLI longer, change groups, be released from the program or be considered for other interventions. Parents should also be communicated with regarding student growth.
As students learn the structure, the lessons become even more efficient. The structure is important to the reading process and will be outlined later in the presentation. Orange Pg. 46Green Pg. 46Blue Pg. 40
The fast pace of the lesson has proven to keep children highly engaged in experiences which they find success. Hint: Have a timer on-hand. Avoid bathroom breaks, be prepared with materials, plan visit time for before or after session, etc.
Focus must be on the processes of reading and deeper understanding. Comprehension focus is provided in the list of key understanding from each book.
Research shows the strong connection between reading and writing. Refer to When Readers Struggle. Through out the lessons, students learn to use sound analysis, important spelling skills and early writing conventions. Orange Pg. 74Green Pg. 75Blue Pg. 68
This is critical for low-achieving students-before they become discouraged and perpetuate slow processing.
Appendix of teacher’s guide: detailed analysis of phonics, word analysis, decoding and vocabulary challenges for each book. LLI text should not be used in regular classroom.
Critical for struggling readers but must be combined with comprehension. See Instructional Routines for LLI: Refer to DVD Teaching: Instructional Routines.Orange Pg. 62Green Pg. 62 Blue Pg. 55
Forms are provided on taking running records on each child (once per week). Assessment is more than seeing what level they are at. It is to see what errors the students are making and what patterns are showing in their reading. M,S,V (error analysis) will help guide future teaching and inform instruction. When Readers Struggle and the Professional Development DVD’s should be reviewed frequently.
When Readers Struggle and Professional DVD for learning. Professional understandings are provided for each lesson. LLI school team refer to Roles and Responsibilities document. Orange Pg. 91Green Pg. 93Blue Pg. 87
Each lesson provides links to classroom connections. Helps to enhance student’s self esteem and is critical to the program. Classroom teachers that are conducting their own LLI program should consult with their team regularly. Orange Pg. 22Green Pg. 22Blue Pg. 22
Take home books and parent letters are sent home daily. This is strongly encouraged to share success.
Extensive discussion (LLI team) needs to occur as to who will be receiving LLI intervention.Orange Pg. 4Green Pg. 4Blue Pg. 4
Guides Pg. 7 Sharing this chart in order to see where there is overlap. GSSD has created a gradient to follow in regards to student levels for the BAS. This is located on the Literacy Blog and F and P BAS wiki.
Good idea would be to visit a school that has a room and has organized their materials. Orange Pg. 23Green Pg. 23Blue Pg. 23
Each of these lessons include: classroom connections, home/school connections, assessing reading and writing behaviors, supporting English language learners, professional development links. Orange pg. 25Green Pg. 25Blue Pg. 25
Rereading – begin with a lap book that introduces words, format, pre-reading skills. The students also have identical small books to the lap book. Phonics – engage in a variety of experiences working with sounds and lettersNew book – build background knowledge, introduce characters, engage children in conversation, have them point and read the small books in unison with you to ensure voice print match. Teach students to start tracking with their eyes rather than fingers.Writing about Reading – talk and write about book from the day before and there are 3 kinds of writing: interactive, dictated and independent. Hand out - p. 51 from green program guide is posted on the LLI wordpress page and it gives descriptions of these types of writing.Letter word work – hands on work to learn how words work – magnetic letters, name puzzles, letter, words, or picture cardsOrange Pg. 26,47Green Pg. 26,47
Refer to Odd/Even Day Chart posted on the LLI wordpress page:Rereading – reread new book from previous lesson softly as you observe their processing. This develops fluency.Phonics/Word Work – develops phonemic awareness, word families, hearing and connecting sounds to lettersNew Book – background knowledge – includes picture walk, finding new vocabulary to pre-teach, helping children notice particular features of text (bold), words, layout, will be basis of lesson for two daysLetter/Word Work – active exploration of letters and words, making wordsOrange pg. 32,47Green Pg. 32,47Blue Pg. 26,41
Refer to Odd/Even Day Chart on LLI wordpress page:Rereading & Assessment – reread softly (whisper reading) the new books that were read the day before. Teacher uses this time to do reading record on instructional book from the day before. Every even lesson you do the reading record on a different child. Look at your MSV and use the Guide for Observing and Noting Reading Behaviors (on CD Rom) to note behaviors. From your notes on this, then refer to the Teach Prompt Reinforce Guide for strategies to address these areas of deficit.Phonics/Word Work – active exploration of letters and words and making words. Writing about Reading – to extend the child’s understanding of the text and develop early writing strategiesNew Book – usually two levels easier than their book from the previous day, introduce by quickly pointing out some of the important ideas in the bookOptional Letter Word Work – can have classroom teacher do this if not enough time in lessonOrange Pg. 38,49Green Pg. 38,49Blue Pg. 33,42
Play DVD. Selection of students-1:17Getting Organized-51Getting Started Lessons-1:17LLI Framework-7:02Instructional Routines (Sampling of Routines)-3:40Record Keeping-1:32
Refer to documents in the teacher guide and the handouts provided on the word press (Columbia)
Takes approx. 10 minutes of home time.If they don’t have home support, build time into day to do homework with a teacher, peer, EA, mentor etc.Print off those take-home resources ahead of time for ease in management.
Assessment is the act of getting information about the learners you will teach.Instruction needs to be at the appropriate level withthe appropriate emphasis.Keep record keeping simple, efficient and informative.After each lesson/daily, time is necessary to complete the records. There is information to ensure is recorded before you forget.Lesson Resources CD contains the Lesson Record FormsThe GSSD Word press site has several suggestions for collection and record keeping created by the Columbia School LLI Team. Use the forms that work for you, either the ones in the LLI CD or ones created that include the same information but more appropriate for your group.Section 4 Program Guide: Assessment and Record Keeping
Professional Development DVD Depends on who is involved in the in-service and whether they have received m,s,v and BAS training.Practice until comfortable with the process.
This information on Analyzing Strategic Actions can be located in Lesson Resources CD – Guide for Observing and Noting Reading Behaviours. This form is beneficial in reviewing student reading strategies for progress and for instructional purposes.This is a useful guide for identifying individual strengths and weaknesses. This form is shared with the classroom teacher to assist them in directing instruction and setting goals.It can be completed at least once a week.It is based on the work the interventionist has observed and noted over the week. Early Reading Behaviours: Directionality, How does the student pay attention to print features?Searching For and Using Information: Does the reader pay attention and actively look for clues... to the meaning? Structure? Visual Information? Solving Words: What strategies does the reader use to figure out words they do not know?Self-Monitoring: Does the reader notice when something doesn’t fit?Self-Correcting: Does the reader recognize errors and self correct?Maintaining Fluency: Does the reader put all aspects of reading together so that it is fluent and expressive?
Reading records are very similar to the BAS These reading records are the same system processes for coding, scoring and analyzing reading behaviours of Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System.The coding and scoring of errors are exactly the same as F&P BAS.Professional Development and Tutorials provide additional information and can provide additional practice.Coding and Scoring Errors at a Glance are used for reading records are located on the back covers of the Program Guides.Reminder – every EVEN lesson you are Coding and Scoring Errors for one student. Make laminated copies of the Coding and Scoring Errors for LLI teachers (schools make these).
Each student will need a file.Each file documentation of performance in lessons is kept. These include anecdotal notes, running records, work samples, and LLI reading graph.Recommended – to keep the students attendance record in the student fileEventually files from the LLI kit will run out. It is your choice to purchase more, or create new files for each student.
Refer to DVDThis will be site specific dependent upon what LLI kit will be implemented.Each school will practice from the Tutorial assessments sessions on the kit that they will be implementing in their intervention sessions. View: Tutorial
LLI Intervention Team will review basics to Coding Oral Reading and determine what tutorial practices will be reviewed.Tutorial DVD-Consolidation #3 (as a refresher) 8:18 Appeal and Told (if time allows) 4:48Print off practice sheets.
LLI Intervention Team will review Scoring and Analyzing Oral Reading Behaviours and determine what tutorial practices will be reviewed.Scoring: 6:15 Analysis: 31:14Participants may do Case Practice on their own time.
What is LLI?LLI is a small-group (no larger than 3students), supplementary interventionprogram designed for young childrenwho struggle with reading and writing.LLI is a powerful, research-based earlyintervention program that can preventliteracy difficulties before they turn intolong-term challenges.
1. Supplemental To the daily literacy block occurring within the classroom which should consist of all the balanced literacy components including guided reading.
2. Daily 30 minute sessions Reinforce new learning and support accelerated program Students engage in reading, writing, word study 10 minutes assigned beyond the 30 minute session dedicated for student transition
3. Small Groups Three students maximum Close observation by the LLI teacher facilitates teaching Individual learning leads to faster progress
4. Short Term System designed to bring students up to grade level in 18-24 weeks
5. Structured Lessons Very structured framework (children learn the routines) LLI teacher makes decisions specific to observations
6. Fast Paced Intensive and rigorous Pace keeps students engaged in successful experiences Use of a timer Preserve the 30 minutes.
7. Deep Comprehension Throughout the reading process – before, during, after reading Beyond literal interpretation Within text About text Beyond text
8. Writing Writing is integral for success. Strong reading and writing connection. Students compose, construct, and develop essential strategies for in the classroom.
9. Fluency Fluency is critical Each lesson includes attention to fluent, phrased reading as well as fluent writing If a student is not fluent, progress is hampered
10. High-Quality Text Multiple copies of levelled texts Designed to engage young readers with high quality fiction and non- fiction selections Texts have been systematically crafted to build phonics and word analysis skills and arranged along a careful gradient of text characteristics
11. Word Work Focus on phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, letter-sound patterns (phonics), word structure, spelling patterns, high frequency words Word work is critical but not to the exclusion of comprehension (balanced literacy)
12. On-Going Assessment More than pre-test, post-test Ongoing Running records (at least weekly) Comprehension-checks Word recognition
13. Professional Learning The LLI school team must engage in professional learning Understanding of the reading process is an important determinant of student success LLI team can refer to the Program Guide, Professional DVD, When Readers Struggle, LLI website to support their collaborative learning
14. Classroom Connections Critical to student success Record-keeping documents should be shared and reviewed Successful strategies in intervention/classroom are shared for consistency
15. Home Connection Materials reflecting student interest, culture Share success with students, families Shared expectations
Who is LLI for?LLI is designed to be used with small groups(3) of children who need intensive supportsto achieve grade level competencies. Forexample: the lowest achieving children in the classroom who are not receiving other supplementary interventions; children who have English as an additional language; children that have been identified as children with intensive needs.
Other Considerations For SelectingStudents for Intervention Use Benchmark Assessment System (F&P) results to select and group children Begin with students who need the most help The levels should be the same within the group Students should be re-grouped where necessary Most children can be brought to grade level in 18-24 weeks
LLI SystemsThere are three LLI systems availablecoded by color: The Orange system (Levels A through C) The Green system (Levels A through J) The Blue system (Levels C through J)
Getting Organized Find a space where the children are able to face the LLI teacher and see the materials. In advance, print out materials from the Lesson Resource CD. Initially using the system will require the LLI teacher to plan ahead of time so the materials are ready. Review the week’s lessons. Lessons are designed for minimal planning once you get used to the structure.
Essential Elementsof LessonsThere are three kinds of lessons: Getting Started Lessons (Orange and Green Kit) Odd Numbered Lessons (Orange, Green, and Blue Kits) Even Numbered Lessons (Orange, Green, and Blue Kits)
Getting Started LessonsInclude: Rereading – 5 minutes Phonics – 5 minutes Rereading a new book with several levels of support – 8 minutes Writing about reading – 7 minutes Letter word work – 5 minutesNote: The last Getting Started lap book is levelD in the Green System. There are lap booksthroughout the orange kit.
Odd Numbered LessonsInclude: Rereading Books – 5 minutes Phonics/Word Work – 5 minutes New Book – 15 minutes Letter/Word Work – 5 minutes
Even Numbered Lessons Rereading Books and Assessment – 5 minutes Phonics/Word Work - 5 minutes Writing about Reading – 15 minutes New Book – 5 minutes Optional Letter Word Work – no time specified
ProfessionalDevelopment DVDTeaching Selection of students Getting Organized Getting Started Lessons LLI Framework Instructional Routines (Sampling of Routines) Record Keeping
All Lessons Include thefollowing Materials1. Classroom Connections2. Home/School Connections3. Assessing Reading/Writing Behaviors4. Supporting English Language Behaviors5. Professional Development Units
1. Classroom ConnectionsCritical - Collaboration and communication between the classroom teacher and LLI teacher. Includes specific suggestions for children to practice and extend their learning in the classroom. This includes rereading the take-home book. Link to LLI Classroom Connections located in LLI Training and Information Content and progress need to be communicated (GSSD LLI Guidelines)
Build Classroom Connections byCoordinating with the Classroom Teacher Invite the classroom teacher to observe an LLI lesson. Share records on an on-going basis. Ask for their input and for what they are seeing in the classroom. Ensure that the classroom teacher is using small-group instruction. Use the Classroom Connections.
2. Home/School Connection Includes specific suggestions for children to practice and extend their learning at home. All take home resources are on the Lesson Resources CD-ROM.
3. Assessment and Record KeepingOngoing assessment is built into the system : Assess one student every second day Which means every child will get assessed once a week (approximately)Record Keeping: Keep record keeping simple, efficient and informative After each lesson (or at least daily), time is necessary to complete the records. Record keeping forms are found on the Lesson Resources CD Additional assessment records are located on LLI Training and Information Wordpress site.
Running Records Specifics: Analyzing Errors and Self CorrectionsMeaning-Structure-Visual Information Meaning • Did the meaning of the text influence the error? • Did it MAKE SENSE? Structure • Does the error fit an acceptable English language structure • Did it SOUND right? Visual Information • Did the visual information from the print influence any part of the error? • Did it LOOK right?
Analyzing Strategic ActionsThink of readers as problem solvers: What strategiesare they using to figure out words and meaning?The Guide for Observing and Noting ReadingBehaviours (located on the Lessons Resources CD)suggests that the student might be using some or allof the following strategies: • Early Reading Behaviour • Searching For and Using Information • Solving Words • Self-Monitoring • Self-Correcting • Maintaining Fluency
Reading Records Reading records monitor progress and teaching. They are the same as BAS reading records. Professional Development and Tutorials are available for review and additional practice of how to keep reading records. Coding and Scoring Errors at a Glance are used for reading records (Chart to help you)
Intervention Record Student files include your: anecdotal notes running records work samples LLI reading graph attendance record
4. Professional Development Each kit includes PD and Tutorial DVDs and the book When Readers Struggle A bibliography is found at the end of the Program Guide for additional resources.
Professional Developmentand Tutorial DVD’s While you are assessing one of your students during an EVEN lesson, the other students are whisper reading previous books from the last lesson and other lessons. Refer to Practice Tutorials on the DVD’s to become comfortable with this process.