English language arts_5_2010[1]


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English language arts_5_2010[1]

  1. 1. 2010Saskatchewan CurriculumEnglishLanguageArts 5
  2. 2. English Language Arts 5ISBN 978-1-926841-10-61. Language arts (Elementary school) - Saskatchewan - Curricula. 2. Competency-based education - Saskatchewan.Saskatchewan. Ministry of Education. Curriculum and E-Learning. Humanities Unit.All rights are reserved by the original copyright owners.
  3. 3. Table of ContentsAcknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Core Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Broad Areas of Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lifelong Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Sense of Self, Community, and Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Engaged Citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Cross-curricular Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Developing Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Developing Identity and Interdependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Developing Literacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Developing Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4K-12 Aim and Goals of English Language Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5An Effective English Language Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Provides Meaningful Contexts and Questions for Deeper Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Focuses on Grade-specific Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Focuses on Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Uses Critical and Powerful Learning Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Includes a Range of Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Encourages Inquiry, Social Responsibility, and Self-reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Outcomes and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Assessment and Evaluation of Student Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35Connections with Other Areas of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49Feedback Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51English Language Arts 5 iii
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsThe Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge the professional contributions and advice given by ElementaryLevel teachers and consultants in the following First Nations tribal council and Saskatchewan school divisions: • Holy Trinity Roman Catholic School Division • Battleford Tribal Council • Prairie South School Division • Saskatchewan Rivers School Division • South East Cornerstone School Division • Sun West School Division.The Ministry of Education also wishes to thank many others who contributed to the development of thiscurriculum including: • University faculty members • Other educators and reviewers.The curriculum is based on the Western and Northern Canadian Protocol (WNCP) The Common CurriculumFramework for English Language Arts (Kindergarten to Grade 12) (1998).English Language Arts 5 v
  5. 5. IntroductionEnglish language arts (ELA) is a Required Area of Study inSaskatchewan’s Core Curriculum. The purpose of this curriculum is tooutline the provincial requirements for Grade 5 English Language Arts.Time AllotmentThe Saskatchewan Ministry of Education has established a provincialpolicy for the amount of time that must be allocated to languagearts instruction at each grade level. The required minutes for Englishlanguage arts allotted to Grade 5 is 560 minutes per week.Curriculum ContentThis curriculum provides the intended learning outcomes that Grade 5students are expected to achieve in English language arts by the endof the year. Indicators are included to provide the breadth and depthof what students should know, understand, and be able to do in orderto achieve the outcomes.The learning experiences planned for students will support studentachievement of the provincial Goals of Education through attending tothe Broad Areas of Learning for Saskatchewan and the Cross-curricularCompetencies described on the following pages.The English language arts curriculum provides: • direction for supporting student achievement of the Broad Areas of Learning and the Cross-curricular Competencies • the K-12 aim and goals for English language arts in Saskatchewan • the characteristics of an effective English language arts program • Grade 5 English Language Arts outcomes and indicators • sample assessment and evaluation criteria for determining student growth and achievement in relation to the outcomes in English language arts • connections with other areas of study.Additional support resources will appear online.English Language Arts 5 1
  6. 6. Core Curriculum Core Curriculum is intended to provide all Saskatchewan students with an education that will serve them well regardless of their choices after leaving school. Through its components and initiatives, Core Curriculum supports student achievement of the Goals of Education for Saskatchewan. For current information regarding Core Curriculum, please refer to Core Curriculum: Principles, Time Allocations, and Credit Policy on the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education website. For additional information related to the various components and initiatives of Core Curriculum, please refer to the Ministry website at www.education.gov.sk.ca/policy for policy and foundation documents including the following: • Understanding the Common Essential Learnings: A Handbook for Teachers (1988) • Objectives for the Common Essential Learnings (CELs) (1998) • Renewed Objectives for the Common Essential Learnings of Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) and Personal and Social Development (PSD) (2008) • The Adaptive Dimension in Core Curriculum (1992) • Policy and Procedures for Locally-developed Courses of Study (2004) • Connections: Policy and Guidelines for School Libraries in Saskatchewan (2008) • Diverse Voices: Selecting Equitable Resources for Indian and Métis Education (2005) • Gender Equity: Policies and Guidelines for Implementation (1991) • Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Professional Practice (1991) • Multicultural Education and Heritage Language Education Policies (1994) • Classroom Curriculum Connections: A Teacher’s Handbook for Personal-Professional Growth (2001).2 English Language Arts 5
  7. 7. Broad Areas of LearningThere are three Broad Areas of Learning that reflect Saskatchewan’sGoals of Education. K-12 English language arts contributes to the Goalsof Education through helping students achieve knowledge, skills, andattitudes related to the following:Lifelong Learners Related to the following Goals of Education:Students who are engaged in constructing and applying English • Basic Skillslanguage arts knowledge naturally build a positive disposition towards • Lifelong Learninglearning. Throughout their study of English language arts, students • Positive Lifestylegain understandings, skills, and strategies to become more competentand confident language users.Sense of Self, Community, and Place Related to the following Goals of Education:To learn English language arts, students need not only to use theEnglish language but also to interact with each other. Through the • Understanding and Relating toEnglish language arts, students learn about themselves, others, and Othersthe world around them. They use language to define who they are and • Self-concept Development • Spiritual Developmentto explore who they might become. They use language to interact andto respond effectively with others and to build community.Engaged Citizens Related to the following Goals ofIn the English language arts, students learn how language can Education:empower them to make a difference in their personal, peer, family, • Career and Consumer Decisionsand community lives. Language gives them a sense of agency and an • Membership in Societyability to make a difference in their community and the world in which • Growing with Changethey live.Cross-curricular CompetenciesThe Cross-curricular Competencies are four interrelated areascontaining understandings, values, skills, and processes whichare considered important for learning in all areas of study. Thesecompetencies reflect the Common Essential Learnings and areintended to be addressed in each area of study at each grade level.Developing ThinkingLearners construct knowledge to make sense of the world around K-12 Goals for Developing Thinking:them. They develop understanding by building on what is already • thinking and learningknown. This key competency concerns the ability to make sense of contextuallyinformation, experiences, and ideas through thinking contextually, • thinking and learning creativelycritically, and creatively. English language arts is inquiry-based, and • thinking and learning criticallystudents use their language and thinking skills to explore a range oftopics, issues, and themes.English Language Arts 5 3
  8. 8. Developing Identity and InterdependenceK-12 Goals for Developing Identity The ability to act autonomously in an interdependent world requiresand Interdependence: an awareness of the natural environment, of social and cultural • understanding, valuing, and expectations, and of the possibilities for individual and group caring for oneself accomplishments. It assumes the possession of a positive self- • understanding, valuing, and concept and the ability to live in harmony with others and with the caring for others natural and constructed worlds. Achieving this competency requires • understanding and valuing understanding, valuing, and caring for oneself and for others, and social, economic, and understanding and valuing social and environmental interdependence environmental interdependence and sustainability. English language arts requires students to explore and sustainability ideas and issues of identity, community, social responsibility, diversity, and sustainability. Students study texts and ideas about personal and philosophical; social, historical, and cultural; imaginative and literary; communicative; and environmental and technological topics. Developing LiteraciesK-12 Goals for Developing Literacies: Literacies provide many ways, including the use of various language • constructing knowledge related systems and media, to interpret the world and express understanding to various literacies of it. Literacies involve the evolution of interrelated skills, strategies, • exploring and interpreting the and knowledge that facilitate an individual’s ability to participate fully world through various literacies and equitably in a variety of roles and contexts – school, home, and • expressing understanding and local and global communities. To achieve this competency requires communicating meaning using developing skills, strategies, and knowledge related to various various literacies literacies in order to explore and interpret the world and communicate meaning. English language arts requires students to use different literacies, including language literacy, effectively and contextually to represent ideas and understanding in multiple, flexible ways. Developing Social ResponsibilityK-12 Goals for Developing Social Social responsibility is how people positively contribute to theirResponsibility: physical, social, and cultural environments. It requires the ability to • using moral reasoning participate with others in accomplishing goals. This competency • engaging in communitarian is achieved through using moral reasoning processes, engaging in thinking and dialogue communitarian thinking and dialogue, and taking action. Socially • taking action responsible learners contribute to their physical, social, and cultural environments. In English language arts, students explore their social responsibility and work toward common goals to improve the lives of others and the natural and constructed worlds.4 English Language Arts 5
  9. 9. K-12 Aim and Goals of English LanguageArtsThe K-12 aim of the Saskatchewan English language arts curricula isto help students understand and appreciate language, and to use itconfidently and competently in a variety of situations for learning,communication, work, life, and personal satisfaction.The K-12 goals are broad statements identifying what students areexpected to know and be able to do upon completion of study in aparticular subject (e.g., English language arts). The K-12 goals of theSaskatchewan English language arts curricula are to:Comprehend and Respond (CR) – Students will develop their abilitiesto view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety ofcontemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a varietyof forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, andother cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest,and enjoyment.Compose and Create (CC) – Students will develop their abilities tospeak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore andpresent thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for avariety of purposes and audiences.Assess and Reflect (AR) – Students will develop their abilities to assessand reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effectiveviewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers, and setgoals for future improvement.Figure 1. K-12 Aim and Goals of English Language Arts Social Studies Physical Health Education Identity and Education Thinking Interdependence Comprehend and Respond Sense of Self, Community, and Place Compose Language Arts Arts Lifelong Engaged and Create Learners Citizens Education Assess and Re ect Social Literacies Responsibility Mathematics ScienceEnglish Language Arts 5 5
  10. 10. An Effective English Language Arts Program An English language arts program is effective when it is purposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, and authentic. This curriculum invites and challenges educators to think about education, schooling, and English language arts as it might be rather than the way educators might know it to be. How can schooling and English language arts be more purposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, and authentic? How can it help students become competent, confident users of the English language and, at the same time, become knowledgeable about themselves, their community, and the world as a whole in a deep and meaningful way? How can it help them find fulfillment, be socially responsible, and act in ways that will make their community and world better places? How can it help students become effective self-directed, self-regulated, strategic, and collaborative learners to meet the demands of personal, social, work, and global life in the 21st century? “When a learner makes connections and learning takes place, it is because of focused teaching ....” (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, p. 34). Focused teaching requires: • a detailed map of what is expected that students will know and be able to do, clearly stated in outcomes and associated indicators • a set of powerful and aligned assessment and evaluation tools tied to the outcomes • a detailed knowledge of how best to teach to these learning outcomes in the classroom, including explicit teaching strategies and methods and classroom routines. (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, pp. 36-37) This curriculum is designed to be the starting point for instructional planning. It includes the philosophical underpinnings of the area of study and provides the knowledge (i.e., factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive, or a combination of these) that students are expected to know, understand, and be able to do at the end of Grade 5. A careful analysis of the outcomes supports teachers in determining the types of evidence that they might look for to assess whether students have achieved these outcomes. This knowledge supports teachers in designing and/or choosing assessment and evaluation tools to monitor and report on student learning in English language arts. It is the starting point that will allow English language arts teachers “to develop and deepen students’ understanding of important ideas and a process in the discipline[s] equipping them to transfer their learning in meaningful and effective ways, and cultivating lifelong habits of mind” (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, p. 13). An effective English language arts program is rooted in research-based practice that specifies what is and is not effective in teaching English language arts (see next page).6 English Language Arts 5
  11. 11. Table 1. What ELA Is Versus What ELA Is Not What ELA Is What ELA Is Not Appreciating children as active learners and accepting Seeing children as passive vessels to be filled and them as competent co-learners who can socially and believing that learning is received from outside culturally construct knowledge with adults sources and is to be recapitulated Helping children actively seek to understand the Telling children what knowledge they need to know world around them and to learn about life and but not having them use it or apply it language Using visual, multimedia, oral, and written Using only print resources with a fictional emphasis communication competently, appropriately, and for a limited range of purposes (usually isolated to a effectively for a range of purposes school task) Recognizing the central role of language in Letting printed books, isolated activities, and communicating, thinking, and learning worksheets drive the program Setting meaningful and relevant contexts for teaching Giving isolated language activities and using and learning including connections to students’ unrelated texts experiences, knowledge, and personal and cultural identity Helping students know what and why they are Having only teacher awareness of the outcomes and learning and doing something (i.e., outcomes, not sharing them with students indicators, and exemplars) Teaching and learning for “deep understanding” Asking and answering solely teacher-directed (including using questions for deeper understanding questions as a focus) Making meaning of ideas or information received Answering knowledge/comprehension questions, (when viewing, listening, and reading) individually, after reading print texts Creating meaning for themselves and others Using only limited forms of communicating, usually (when speaking, writing, and using other forms of writing representing) Using a variety of strategies (e.g., Before, During, and Following only teacher-directed skills and strategies After) depending upon the task and spending time on isolated skill and drill Engaging in inquiry learning Doing a project or, if time permits, a series of activities to bring closure Reflecting on own learning and literacy Assuming that the responsibility for learning and literacy lies with the teacherThrough a “deep” understanding of this curriculum (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006) and knowing when to useeffective instructional, assessment, and classroom-management strategies based on sound research (Marzano,2007), English language arts teachers can help all students become competent and confident language users.English Language Arts 5 7
  12. 12. An Effective English Language Arts Program: • provides meaningful contexts that address “big ideas” and questions for deeper understanding • focuses on grade-specific outcomes to achieve the K-12 aim and goals of the program • focuses on language and helps students understand how it works • teaches students through powerful cognitive and communication strategies • includes a range of texts (oral, print, and other media) • encourages student inquiry, social responsibility, and self- reflection Provides Meaningful Contexts and Questions for Deeper Understanding An effective ELA program provides meaningful contexts for students to learn about language. The English language arts program is designed for students to develop their language skills and strategies and become competent and confident users of all six language arts strands through many opportunities to view, listen, read, represent, speak, and write in meaningful contexts. If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and the world. The following contexts provide a focus for language learning and give students an opportunity to explore “big ideas” (i.e., overarching understandings) that have enduring values beyond the classroom: • A personal and philosophical context gives students opportunities to explore their identity and their self-concept. Fostering the learning spirit inside each student comes from the heart and mind connection that is revealed through each student’s reflection on personal feelings, self-image, influential life forces, ideas, belief systems, values, and ways of knowing. Who am I, what is my place, and where am I going? What does the future hold for me?8 English Language Arts 5
  13. 13. • A social, cultural, and historical context gives students opportunities to explore relationships with others, community, culture, customs, multiple ways of knowing, national and international events and issues, and the history of humanity. What are my rights and responsibilities in communities, cultures, and economies? How and who am I in relation to communities, cultures, and economies? How am I defined by these relationships? • An imaginative and literary context gives students opportunities to use their intuition and imagination to explore alternative worlds and possibilities; different types of classical and contemporary genres including fantasy, science fiction, and humour; and particular authors. How do I use my imagination and intuition and that of others to understand and relate to people, the community, the world, and society in a positive way? How do I foster imaginative ideas of self and others? How do I use intuitive hunches to support creative problem solving or inquiry? • A communicative context gives students opportunities to explore different methods, forms, and issues related to language, communication, and the mass media. How do I make sense of and communicate with the world? How do I support communication with differing audiences? How do I know if communication is effective? • An environmental and technological context gives students opportunities to explore the natural and constructed worlds including the land, the sky, animals, the sea, space, technologies, and environmental and technological issues. How do I describe, analyze, and shape the world around me? How does that natural and technological world affect and shape me?Each English language arts unit of study can be related to and How we envision literacy makes adeveloped under one or more of these broader contexts. Each context difference. If we see it as meaningis to be explored at each grade. Each context provides opportunities making and not meaning makingfor integration with topics of study in other subject areas. plus inquiry, we fail to envision all that literacy might be. If weTeachers in Grade 5 should plan a minimum of five units for the year, see literacy as language and notbasing at least one unit on each of the five contexts. Table 4 gives an language plus other sign systems, weoverview of possible unit themes and topics, and questions for deeper also fail to envision all that literacyunderstanding for each context. might be.In addition to considering the five contexts, Elementary Level English (Harste, 2000, p.1)language arts teachers need to think about the types of units to plan.Language arts units, designed around the themes and topics withineach context, can ensure that the outcomes for the language strandsare achieved in meaningful ways. Minimal guidelines are provided foreach type of unit.English Language Arts 5 9
  14. 14. Table 2. Types of Units Type of Unit Number of Units per Year Multi-genre Thematic 3 (minimum) Multi-genre Inquiry and/or Interdisciplinary 1 (minimum) Author or Genre Study 1 (maximum) A multi-genre thematic unit is built around a theme or topic from one of the contexts and includes a range of prose fiction and non- fiction, poetry, plays, and other texts. This is the most common type of English language arts unit because it allows teachers to vary activities within a broad theme or topic to suit the differing ability levels of students while supporting their achievement of outcomes for their respective grade. A minimum of three multi-genre thematic units is recommended.Through the inquiry or research A multi-genre inquiry and/or interdisciplinary unit is usually builtprocess, students satisfy their natural around a theme or topic that is related to an important question(s) forcuriosity and develop skills and inquiry and research. The emphasis in an inquiry unit is on “finding out”strategies for lifelong learning. the answers to a question or questions that the students have about the theme or topic and then using the inquiry process to guide their(Western Canadian Protocol for activities in the unit. When the unit is interdisciplinary, it considersCollaboration in Basic Education, and addresses outcomes from English language arts and other area(s)1998, p. 33) of study. A minimum of one inquiry/interdisciplinary unit per year is recommended. Any multi-genre thematic or author/genre study unit can become an inquiry unit. An author or genre study unit focuses on the works of a specific author or illustrator or on a specific genre (e.g., poetry). Because of the limited texts used in an author or genre study, a maximum of one per year is recommended. Planning Units of Study in an Effective English Language Arts Program Table 3. Essential Aspects of Units Units of Study Essential Aspects Units provide meaningful • Questions for deeper understanding that contexts and foci for students address the ideas and issues students to explore the topics and need to think about throughout the unit. texts that are important to • Strategies to explore and express young people everywhere. students’ thoughts, ideas, feelings, and Units in English language arts experiences as well as to inquire and to allow students not only to learn to use the English language and learn how language works in its conventions. Oral, written, and other meaningful situations but also texts explore the issues and provide to develop the disposition opportunities to apply viewing, listening, for learning for life, a sense of reading, representing, speaking, and self and connection to others, writing knowledge and skills. and, as engaged citizens, a • Individual as well as co-operative projects capacity to make a difference invite inquiry and bring closure and in the community. personal agency to student explorations.10 English Language Arts 5
  15. 15. An effective English language arts program also providesopportunities to explore “big ideas” (e.g., extinction versus the topic ofdinosaurs) and to consider questions for deeper understanding.Questions for deeper understanding are used to initiate and guide aunit and give students direction for developing deep understandingsabout a topic or issue under study. It is essential to develop questionsthat are evoked by student interests and have potential for richand deep learning. The process of constructing questions can helpstudents to grasp the important disciplinary or transdisciplinary ideasthat are situated at the core of a particular curricular focus or context.These broad questions will lead to more specific questions that canprovide a framework, purpose, and direction for the learning activitiesin a lesson, or series of lessons, and help students connect what theyare learning to their experiences and life beyond school.Effective questions for deeper understanding in English languagearts are the key to initiating and guiding students’ investigations andcritical thinking, problem solving, and reflection on students’ ownlearning. Questions such as the following are examples of questionsthat will move Grade 5 students toward deeper understanding: • What are the short- and long-term effects of our energy use on the environment? What impact does human use of energy and natural resources have on Canadian society and the environment? Effective Questions for Deeper • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable Understanding: energy sources as opposed to non-renewable sources? How can • Cause genuine and relevant we contribute to a cleaner, healthier environment? inquiry into the key ideas and • What impact does weather have on a society and its people? core content • Provide for thoughtful, lively What weather-related technological innovations and products discussion, sustained inquiry, and have been developed by various cultures in response to Canadian new understanding as well as weather conditions? more questions • How do buildings reflect our environment, culture, and • Require students to consider communities? What are the forces that structures built by either alternatives, weigh evidence, people or creatures in nature have to withstand and how do they support their ideas, and justify do this? their answers • Stimulate vital, ongoing • How can our choices affect our overall health? What are the rethinking of ideas, assumptions, beneficial and harmful effects of technological innovations on or prior lessons human organ systems? • Spark meaningful connectionsEffective questioning is essential for teaching and student learning with prior learning, personal experiences, and ways of knowingand should be an integral part of planning in English language arts. • Naturally recur, creatingQuestioning should also be used to encourage students to reflect on opportunities for transfer to othertheir own learning. The following chart identifies the five contexts situations and subjects.for English language arts and suggests some possible questions fordeeper understanding and some possible unit topics or themes for (Adapted from Wiggins & McTighe, 2005, p. 110)each context.English Language Arts 5 11
  16. 16. Table 4. Questions for Deeper Understanding and Some Supporting Resources: Grade Five English Language Arts Sample Questions for Deeper Understanding Possible Unit Topics and Contexts ThemesPersonal and Philosophical What are our personal strengths? How can we use World Wide Kids (Cornerstones these strengths to make the world a better place? 5, a-i)Children need to believe in What are our personal goals and how will we reach Teamwork (Cornerstones 5, b-i)their own self-worth and to these goals? Who do we admire most and why? What What Should I Do? (Nelsonfeel that they have control are the traits of admirable people? What are the Language Arts 5, i)over the things that happen rewards and challenges of working together? Together is Better (Collectionsto them. Children need to look 5, i)inward and focus on self-image Where do our beliefs come from? Are they fair, just,and self-esteem. They need to moral? Other:reflect on self and life, and on What are prejudices and racism? What happens to Accomplishmentstheir beliefs and values and “team” work, community, and equality when we have Heroes and Heroinesthose of their society. biases and prejudices? In what ways can these ways of thinking hurt everyone in our communities? What have we (or could we have) done about it? What is worth fighting for? What are the marks of a true hero? What causes people to act heroically? How do heroes sacrifice themselves for others? Could we be heroes?Social, Cultural, and Historical What does “fair” mean? Can “fair” be different for Heroes Old and New different people? (Cornerstones 5, a-iii)Children need to look outward What is Fair? (Cornerstones 5,and examine their relationships What are our rights and freedoms? What are our b-iii)with others, their community, responsibilities? How do our responsibilities go hand- Making a Difference (Nelsonand the world. Children also in-hand with our rights and freedoms? Language Arts 5, b-i)need to consider the social and What does being “Canadian” mean? What makes In This Place (Nelson Languagehistorical context. They need us proud to be Canadian? How does Canada work? Arts 5, vi)to explore their connections Why do we have government and laws? How has our Exploring Heritage (Collectionsin families, schools, groups, heritage shaped the people that we have become? 5, v)and communities and tounderstand the diverse needs Why is it important for a country to have a symbol or symbols that people around the world recognize? Other:and wants of others. Children “Because” is Not an Answerneed to show concern for other How does Canada work (structure and components of Stepping Back in Timepeople in their relationships, government)? Why have government?groups, and communities. How has our heritage shaped the people that we have become? How can we honour Canada’s history, people, and natural resources? What do artefacts tell us about early civilizations? How can we and others contribute to our country and make a difference in the lives of others? How can we contribute to our community? What types of issues or problems might communities and people face? What issues or problems might people in Canada face? How can we work to make Canada a better country for all its citizens?12 English Language Arts 5
  17. 17. Table 4. (Continued) Questions for Deeper Understanding and Some Supporting Resources: Grade Five English Language Arts Sample Questions for Deeper Understanding Possible Unit Topics and Contexts Themes Imaginative and Literary How are different cultures reflected through their Mystery Stories (Genre Study) stories? What are the important stories of Canada? (Cornerstones 5, a-iv) Children need to consider How do these stories reflect our heritage? Tales – Clever, Foolish, and imaginary worlds and Brave (Collections 5, ii) possibilities as well as a range What are the characteristics of a good story? What of literary genres and authors. are the characteristics of historical fiction? How does Other: historical fiction help us learn about life and people in Glimpses of Other Worlds Canada’s past? The People and Stories of This What is mystery? What are the characteristics of a Land mystery? Can mysteries be solved? What are the unsolved mysteries from history? Some mysteries in nature? Why do stories of mystery in history and in nature challenge and intrigue us? What mysterious phenomena would we like to explore? How do stories help us understand ourselves and others? What stories still have not been told? Communicative What messages do images and words communicate Send a Message (Cornerstones in texts such as flyers, promotional mail, magazines 5, b-ii) Children need to consider the advertisements, product packaging, DVDs, television, Make a Magazine (Genre Study) role of communication in their and websites? Who created and produced these (Cornerstones 5, a-iv) lives and the technologies messages? Why? Who is the intended audience? How Media Moments (Nelson and strategies that help could the message be delivered in a fair way? Language Arts 5, iii) people become effective On with the Show (Collections communicators. Children need How do resources such as calendars, flyers, coupons, 5, iv) the skills to interact effectively promotional mail, magazines, menus, ads, product with others. packaging, and websites inform, entertain, and Other: influence audiences? Who is included? Who is left out? Ad Smart Whose story and values are included? Whose story and values are left out? How might these messages be used to manipulate people? What is effective advertising? What characteristics and techniques are used in humourous stories (character, setting, dialogue, problem …)? What are the characteristics of historical fiction? How does historical fiction help us learn about life and characters in early Canada? If it is “fiction,” what “truths” are in it?English Language Arts 5 13
  18. 18. Table 4. (Continued) Questions for Deeper Understanding and Some Supporting Resources: Grade Five English Language Arts Sample Questions for Deeper Understanding Possible Unit Topics and Contexts ThemesEnvironmental and What are the short- and long-term effects of our This is Our Planet (CornerstonesTechnological energy use on the environment? What impact does 5, a-ii) human use of energy and natural resources have on Our Natural World (NelsonChildren need to explore the Canadian society and the environment? What are the Language Arts 5, ii)elements of the natural and advantages and disadvantages of using renewable All About Structures (Nelsonconstructed worlds and the energy sources as opposed to non-renewable Language Arts 5, v)role of technology and related sources? How can we contribute to a cleaner, healthier Weather, Wings, and Kitedevelopments in their society. environment? Strings (Collections 5, iii)Children need to explore theneeds and characteristics of What impact does weather have on a society and Other:living things; properties of its people? What weather-related technological Forces and Simple Machinesobjects and materials; the five innovations and products have been developed by Healthy Bodiessenses; and daily seasonal various cultures in response to Canadian weather Forces Causing Movementchanges. conditions? Weather How do buildings reflect our environment, culture, and communities? What are the forces that structures built by either people or creatures in nature have to withstand, and how do they do this? How can our choices affect our overall health? What are the beneficial and harmful effects of technological innovations on human organ systems?14 English Language Arts 5
  19. 19. Focuses on Grade-specific OutcomesAn effective English language arts program focuses on grade-specificcurriculum outcomes. Student learning outcomes describe whatstudents will learn in a particular discipline over a specific time frame(e.g., Grade 5). Outcomes specify the skills, knowledge, and attitudesthat students are expected to know, understand, and be able todemonstrate.Critical Characteristics of Outcomes and IndicatorsOutcomes: • focus on what students will learn rather than what teachers will teach • specify the skills, strategies, abilities, understandings, and knowledge students are expected to be able to demonstrate • are observable, assessable, and attainable • are grade and subject specific • are supported by indicators which provide the breadth and depth of expectations • are written using action-based verbs • identify the most important understandings and abilities to be developed in the specific grade level • guide course, unit, and lesson planning.Indicators: • are a representative list of what students need to know and/or be able to do in order to achieve an outcome • represent the breadth and depth of the outcomes.Note: Additional and/or alternative indicators may be developed, butthey must be reflective of and consistent with the breadth and depththat is defined by the given indicators.English Language Arts 5 15
  20. 20. English Language Arts Goals and Outcomes OverviewEach of the three goals for English language arts has a set of outcomes for the specific grade level. The followingare the outcomes for Grade 5 ELA. Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will develop their abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of contemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest, and enjoyment.CR5.1 Analyze and respond to a variety of grade-level texts (including contemporary and traditional visual, oral,written, and multimedia texts) that address: • identity (e.g., Exploring Heritage) • community (e.g., Teamwork) • social responsibility (e.g., What is Fair?).CR5.2 View and evaluate, critically, visual and multimedia texts identifying the persuasive techniques includingpromises, flattery, and comparisons used to influence or persuade an audience.CR5.3 Listen purposefully to a range of texts from a variety of cultural traditions (including oral traditions sharedby First Nations and Métis Elders and Knowledge Keepers) to understand ideas and instructions, to evaluate themessage heard and the required follow-up action, and to draw conclusions about speaker’s verbal and non-verbal message(s), purpose, point of view, and techniques used in presentation.CR5.4 Read and demonstrate comprehension of a range of contemporary and classical grade-appropriatefiction, script, poetry, and non-fiction (including magazines, reports, instructions, and procedures) from variouscultures including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit and countries (including Canada). Compose and Create (CC). Students will develop their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.CC5.1 Compose and create a range of visual, multimedia, oral, and written texts that explore: • identity (e.g., What Should I Do) • community (e.g., This is Our Planet) • social responsibility (e.g., Teamwork) and express personal thoughts shaped through inquiry.CC5.2 Demonstrate a variety of ways to communicate understanding and response including illustrated reports,dramatizations, posters, timelines, multimedia presentations, and summary charts.CC5.3 Speak to express and support a range of ideas and information in formal and informal speaking situations(e.g., giving oral presentations and reports, retelling a narrative, explaining a display to others, working in groups)for particular audiences and purposes.CC5.4 Use a writing process to experiment with and produce multi-paragraph narrative (including stories thatcontain dialogue), expository (including reports, explanations, letters, and requests), and persuasive (includingletters) compositions that clearly develop topic and provide transitions for the reader.16 English Language Arts 5
  21. 21. Assess and Reflect (AR). Students will develop their abilities to assess and reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effective viewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers, and set goals for future improvement.AR5.1 Identify strengths in viewing, listening, reading, speaking, writing, and other forms of representing.AR5.2 Set goals to enhance the development and improvement of the skills and strategies in viewing, listening,reading, speaking, writing, and other forms of representing and take steps to achieve goals.English Language Arts 5 17
  22. 22. Focuses on LanguageGood language and literacy skills lay Language and language study are at the centre of the Elementarythe foundation for social, academic, Level English language arts program. The study of the Englisheconomic, personal, and national language arts (viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking,success. and writing) and of the elements and conventions associated with(Jamieson & Tremblay, 2005, p. 1) each language cueing system (i.e., pragmatic, textual, syntactic, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other) enables students to understand and appreciate language and to use it in a variety of situations for communication, for learning, and for personal satisfaction. An effective English language arts program that develops students’ facility with language provides students with opportunities to: • learn to use language in a variety of meaningful ways, considering and determining their audience, purpose, and situation • learn about language as a necessary tool for thinking and communicating effectively, considering the cues and conventions of language • learn through language by applying their knowledge of language in their viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing experiences. Language study is an integral part of an English language arts program. Students in each grade are expected to understand the concepts related to the language cues and conventions. As students view, listen, read, represent, speak, and write, they are expected to apply the concepts as students construct and communicate meaning in their English language arts program and in their daily communication.18 English Language Arts 5
  23. 23. Table 5. Key Language Cues and Conventions for Grade 5 Language Cue or Convention Comprehend and Respond Compose and Create When viewing, listening, or reading, When speaking, writing, or using Grade 5 students: other forms of representing, Grade 5 students: Pragmatic Identify intended audience and Demonstrate an awareness of audience Pragmatics is the study of how people purpose for a text; recognize and and use level of language (register) choose what and how to communicate interpret various uses of language in appropriate to purpose and intended from a range of possibilities available in social, cultural, and regional situations. audience; adjust tone to situation. the language and how the receiver will be affected by these choices. Textual Identify various forms of texts, their Use knowledge of forms, Ideas and information are organized in characteristics (such as headings, characteristics, and organizational oral, written, and other formats. Textual paragraphs), and the ways they are patterns of texts to communicate cues and conventions include the form organized and the patterns within ideas in a clear and logical manner; use (such as comparison and contrast); paragraphs proficiently. or structure and elements of a text. recognize differences in text types used in other subject areas. Syntactic Use knowledge of sentence elements Use simple, compound, and complex and patterns (simple, compound, and sentences; vary sentence length and Syntax is the predictable structure of complex) and their related punctuation structure for effect (average length a sentence and the ways words are combined to form phrases, clauses, and to understand what is listened to or in speech, 9 words; average length read. in writing 8.7 words); use subject- sentences. Syntax includes classes of verb and noun-pronoun agreement words (e.g., verbs) and their functions correctly. (e.g., subjects). Semantic/Lexical/Morphological Use a word attack strategy (e.g., Select and use words to create context, structure, sound, and specific effects; use precise and The lexicon of a language includes reference) as well as knowledge of descriptive words; use new words all the words or vocabulary of that root words, prefixes, and suffixes to from viewing, listening, and reading language that are used or understood determine the pronunciation (e.g., in speaking, writing, and other forms by a particular person or groups. n-ation) and meaning of unfamiliar of representing; use, appropriately, Words can also be studied for their words. specialized terms in different subject meaningful parts or morphemes. areas; use a variety of resources to confirm spelling; use a thesaurus; spell correctly the provinces and capitals, and words such as catch, matches, strength, scratch, length, ….English Language Arts 5 19
  24. 24. Table 5. (Continued) Key Language Cues and Conventions for Grade 5 Language Cue or Convention Comprehend and Respond Compose and Create When viewing, listening, or reading, When speaking, writing, or using Grade 5 students: other forms of representing, Grade 5 students:Phonological/Graphophonic Use phonics to decode and say words Use clear and correct pronunciation correctly; recognize features of words and enunciation to communicate andGraphophonics is the study of the including vowel patterns in multi- to figure out spelling of words; selectrelationship between the symbols and syllabic words, double consonants, and use a variety of spelling strategiessounds of a language and includes word endings, prefixes (e.g., dis-, including sound.letter or sound relationships and in-, un-, ir-, il-, non-, anti-, pro-, pre-),patterns. suffixes (e.g., -ish, -en,-ance), and plural possessives.Other Cues and Conventions Recognize and use the characteristics Use appropriate gestures, eye contact, of different media (e.g., photograph, and facial expressions; use, accurately,Other cues and conventions are also television, digital) and recognize the graphs, diagrams, and captions; writefound in communication acts and key elements in visual and multimedia legibly using correct letter formationinclude such elements as graphics, texts (e.g., sections in magazine). and joining in cursive writing.layout, colour, sound, movement, fontchoices, and handwriting.20 English Language Arts 5
  25. 25. Uses Critical and Powerful Learning StrategiesAn effective ELA program teaches students how to use critical and powerful learning strategies. In order toachieve the English language arts outcomes, students need to learn and use a range of language skills andstrategies. Effective language arts teachers employ a range of instructional approaches to help students movefrom teacher-supported and guided lessons to independent learning that requires varied instructional methodsand strategies to help students learn these language skills and strategies. Teachers model and discuss keyprocedural and metacognitive strategies for language learning and thinking. Students need to learn how toselect and to use strategies before, during, and after viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, andwriting.If students are to be successful in English language arts, they need to learn and use thinking and learning skillsand strategies on their own. In order to help students gain control over a repertoire of key skills and strategies,the skills and strategies need to be explicitly taught and practised using a model such as the following: • Introduce and explain the purpose of the skill or strategy. • Demonstrate and model its use. • Provide guided practice for students to apply the skill or strategy with feedback. • Allow students to apply the skill or strategy independently and in teams. • Reflect regularly on the appropriate uses of the skills or strategies and their effectiveness. • Assess the students’ ability to transfer the repertoire of skills or strategies with less and less teacher prompting over time. (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, pp. 97-98)Table 6. Important Cognitive Strategies for Comprehending and Responding (CR) Goal Phase Strategy Before Activating and building upon prior knowledge and experience Previewing text Setting a purpose Anticipating the author’s or creator’s intention During Making connections to personal knowledge and experience Using the cueing systems to construct meaning from the text Making, confirming, and adjusting predictions and inferences Constructing mental images Interpreting visuals (e.g., illustrations, graphics, tables) Identifying key ideas and supporting ideas Self-questioning, self-monitoring, and self-correcting Drawing conclusions Adjusting rate or strategy to purpose or difficulty of text After Recalling, paraphrasing, summarizing, and synthesizing Interpreting (identifying new knowledge and insights) Evaluating author’s/creator’s message(s) Evaluating author’s/creator’s craft and technique Responding personally, giving support from text View, listen, read again, speak, write, and use other forms of representing to deepen understanding and pleasureEnglish Language Arts 5 21
  26. 26. Table 6. (Continued) Important Cognitive Strategies for Comprehending and Responding (CR) Goal Additional Viewing: Strategies for • Think Aloud (Davey, 1983) Comprehending • View, Pause, Predict, and Think Aloud and Responding • Collaborative Viewing Guide (Wood, 1994) • Directed Viewing-Thinking Activity (DVTA) • Picture Walk (Richards & Anderson, 2003) • Viewing Guides Listening: • TQLR (Tune In, Questions, Listen, and Review) (SRA, 2000) • ACTION (Attention, Concentrate, Think, Interpret, Organize, and Note) (Sebranek & Kemper, 1995) • Listen-Think-Pair-Share (McTighe & Lyman, 1992) • Listen-Draw-Pair-Share (McConnell, 1992) • DLTA (Directed Listening-Thinking Activity) (Stauffer, 1975) • LAPS (Listen, Ask, Picture, and Summarize) Strategy (Matchullis & Mueller, 1996) • Listening Guides Reading: • Modelled Reading • Shared Reading • Guided Reading • Paired Reading • KWL, K-W-L Plus (Carr & Ogle, 1987) • Preview/Connect/Predict (Robb, 2006) • List/Group/Categorize (Robb, 2006) • B-D-A (Before, During, and After) Strategy (Laverick, 2002) • Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) (Stauffer, 1975) • Reciprocal Reading (Palincsar & Brown, 1986) • ReQuest (Manzo, 1969; Vacca & Vacca, 1999) • QtA (Question the Author) (Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kucan, 1997) • QARs (Question Answer Relationships) (Raphael, 1986) • Mapping It Out (Hoyt, 2000) • Justifying My Opinions (Hoyt, 2000) • Open-mind Portraits (Tompkins, 2004) • Coding the Text (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000) • Think Alouds (Davey, 1983) • Reading Guides • Discussion Circles • Grand Conversations (Eeds & Wells, 1989) • Literature Circles (Daniels, 1994) • Reader’s Workshop22 English Language Arts 5
  27. 27. Table 7. Important Cognitive Strategies for Composing and Creating (CC) Goal Phase Strategy Before Considering the task or prompt or finding a topic Activating prior knowledge and considering experiences Considering purpose and audience Considering and generating specific ideas and information that might be included Collecting and focusing ideas and information Planning and organizing ideas for drafting During Creating draft(s) and experimenting with possible product(s) Using language and its conventions to construct message Experimenting with communication features and techniques Conferring with others Reflecting, clarifying, self-monitoring, self-correcting, and using “fix-up” strategies After Revising for content and meaning (adding, deleting, substituting, and rethinking) Revising for organization (reordering) Revising for sentence structure and flow Revising for word choice, spelling, and usage Proofreading for mechanics and appearance (including punctuation and capitalization) Conferring with peers, teacher, and others Polishing, practising, and deciding how work will be shared Sharing, reflecting, and considering feedback Additional Strategies for Speaking: Composing and Creating • Talking Circles • Think, Pair, Share/Square (McTighe & Lyman, 1992) • Instructional Conversations (Goldenberg, 1993) • TAPS (Total Group, Alone, Partner, and Small Group) (Gregory & Chapman, 2002) • Grouptalk (Whipple, 1975; Moffett & Wagner, 1992) Writing: • Modelled Writing • Shared Writing/Language Experience (Van Allen, 1976) • Interactive Writing • Guided Writing • Pattern Writing • Discuss/Brainstorm/Web • KWL • Think-Pair-Share-Write (Robb, 2006) • Asking the 5Ws and H (who, what, where, when, why, and how) • Writing Frames Other Forms of Representing: • Discuss/Brainstorm/Web • Asking the 5Ws + H • Representing Task Sheet • Talking Drawings (Wood, 1994) • Sketch to Stretch (Harste, Short, & Burke, 1988) • Read/View/Listen, Talk, Act, Draw, Write (Cox, 1999)English Language Arts 5 23
  28. 28. Includes a Range of Texts In order for students to achieve the outcomes stated in this curriculum, students need to have access to a wide range of high-quality learning resources in visual, oral, print, multimedia, and electronic formats. The lists of learning resources that support this curriculum identify core and additional learning resources to support the English language arts program and student achievement of the learning outcomes designated for this grade level. Resources that have been evaluated for curriculum fit are listed on the Ministry of Education website. An effective English language arts program: • provides learning resources that help students achieve the curriculum outcomes • balances a variety of texts including print, non-print, human, electronic, and virtual resources • offers resources that are current, relevant, credible, and representative of many viewpoints that reflect the perspectives, cultures, and ways of knowing of First Nations, Métis, and other cultures • presents the cultural, literary, and artistic heritages of societies, past and present • responds to students’ interests and supports independent reading and inquiry • fosters opportunities for inquiry learning. Grade 5 students should have access to picture books, pattern books, chapter books, non-fiction, children’s classics, poetry, folk tales, and traditional narratives. Refer to the ministry website for a listing of various grade-appropriate texts that Grade 5 students might explore. Encourages Inquiry, Social Responsibility, and Self-reflection An effective English language arts program provides opportunities for student inquiry, encourages social responsibility, and invites self- reflection.Inquiry is a philosophical stance Inquiry learning provides students with opportunities to buildrather than a set of strategies, knowledge, abilities, and inquiring habits of mind that lead to deeperactivities, or a particular teaching understanding of their world and human experience. The inquirymethod. As such, inquiry promotes process focuses on the development of compelling questions,intentional and thoughtful learning formulated by teachers and students, to motivate and guide inquiriesfor teachers and children. into topics, problems, and issues related to curriculum content and(Mills & Donnelly, 2001, p. xviii) outcomes. Inquiry is more than a simple instructional strategy. It is a philosophical approach to teaching and learning, grounded in constructivist24 English Language Arts 5
  29. 29. research and methods, which engages students in investigationsthat lead to disciplinary and transdisciplinary understanding. Inquirybuilds on students’ inherent sense of curiosity and wonder, drawingon their diverse backgrounds, interests, and experiences. The processprovides opportunities for students to become active participants ina collaborative search for meaning and understanding. Students whoare engaged in inquiry: • construct deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving information • are directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge • encounter alternative perspectives and differing ideas that transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings • transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances • take ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning and mastery of curriculum content and skills. (Adapted from Kuhlthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2007)Inquiry learning is not a step-by-step process but rather a cyclicalprocess, with parts of the process being revisited and rethought as aresult of students’ discoveries, insights, and co-construction of newknowledge. Figure 2 represents this cyclical inquiry process.Figure 2. Constructing Understanding Through InquiryCurriculum Outcomes What are the things we wonder about and want to know more about? What questions do we have about the deeper mysteries or aspects of life? Interpret Collaborate Conclude Analyze Plan Investigate Re ect and Re ect and Revise How are we going to proceed? Revise Explore Create Observe Synthesize Acknowledge Sources Document Processes Resources What have we discovered and how will we show our deeper understanding? How are we going to use what we have discovered (e.g., apply, act, implement)?English Language Arts 5 25
  30. 30. Inquiry prompts and motivates students to investigate topics within meaningful contexts. The inquiry process is not linear or lock-step but is flexible and recursive. As they become more comfortable with the process, experienced inquirers will move back and forth among various phases as new questions arise. Well-formulated inquiry questions are broad in scope and rich in possibilities. Such questions encourage students to explore, observe, gather information, plan, analyze, interpret, synthesize, problem solve, take risks, create, conclude, document, reflect on learning, and develop new questions for further inquiry. Teachers and students can begin their inquiry at one or more curriculum entry points; however, the process may evolve into transdisciplinary integrated learning opportunities, as reflective of the holistic nature of our lives and interdependent global environment. An important part of any inquiry process is students’ reflection on their learning and the documentation needed to assess the learning and make it visible to students. Student documentation of the inquiry process in English language arts may take the form of reflective journals, notes, drafts, three-dimensional models, works of art, photographs, and video footage. Social responsibility encourages students to extend their learning beyond the classroom into the local, national, and international community. It invites students to consider how individuals or groups can shape the future in a positive way or address an issue, question, challenge, or problem that is important. Each unit at each grade level in English language arts offers opportunities to challenge students to consider what particular local, national, or global issues, questions, challenges, or problems are important and to consider what students might do to make their community or the world a better place. Social responsibility challenges students to address the important or compelling questions for deeper understanding posed in a unit. In any English language arts unit, teachers and students can plan and create a project to support efficacy. Social responsibility can help students: • Become complex thinkers by encouraging them to synthesize their learning and apply it to their community, country, and/or international world. • Become more aware of the interconnectedness of all things and the reciprocal relationships between themselves and their local and international community. • Become more independent by using the language skills and strategies that students are learning in ELA beyond the classroom.26 English Language Arts 5
  31. 31. • Become more motivated by choosing individual or group projects related to each unit. • Become contributors to their community and the world beyond that community. • Become more collaborative and respectful as they work with others to address the questions, issues, and problems considered in the unit. • Become agents of change. • Become socially responsible.Student self-reflection helps students take ownership of their ownlearning and become more self-directed and self-confident. TheAssess and Reflect K-12 goal in English language arts expects studentsto consider what they know and have learned, the progress andachievements made, and the goals they need to set to improve. Usingtools such as learning logs and diaries, discussion, questionnaires,reflective writing, and portfolios, students can reflect on their learningboth as a team and as individuals. Through self-reflection, studentscan determine their current and future learning needs and set goalsfor growth. Using Bloom’s taxonomy of questioning, teachers can helpstudents become self-reflective and self-directed: • What did I do? (Remember/Knowledge) • What knowledge, skills, and strategies did I use to complete the task? (Understand/Comprehension) • What steps did I take to achieve this? (Application) • What challenges or problems did I encounter, and how did I address these? (Analysis) • What are my strengths, and what would I like to learn more about, or what skills and strategies do I want to develop? (Evaluation) • How can I use this new knowledge and these new skills and strategies? (Create)English Language Arts 5 27
  32. 32. Outcomes and IndicatorsFocus: Communicating with Precision Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will develop their abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend and respond to a range of contemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest, and enjoyment.Outcomes IndicatorsCR5.1 Analyze and respond to a. View, listen to, read and respond to a variety of visual, multimedia,a variety of grade-level texts oral, and print texts that examine the diverse range of personal(including contemporary and identities, perspectives, and backgrounds (e.g., appearance,traditional visual, oral, written, culture, socio-economic status, abilities, age, gender, sexualand multimedia texts) that orientation, language, career path) including First Nations andaddress: Métis texts. • identity (e.g., Exploring b. View, listen to, and read a variety of texts related to the theme or Heritage) topic of study and show comprehension by: • community (e.g., Teamwork) • understanding, retelling, and explaining the ideas and • social responsibility (e.g., information presented in the texts What is Fair?). • analyzing the text structures and features • analyzing the texts and developing responses with evidence from the texts, personal experience, and research. c. Describe and build upon connections between previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts. d. Compare the challenges and situations encountered in daily life with those experienced by people in other times, places, and cultures as portrayed in a variety of texts including First Nations and Métis texts. e. Compare individuals and situations portrayed in various texts (including First Nations and Métis resources) to those encountered in real life. f. Draw on oral, print, and other media texts including First Nations and Métis texts to explain personal perspectives on cultural representations.28 English Language Arts 5
  33. 33. Outcomes IndicatorsCR5.2 View and evaluate, a. Gather information from a variety of media (e.g., photographs,critically, visual and multimedia web sites, maps, diagrams, posters, videos, advertising, double bartexts identifying the persuasive graphs, maps, videos).techniques including promises, b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, andflattery, and comparisons used after) to construct meaning when viewing.to influence or persuade anaudience. c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions of communication to construct and confirm meaning when viewing. d. Discuss purpose, perspectives, and biases and how visual texts including First Nations and Métis resources can be used to persuade others. e. Recognize point of view and distinguish between fact and opinion. f. Identify the values underlying visual messages and recognize persuasive techniques and purposes in oral presentations and various media (e.g., promises, dares, flattery, comparisons). g. Analyze visual texts (including First Nations and Métis art and other texts) as sources for information, entertainment, persuasion, interpretation of events, and transmission of culture. h. Identify how the language, explicit and implicit messages, and visual and multimedia features (e.g., sound, colour, movement) are used to influence the intended audience.CR5.3 Listen purposefully a. Listen purposefully to a range of texts from a variety of culturalto a range of texts from a traditions including First Nations and Métis and identify andvariety of cultural traditions summarize main ideas, supporting details, and opinions heard.(including oral traditions b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, andshared by First Nations and after) to construct meaning when listening.Métis Elders and KnowledgeKeepers) to understand ideas c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical,and instructions, to evaluate semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cuesthe message heard and the and conventions of communication to construct and confirmrequired follow-up action, and meaning when listening.to draw conclusions about d. Evaluate the content of a variety of oral communications and askspeaker’s verbal and non- questions to seek information not already discussed.verbal message(s), purpose, e. Interpret a speaker’s verbal and non-verbal messages, purposes,point of view, and techniques and perspectives including First Nations and Métis Elders andused in presentation. Knowledge Keepers. f. Listen to differentiate between fact and opinion, to analyze the message and presentation, and to draw conclusions about the ideas presented and strategies used.English Language Arts 5 29