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  • 2010Saskatchewan CurriculumEnglishLanguageArts 5
  • English Language Arts 5ISBN 978-1-926841-10-61. Language arts (Elementary school) - Saskatchewan - Curricula. 2. Competency-based education - Saskatchewan.Saskatchewan. Ministry of Education. Curriculum and E-Learning. Humanities Unit.All rights are reserved by the original copyright owners.
  • Table of ContentsAcknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Core Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Broad Areas of Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lifelong Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Sense of Self, Community, and Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Engaged Citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Cross-curricular Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Developing Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Developing Identity and Interdependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Developing Literacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Developing Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4K-12 Aim and Goals of English Language Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5An Effective English Language Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Provides Meaningful Contexts and Questions for Deeper Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Focuses on Grade-specific Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Focuses on Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Uses Critical and Powerful Learning Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Includes a Range of Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Encourages Inquiry, Social Responsibility, and Self-reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Outcomes and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Assessment and Evaluation of Student Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35Connections with Other Areas of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49Feedback Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51English Language Arts 5 iii
  • AcknowledgementsThe Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge the professional contributions and advice given by ElementaryLevel teachers and consultants in the following First Nations tribal council and Saskatchewan school divisions: • Holy Trinity Roman Catholic School Division • Battleford Tribal Council • Prairie South School Division • Saskatchewan Rivers School Division • South East Cornerstone School Division • Sun West School Division.The Ministry of Education also wishes to thank many others who contributed to the development of thiscurriculum including: • University faculty members • Other educators and reviewers.The curriculum is based on the Western and Northern Canadian Protocol (WNCP) The Common CurriculumFramework for English Language Arts (Kindergarten to Grade 12) (1998).English Language Arts 5 v
  • IntroductionEnglish language arts (ELA) is a Required Area of Study inSaskatchewan’s Core Curriculum. The purpose of this curriculum is tooutline the provincial requirements for Grade 5 English Language Arts.Time AllotmentThe Saskatchewan Ministry of Education has established a provincialpolicy for the amount of time that must be allocated to languagearts instruction at each grade level. The required minutes for Englishlanguage arts allotted to Grade 5 is 560 minutes per week.Curriculum ContentThis curriculum provides the intended learning outcomes that Grade 5students are expected to achieve in English language arts by the endof the year. Indicators are included to provide the breadth and depthof what students should know, understand, and be able to do in orderto achieve the outcomes.The learning experiences planned for students will support studentachievement of the provincial Goals of Education through attending tothe Broad Areas of Learning for Saskatchewan and the Cross-curricularCompetencies described on the following pages.The English language arts curriculum provides: • direction for supporting student achievement of the Broad Areas of Learning and the Cross-curricular Competencies • the K-12 aim and goals for English language arts in Saskatchewan • the characteristics of an effective English language arts program • Grade 5 English Language Arts outcomes and indicators • sample assessment and evaluation criteria for determining student growth and achievement in relation to the outcomes in English language arts • connections with other areas of study.Additional support resources will appear online.English Language Arts 5 1
  • Core Curriculum Core Curriculum is intended to provide all Saskatchewan students with an education that will serve them well regardless of their choices after leaving school. Through its components and initiatives, Core Curriculum supports student achievement of the Goals of Education for Saskatchewan. For current information regarding Core Curriculum, please refer to Core Curriculum: Principles, Time Allocations, and Credit Policy on the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education website. For additional information related to the various components and initiatives of Core Curriculum, please refer to the Ministry website at www.education.gov.sk.ca/policy for policy and foundation documents including the following: • Understanding the Common Essential Learnings: A Handbook for Teachers (1988) • Objectives for the Common Essential Learnings (CELs) (1998) • Renewed Objectives for the Common Essential Learnings of Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) and Personal and Social Development (PSD) (2008) • The Adaptive Dimension in Core Curriculum (1992) • Policy and Procedures for Locally-developed Courses of Study (2004) • Connections: Policy and Guidelines for School Libraries in Saskatchewan (2008) • Diverse Voices: Selecting Equitable Resources for Indian and Métis Education (2005) • Gender Equity: Policies and Guidelines for Implementation (1991) • Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Professional Practice (1991) • Multicultural Education and Heritage Language Education Policies (1994) • Classroom Curriculum Connections: A Teacher’s Handbook for Personal-Professional Growth (2001).2 English Language Arts 5
  • Broad Areas of LearningThere are three Broad Areas of Learning that reflect Saskatchewan’sGoals of Education. K-12 English language arts contributes to the Goalsof Education through helping students achieve knowledge, skills, andattitudes related to the following:Lifelong Learners Related to the following Goals of Education:Students who are engaged in constructing and applying English • Basic Skillslanguage arts knowledge naturally build a positive disposition towards • Lifelong Learninglearning. Throughout their study of English language arts, students • Positive Lifestylegain understandings, skills, and strategies to become more competentand confident language users.Sense of Self, Community, and Place Related to the following Goals of Education:To learn English language arts, students need not only to use theEnglish language but also to interact with each other. Through the • Understanding and Relating toEnglish language arts, students learn about themselves, others, and Othersthe world around them. They use language to define who they are and • Self-concept Development • Spiritual Developmentto explore who they might become. They use language to interact andto respond effectively with others and to build community.Engaged Citizens Related to the following Goals ofIn the English language arts, students learn how language can Education:empower them to make a difference in their personal, peer, family, • Career and Consumer Decisionsand community lives. Language gives them a sense of agency and an • Membership in Societyability to make a difference in their community and the world in which • Growing with Changethey live.Cross-curricular CompetenciesThe Cross-curricular Competencies are four interrelated areascontaining understandings, values, skills, and processes whichare considered important for learning in all areas of study. Thesecompetencies reflect the Common Essential Learnings and areintended to be addressed in each area of study at each grade level.Developing ThinkingLearners construct knowledge to make sense of the world around K-12 Goals for Developing Thinking:them. They develop understanding by building on what is already • thinking and learningknown. This key competency concerns the ability to make sense of contextuallyinformation, experiences, and ideas through thinking contextually, • thinking and learning creativelycritically, and creatively. English language arts is inquiry-based, and • thinking and learning criticallystudents use their language and thinking skills to explore a range oftopics, issues, and themes.English Language Arts 5 3
  • Developing Identity and InterdependenceK-12 Goals for Developing Identity The ability to act autonomously in an interdependent world requiresand Interdependence: an awareness of the natural environment, of social and cultural • understanding, valuing, and expectations, and of the possibilities for individual and group caring for oneself accomplishments. It assumes the possession of a positive self- • understanding, valuing, and concept and the ability to live in harmony with others and with the caring for others natural and constructed worlds. Achieving this competency requires • understanding and valuing understanding, valuing, and caring for oneself and for others, and social, economic, and understanding and valuing social and environmental interdependence environmental interdependence and sustainability. English language arts requires students to explore and sustainability ideas and issues of identity, community, social responsibility, diversity, and sustainability. Students study texts and ideas about personal and philosophical; social, historical, and cultural; imaginative and literary; communicative; and environmental and technological topics. Developing LiteraciesK-12 Goals for Developing Literacies: Literacies provide many ways, including the use of various language • constructing knowledge related systems and media, to interpret the world and express understanding to various literacies of it. Literacies involve the evolution of interrelated skills, strategies, • exploring and interpreting the and knowledge that facilitate an individual’s ability to participate fully world through various literacies and equitably in a variety of roles and contexts – school, home, and • expressing understanding and local and global communities. To achieve this competency requires communicating meaning using developing skills, strategies, and knowledge related to various various literacies literacies in order to explore and interpret the world and communicate meaning. English language arts requires students to use different literacies, including language literacy, effectively and contextually to represent ideas and understanding in multiple, flexible ways. Developing Social ResponsibilityK-12 Goals for Developing Social Social responsibility is how people positively contribute to theirResponsibility: physical, social, and cultural environments. It requires the ability to • using moral reasoning participate with others in accomplishing goals. This competency • engaging in communitarian is achieved through using moral reasoning processes, engaging in thinking and dialogue communitarian thinking and dialogue, and taking action. Socially • taking action responsible learners contribute to their physical, social, and cultural environments. In English language arts, students explore their social responsibility and work toward common goals to improve the lives of others and the natural and constructed worlds.4 English Language Arts 5
  • K-12 Aim and Goals of English LanguageArtsThe K-12 aim of the Saskatchewan English language arts curricula isto help students understand and appreciate language, and to use itconfidently and competently in a variety of situations for learning,communication, work, life, and personal satisfaction.The K-12 goals are broad statements identifying what students areexpected to know and be able to do upon completion of study in aparticular subject (e.g., English language arts). The K-12 goals of theSaskatchewan English language arts curricula are to:Comprehend and Respond (CR) – Students will develop their abilitiesto view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety ofcontemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a varietyof forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, andother cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest,and enjoyment.Compose and Create (CC) – Students will develop their abilities tospeak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore andpresent thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for avariety of purposes and audiences.Assess and Reflect (AR) – Students will develop their abilities to assessand reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effectiveviewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers, and setgoals for future improvement.Figure 1. K-12 Aim and Goals of English Language Arts Social Studies Physical Health Education Identity and Education Thinking Interdependence Comprehend and Respond Sense of Self, Community, and Place Compose Language Arts Arts Lifelong Engaged and Create Learners Citizens Education Assess and Re ect Social Literacies Responsibility Mathematics ScienceEnglish Language Arts 5 5
  • An Effective English Language Arts Program An English language arts program is effective when it is purposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, and authentic. This curriculum invites and challenges educators to think about education, schooling, and English language arts as it might be rather than the way educators might know it to be. How can schooling and English language arts be more purposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, and authentic? How can it help students become competent, confident users of the English language and, at the same time, become knowledgeable about themselves, their community, and the world as a whole in a deep and meaningful way? How can it help them find fulfillment, be socially responsible, and act in ways that will make their community and world better places? How can it help students become effective self-directed, self-regulated, strategic, and collaborative learners to meet the demands of personal, social, work, and global life in the 21st century? “When a learner makes connections and learning takes place, it is because of focused teaching ....” (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, p. 34). Focused teaching requires: • a detailed map of what is expected that students will know and be able to do, clearly stated in outcomes and associated indicators • a set of powerful and aligned assessment and evaluation tools tied to the outcomes • a detailed knowledge of how best to teach to these learning outcomes in the classroom, including explicit teaching strategies and methods and classroom routines. (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, pp. 36-37) This curriculum is designed to be the starting point for instructional planning. It includes the philosophical underpinnings of the area of study and provides the knowledge (i.e., factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive, or a combination of these) that students are expected to know, understand, and be able to do at the end of Grade 5. A careful analysis of the outcomes supports teachers in determining the types of evidence that they might look for to assess whether students have achieved these outcomes. This knowledge supports teachers in designing and/or choosing assessment and evaluation tools to monitor and report on student learning in English language arts. It is the starting point that will allow English language arts teachers “to develop and deepen students’ understanding of important ideas and a process in the discipline[s] equipping them to transfer their learning in meaningful and effective ways, and cultivating lifelong habits of mind” (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, p. 13). An effective English language arts program is rooted in research-based practice that specifies what is and is not effective in teaching English language arts (see next page).6 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 1. What ELA Is Versus What ELA Is Not What ELA Is What ELA Is Not Appreciating children as active learners and accepting Seeing children as passive vessels to be filled and them as competent co-learners who can socially and believing that learning is received from outside culturally construct knowledge with adults sources and is to be recapitulated Helping children actively seek to understand the Telling children what knowledge they need to know world around them and to learn about life and but not having them use it or apply it language Using visual, multimedia, oral, and written Using only print resources with a fictional emphasis communication competently, appropriately, and for a limited range of purposes (usually isolated to a effectively for a range of purposes school task) Recognizing the central role of language in Letting printed books, isolated activities, and communicating, thinking, and learning worksheets drive the program Setting meaningful and relevant contexts for teaching Giving isolated language activities and using and learning including connections to students’ unrelated texts experiences, knowledge, and personal and cultural identity Helping students know what and why they are Having only teacher awareness of the outcomes and learning and doing something (i.e., outcomes, not sharing them with students indicators, and exemplars) Teaching and learning for “deep understanding” Asking and answering solely teacher-directed (including using questions for deeper understanding questions as a focus) Making meaning of ideas or information received Answering knowledge/comprehension questions, (when viewing, listening, and reading) individually, after reading print texts Creating meaning for themselves and others Using only limited forms of communicating, usually (when speaking, writing, and using other forms of writing representing) Using a variety of strategies (e.g., Before, During, and Following only teacher-directed skills and strategies After) depending upon the task and spending time on isolated skill and drill Engaging in inquiry learning Doing a project or, if time permits, a series of activities to bring closure Reflecting on own learning and literacy Assuming that the responsibility for learning and literacy lies with the teacherThrough a “deep” understanding of this curriculum (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006) and knowing when to useeffective instructional, assessment, and classroom-management strategies based on sound research (Marzano,2007), English language arts teachers can help all students become competent and confident language users.English Language Arts 5 7
  • An Effective English Language Arts Program: • provides meaningful contexts that address “big ideas” and questions for deeper understanding • focuses on grade-specific outcomes to achieve the K-12 aim and goals of the program • focuses on language and helps students understand how it works • teaches students through powerful cognitive and communication strategies • includes a range of texts (oral, print, and other media) • encourages student inquiry, social responsibility, and self- reflection Provides Meaningful Contexts and Questions for Deeper Understanding An effective ELA program provides meaningful contexts for students to learn about language. The English language arts program is designed for students to develop their language skills and strategies and become competent and confident users of all six language arts strands through many opportunities to view, listen, read, represent, speak, and write in meaningful contexts. If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and the world. The following contexts provide a focus for language learning and give students an opportunity to explore “big ideas” (i.e., overarching understandings) that have enduring values beyond the classroom: • A personal and philosophical context gives students opportunities to explore their identity and their self-concept. Fostering the learning spirit inside each student comes from the heart and mind connection that is revealed through each student’s reflection on personal feelings, self-image, influential life forces, ideas, belief systems, values, and ways of knowing. Who am I, what is my place, and where am I going? What does the future hold for me?8 English Language Arts 5
  • • A social, cultural, and historical context gives students opportunities to explore relationships with others, community, culture, customs, multiple ways of knowing, national and international events and issues, and the history of humanity. What are my rights and responsibilities in communities, cultures, and economies? How and who am I in relation to communities, cultures, and economies? How am I defined by these relationships? • An imaginative and literary context gives students opportunities to use their intuition and imagination to explore alternative worlds and possibilities; different types of classical and contemporary genres including fantasy, science fiction, and humour; and particular authors. How do I use my imagination and intuition and that of others to understand and relate to people, the community, the world, and society in a positive way? How do I foster imaginative ideas of self and others? How do I use intuitive hunches to support creative problem solving or inquiry? • A communicative context gives students opportunities to explore different methods, forms, and issues related to language, communication, and the mass media. How do I make sense of and communicate with the world? How do I support communication with differing audiences? How do I know if communication is effective? • An environmental and technological context gives students opportunities to explore the natural and constructed worlds including the land, the sky, animals, the sea, space, technologies, and environmental and technological issues. How do I describe, analyze, and shape the world around me? How does that natural and technological world affect and shape me?Each English language arts unit of study can be related to and How we envision literacy makes adeveloped under one or more of these broader contexts. Each context difference. If we see it as meaningis to be explored at each grade. Each context provides opportunities making and not meaning makingfor integration with topics of study in other subject areas. plus inquiry, we fail to envision all that literacy might be. If weTeachers in Grade 5 should plan a minimum of five units for the year, see literacy as language and notbasing at least one unit on each of the five contexts. Table 4 gives an language plus other sign systems, weoverview of possible unit themes and topics, and questions for deeper also fail to envision all that literacyunderstanding for each context. might be.In addition to considering the five contexts, Elementary Level English (Harste, 2000, p.1)language arts teachers need to think about the types of units to plan.Language arts units, designed around the themes and topics withineach context, can ensure that the outcomes for the language strandsare achieved in meaningful ways. Minimal guidelines are provided foreach type of unit.English Language Arts 5 9
  • Table 2. Types of Units Type of Unit Number of Units per Year Multi-genre Thematic 3 (minimum) Multi-genre Inquiry and/or Interdisciplinary 1 (minimum) Author or Genre Study 1 (maximum) A multi-genre thematic unit is built around a theme or topic from one of the contexts and includes a range of prose fiction and non- fiction, poetry, plays, and other texts. This is the most common type of English language arts unit because it allows teachers to vary activities within a broad theme or topic to suit the differing ability levels of students while supporting their achievement of outcomes for their respective grade. A minimum of three multi-genre thematic units is recommended.Through the inquiry or research A multi-genre inquiry and/or interdisciplinary unit is usually builtprocess, students satisfy their natural around a theme or topic that is related to an important question(s) forcuriosity and develop skills and inquiry and research. The emphasis in an inquiry unit is on “finding out”strategies for lifelong learning. the answers to a question or questions that the students have about the theme or topic and then using the inquiry process to guide their(Western Canadian Protocol for activities in the unit. When the unit is interdisciplinary, it considersCollaboration in Basic Education, and addresses outcomes from English language arts and other area(s)1998, p. 33) of study. A minimum of one inquiry/interdisciplinary unit per year is recommended. Any multi-genre thematic or author/genre study unit can become an inquiry unit. An author or genre study unit focuses on the works of a specific author or illustrator or on a specific genre (e.g., poetry). Because of the limited texts used in an author or genre study, a maximum of one per year is recommended. Planning Units of Study in an Effective English Language Arts Program Table 3. Essential Aspects of Units Units of Study Essential Aspects Units provide meaningful • Questions for deeper understanding that contexts and foci for students address the ideas and issues students to explore the topics and need to think about throughout the unit. texts that are important to • Strategies to explore and express young people everywhere. students’ thoughts, ideas, feelings, and Units in English language arts experiences as well as to inquire and to allow students not only to learn to use the English language and learn how language works in its conventions. Oral, written, and other meaningful situations but also texts explore the issues and provide to develop the disposition opportunities to apply viewing, listening, for learning for life, a sense of reading, representing, speaking, and self and connection to others, writing knowledge and skills. and, as engaged citizens, a • Individual as well as co-operative projects capacity to make a difference invite inquiry and bring closure and in the community. personal agency to student explorations.10 English Language Arts 5
  • An effective English language arts program also providesopportunities to explore “big ideas” (e.g., extinction versus the topic ofdinosaurs) and to consider questions for deeper understanding.Questions for deeper understanding are used to initiate and guide aunit and give students direction for developing deep understandingsabout a topic or issue under study. It is essential to develop questionsthat are evoked by student interests and have potential for richand deep learning. The process of constructing questions can helpstudents to grasp the important disciplinary or transdisciplinary ideasthat are situated at the core of a particular curricular focus or context.These broad questions will lead to more specific questions that canprovide a framework, purpose, and direction for the learning activitiesin a lesson, or series of lessons, and help students connect what theyare learning to their experiences and life beyond school.Effective questions for deeper understanding in English languagearts are the key to initiating and guiding students’ investigations andcritical thinking, problem solving, and reflection on students’ ownlearning. Questions such as the following are examples of questionsthat will move Grade 5 students toward deeper understanding: • What are the short- and long-term effects of our energy use on the environment? What impact does human use of energy and natural resources have on Canadian society and the environment? Effective Questions for Deeper • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable Understanding: energy sources as opposed to non-renewable sources? How can • Cause genuine and relevant we contribute to a cleaner, healthier environment? inquiry into the key ideas and • What impact does weather have on a society and its people? core content • Provide for thoughtful, lively What weather-related technological innovations and products discussion, sustained inquiry, and have been developed by various cultures in response to Canadian new understanding as well as weather conditions? more questions • How do buildings reflect our environment, culture, and • Require students to consider communities? What are the forces that structures built by either alternatives, weigh evidence, people or creatures in nature have to withstand and how do they support their ideas, and justify do this? their answers • Stimulate vital, ongoing • How can our choices affect our overall health? What are the rethinking of ideas, assumptions, beneficial and harmful effects of technological innovations on or prior lessons human organ systems? • Spark meaningful connectionsEffective questioning is essential for teaching and student learning with prior learning, personal experiences, and ways of knowingand should be an integral part of planning in English language arts. • Naturally recur, creatingQuestioning should also be used to encourage students to reflect on opportunities for transfer to othertheir own learning. The following chart identifies the five contexts situations and subjects.for English language arts and suggests some possible questions fordeeper understanding and some possible unit topics or themes for (Adapted from Wiggins & McTighe, 2005, p. 110)each context.English Language Arts 5 11
  • Table 4. Questions for Deeper Understanding and Some Supporting Resources: Grade Five English Language Arts Sample Questions for Deeper Understanding Possible Unit Topics and Contexts ThemesPersonal and Philosophical What are our personal strengths? How can we use World Wide Kids (Cornerstones these strengths to make the world a better place? 5, a-i)Children need to believe in What are our personal goals and how will we reach Teamwork (Cornerstones 5, b-i)their own self-worth and to these goals? Who do we admire most and why? What What Should I Do? (Nelsonfeel that they have control are the traits of admirable people? What are the Language Arts 5, i)over the things that happen rewards and challenges of working together? Together is Better (Collectionsto them. Children need to look 5, i)inward and focus on self-image Where do our beliefs come from? Are they fair, just,and self-esteem. They need to moral? Other:reflect on self and life, and on What are prejudices and racism? What happens to Accomplishmentstheir beliefs and values and “team” work, community, and equality when we have Heroes and Heroinesthose of their society. biases and prejudices? In what ways can these ways of thinking hurt everyone in our communities? What have we (or could we have) done about it? What is worth fighting for? What are the marks of a true hero? What causes people to act heroically? How do heroes sacrifice themselves for others? Could we be heroes?Social, Cultural, and Historical What does “fair” mean? Can “fair” be different for Heroes Old and New different people? (Cornerstones 5, a-iii)Children need to look outward What is Fair? (Cornerstones 5,and examine their relationships What are our rights and freedoms? What are our b-iii)with others, their community, responsibilities? How do our responsibilities go hand- Making a Difference (Nelsonand the world. Children also in-hand with our rights and freedoms? Language Arts 5, b-i)need to consider the social and What does being “Canadian” mean? What makes In This Place (Nelson Languagehistorical context. They need us proud to be Canadian? How does Canada work? Arts 5, vi)to explore their connections Why do we have government and laws? How has our Exploring Heritage (Collectionsin families, schools, groups, heritage shaped the people that we have become? 5, v)and communities and tounderstand the diverse needs Why is it important for a country to have a symbol or symbols that people around the world recognize? Other:and wants of others. Children “Because” is Not an Answerneed to show concern for other How does Canada work (structure and components of Stepping Back in Timepeople in their relationships, government)? Why have government?groups, and communities. How has our heritage shaped the people that we have become? How can we honour Canada’s history, people, and natural resources? What do artefacts tell us about early civilizations? How can we and others contribute to our country and make a difference in the lives of others? How can we contribute to our community? What types of issues or problems might communities and people face? What issues or problems might people in Canada face? How can we work to make Canada a better country for all its citizens?12 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 4. (Continued) Questions for Deeper Understanding and Some Supporting Resources: Grade Five English Language Arts Sample Questions for Deeper Understanding Possible Unit Topics and Contexts Themes Imaginative and Literary How are different cultures reflected through their Mystery Stories (Genre Study) stories? What are the important stories of Canada? (Cornerstones 5, a-iv) Children need to consider How do these stories reflect our heritage? Tales – Clever, Foolish, and imaginary worlds and Brave (Collections 5, ii) possibilities as well as a range What are the characteristics of a good story? What of literary genres and authors. are the characteristics of historical fiction? How does Other: historical fiction help us learn about life and people in Glimpses of Other Worlds Canada’s past? The People and Stories of This What is mystery? What are the characteristics of a Land mystery? Can mysteries be solved? What are the unsolved mysteries from history? Some mysteries in nature? Why do stories of mystery in history and in nature challenge and intrigue us? What mysterious phenomena would we like to explore? How do stories help us understand ourselves and others? What stories still have not been told? Communicative What messages do images and words communicate Send a Message (Cornerstones in texts such as flyers, promotional mail, magazines 5, b-ii) Children need to consider the advertisements, product packaging, DVDs, television, Make a Magazine (Genre Study) role of communication in their and websites? Who created and produced these (Cornerstones 5, a-iv) lives and the technologies messages? Why? Who is the intended audience? How Media Moments (Nelson and strategies that help could the message be delivered in a fair way? Language Arts 5, iii) people become effective On with the Show (Collections communicators. Children need How do resources such as calendars, flyers, coupons, 5, iv) the skills to interact effectively promotional mail, magazines, menus, ads, product with others. packaging, and websites inform, entertain, and Other: influence audiences? Who is included? Who is left out? Ad Smart Whose story and values are included? Whose story and values are left out? How might these messages be used to manipulate people? What is effective advertising? What characteristics and techniques are used in humourous stories (character, setting, dialogue, problem …)? What are the characteristics of historical fiction? How does historical fiction help us learn about life and characters in early Canada? If it is “fiction,” what “truths” are in it?English Language Arts 5 13
  • Table 4. (Continued) Questions for Deeper Understanding and Some Supporting Resources: Grade Five English Language Arts Sample Questions for Deeper Understanding Possible Unit Topics and Contexts ThemesEnvironmental and What are the short- and long-term effects of our This is Our Planet (CornerstonesTechnological energy use on the environment? What impact does 5, a-ii) human use of energy and natural resources have on Our Natural World (NelsonChildren need to explore the Canadian society and the environment? What are the Language Arts 5, ii)elements of the natural and advantages and disadvantages of using renewable All About Structures (Nelsonconstructed worlds and the energy sources as opposed to non-renewable Language Arts 5, v)role of technology and related sources? How can we contribute to a cleaner, healthier Weather, Wings, and Kitedevelopments in their society. environment? Strings (Collections 5, iii)Children need to explore theneeds and characteristics of What impact does weather have on a society and Other:living things; properties of its people? What weather-related technological Forces and Simple Machinesobjects and materials; the five innovations and products have been developed by Healthy Bodiessenses; and daily seasonal various cultures in response to Canadian weather Forces Causing Movementchanges. conditions? Weather How do buildings reflect our environment, culture, and communities? What are the forces that structures built by either people or creatures in nature have to withstand, and how do they do this? How can our choices affect our overall health? What are the beneficial and harmful effects of technological innovations on human organ systems?14 English Language Arts 5
  • Focuses on Grade-specific OutcomesAn effective English language arts program focuses on grade-specificcurriculum outcomes. Student learning outcomes describe whatstudents will learn in a particular discipline over a specific time frame(e.g., Grade 5). Outcomes specify the skills, knowledge, and attitudesthat students are expected to know, understand, and be able todemonstrate.Critical Characteristics of Outcomes and IndicatorsOutcomes: • focus on what students will learn rather than what teachers will teach • specify the skills, strategies, abilities, understandings, and knowledge students are expected to be able to demonstrate • are observable, assessable, and attainable • are grade and subject specific • are supported by indicators which provide the breadth and depth of expectations • are written using action-based verbs • identify the most important understandings and abilities to be developed in the specific grade level • guide course, unit, and lesson planning.Indicators: • are a representative list of what students need to know and/or be able to do in order to achieve an outcome • represent the breadth and depth of the outcomes.Note: Additional and/or alternative indicators may be developed, butthey must be reflective of and consistent with the breadth and depththat is defined by the given indicators.English Language Arts 5 15
  • English Language Arts Goals and Outcomes OverviewEach of the three goals for English language arts has a set of outcomes for the specific grade level. The followingare the outcomes for Grade 5 ELA. Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will develop their abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of contemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest, and enjoyment.CR5.1 Analyze and respond to a variety of grade-level texts (including contemporary and traditional visual, oral,written, and multimedia texts) that address: • identity (e.g., Exploring Heritage) • community (e.g., Teamwork) • social responsibility (e.g., What is Fair?).CR5.2 View and evaluate, critically, visual and multimedia texts identifying the persuasive techniques includingpromises, flattery, and comparisons used to influence or persuade an audience.CR5.3 Listen purposefully to a range of texts from a variety of cultural traditions (including oral traditions sharedby First Nations and Métis Elders and Knowledge Keepers) to understand ideas and instructions, to evaluate themessage heard and the required follow-up action, and to draw conclusions about speaker’s verbal and non-verbal message(s), purpose, point of view, and techniques used in presentation.CR5.4 Read and demonstrate comprehension of a range of contemporary and classical grade-appropriatefiction, script, poetry, and non-fiction (including magazines, reports, instructions, and procedures) from variouscultures including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit and countries (including Canada). Compose and Create (CC). Students will develop their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.CC5.1 Compose and create a range of visual, multimedia, oral, and written texts that explore: • identity (e.g., What Should I Do) • community (e.g., This is Our Planet) • social responsibility (e.g., Teamwork) and express personal thoughts shaped through inquiry.CC5.2 Demonstrate a variety of ways to communicate understanding and response including illustrated reports,dramatizations, posters, timelines, multimedia presentations, and summary charts.CC5.3 Speak to express and support a range of ideas and information in formal and informal speaking situations(e.g., giving oral presentations and reports, retelling a narrative, explaining a display to others, working in groups)for particular audiences and purposes.CC5.4 Use a writing process to experiment with and produce multi-paragraph narrative (including stories thatcontain dialogue), expository (including reports, explanations, letters, and requests), and persuasive (includingletters) compositions that clearly develop topic and provide transitions for the reader.16 English Language Arts 5
  • Assess and Reflect (AR). Students will develop their abilities to assess and reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effective viewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers, and set goals for future improvement.AR5.1 Identify strengths in viewing, listening, reading, speaking, writing, and other forms of representing.AR5.2 Set goals to enhance the development and improvement of the skills and strategies in viewing, listening,reading, speaking, writing, and other forms of representing and take steps to achieve goals.English Language Arts 5 17
  • Focuses on LanguageGood language and literacy skills lay Language and language study are at the centre of the Elementarythe foundation for social, academic, Level English language arts program. The study of the Englisheconomic, personal, and national language arts (viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking,success. and writing) and of the elements and conventions associated with(Jamieson & Tremblay, 2005, p. 1) each language cueing system (i.e., pragmatic, textual, syntactic, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other) enables students to understand and appreciate language and to use it in a variety of situations for communication, for learning, and for personal satisfaction. An effective English language arts program that develops students’ facility with language provides students with opportunities to: • learn to use language in a variety of meaningful ways, considering and determining their audience, purpose, and situation • learn about language as a necessary tool for thinking and communicating effectively, considering the cues and conventions of language • learn through language by applying their knowledge of language in their viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing experiences. Language study is an integral part of an English language arts program. Students in each grade are expected to understand the concepts related to the language cues and conventions. As students view, listen, read, represent, speak, and write, they are expected to apply the concepts as students construct and communicate meaning in their English language arts program and in their daily communication.18 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 5. Key Language Cues and Conventions for Grade 5 Language Cue or Convention Comprehend and Respond Compose and Create When viewing, listening, or reading, When speaking, writing, or using Grade 5 students: other forms of representing, Grade 5 students: Pragmatic Identify intended audience and Demonstrate an awareness of audience Pragmatics is the study of how people purpose for a text; recognize and and use level of language (register) choose what and how to communicate interpret various uses of language in appropriate to purpose and intended from a range of possibilities available in social, cultural, and regional situations. audience; adjust tone to situation. the language and how the receiver will be affected by these choices. Textual Identify various forms of texts, their Use knowledge of forms, Ideas and information are organized in characteristics (such as headings, characteristics, and organizational oral, written, and other formats. Textual paragraphs), and the ways they are patterns of texts to communicate cues and conventions include the form organized and the patterns within ideas in a clear and logical manner; use (such as comparison and contrast); paragraphs proficiently. or structure and elements of a text. recognize differences in text types used in other subject areas. Syntactic Use knowledge of sentence elements Use simple, compound, and complex and patterns (simple, compound, and sentences; vary sentence length and Syntax is the predictable structure of complex) and their related punctuation structure for effect (average length a sentence and the ways words are combined to form phrases, clauses, and to understand what is listened to or in speech, 9 words; average length read. in writing 8.7 words); use subject- sentences. Syntax includes classes of verb and noun-pronoun agreement words (e.g., verbs) and their functions correctly. (e.g., subjects). Semantic/Lexical/Morphological Use a word attack strategy (e.g., Select and use words to create context, structure, sound, and specific effects; use precise and The lexicon of a language includes reference) as well as knowledge of descriptive words; use new words all the words or vocabulary of that root words, prefixes, and suffixes to from viewing, listening, and reading language that are used or understood determine the pronunciation (e.g., in speaking, writing, and other forms by a particular person or groups. n-ation) and meaning of unfamiliar of representing; use, appropriately, Words can also be studied for their words. specialized terms in different subject meaningful parts or morphemes. areas; use a variety of resources to confirm spelling; use a thesaurus; spell correctly the provinces and capitals, and words such as catch, matches, strength, scratch, length, ….English Language Arts 5 19
  • Table 5. (Continued) Key Language Cues and Conventions for Grade 5 Language Cue or Convention Comprehend and Respond Compose and Create When viewing, listening, or reading, When speaking, writing, or using Grade 5 students: other forms of representing, Grade 5 students:Phonological/Graphophonic Use phonics to decode and say words Use clear and correct pronunciation correctly; recognize features of words and enunciation to communicate andGraphophonics is the study of the including vowel patterns in multi- to figure out spelling of words; selectrelationship between the symbols and syllabic words, double consonants, and use a variety of spelling strategiessounds of a language and includes word endings, prefixes (e.g., dis-, including sound.letter or sound relationships and in-, un-, ir-, il-, non-, anti-, pro-, pre-),patterns. suffixes (e.g., -ish, -en,-ance), and plural possessives.Other Cues and Conventions Recognize and use the characteristics Use appropriate gestures, eye contact, of different media (e.g., photograph, and facial expressions; use, accurately,Other cues and conventions are also television, digital) and recognize the graphs, diagrams, and captions; writefound in communication acts and key elements in visual and multimedia legibly using correct letter formationinclude such elements as graphics, texts (e.g., sections in magazine). and joining in cursive writing.layout, colour, sound, movement, fontchoices, and handwriting.20 English Language Arts 5
  • Uses Critical and Powerful Learning StrategiesAn effective ELA program teaches students how to use critical and powerful learning strategies. In order toachieve the English language arts outcomes, students need to learn and use a range of language skills andstrategies. Effective language arts teachers employ a range of instructional approaches to help students movefrom teacher-supported and guided lessons to independent learning that requires varied instructional methodsand strategies to help students learn these language skills and strategies. Teachers model and discuss keyprocedural and metacognitive strategies for language learning and thinking. Students need to learn how toselect and to use strategies before, during, and after viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, andwriting.If students are to be successful in English language arts, they need to learn and use thinking and learning skillsand strategies on their own. In order to help students gain control over a repertoire of key skills and strategies,the skills and strategies need to be explicitly taught and practised using a model such as the following: • Introduce and explain the purpose of the skill or strategy. • Demonstrate and model its use. • Provide guided practice for students to apply the skill or strategy with feedback. • Allow students to apply the skill or strategy independently and in teams. • Reflect regularly on the appropriate uses of the skills or strategies and their effectiveness. • Assess the students’ ability to transfer the repertoire of skills or strategies with less and less teacher prompting over time. (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, pp. 97-98)Table 6. Important Cognitive Strategies for Comprehending and Responding (CR) Goal Phase Strategy Before Activating and building upon prior knowledge and experience Previewing text Setting a purpose Anticipating the author’s or creator’s intention During Making connections to personal knowledge and experience Using the cueing systems to construct meaning from the text Making, confirming, and adjusting predictions and inferences Constructing mental images Interpreting visuals (e.g., illustrations, graphics, tables) Identifying key ideas and supporting ideas Self-questioning, self-monitoring, and self-correcting Drawing conclusions Adjusting rate or strategy to purpose or difficulty of text After Recalling, paraphrasing, summarizing, and synthesizing Interpreting (identifying new knowledge and insights) Evaluating author’s/creator’s message(s) Evaluating author’s/creator’s craft and technique Responding personally, giving support from text View, listen, read again, speak, write, and use other forms of representing to deepen understanding and pleasureEnglish Language Arts 5 21
  • Table 6. (Continued) Important Cognitive Strategies for Comprehending and Responding (CR) Goal Additional Viewing: Strategies for • Think Aloud (Davey, 1983) Comprehending • View, Pause, Predict, and Think Aloud and Responding • Collaborative Viewing Guide (Wood, 1994) • Directed Viewing-Thinking Activity (DVTA) • Picture Walk (Richards & Anderson, 2003) • Viewing Guides Listening: • TQLR (Tune In, Questions, Listen, and Review) (SRA, 2000) • ACTION (Attention, Concentrate, Think, Interpret, Organize, and Note) (Sebranek & Kemper, 1995) • Listen-Think-Pair-Share (McTighe & Lyman, 1992) • Listen-Draw-Pair-Share (McConnell, 1992) • DLTA (Directed Listening-Thinking Activity) (Stauffer, 1975) • LAPS (Listen, Ask, Picture, and Summarize) Strategy (Matchullis & Mueller, 1996) • Listening Guides Reading: • Modelled Reading • Shared Reading • Guided Reading • Paired Reading • KWL, K-W-L Plus (Carr & Ogle, 1987) • Preview/Connect/Predict (Robb, 2006) • List/Group/Categorize (Robb, 2006) • B-D-A (Before, During, and After) Strategy (Laverick, 2002) • Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) (Stauffer, 1975) • Reciprocal Reading (Palincsar & Brown, 1986) • ReQuest (Manzo, 1969; Vacca & Vacca, 1999) • QtA (Question the Author) (Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kucan, 1997) • QARs (Question Answer Relationships) (Raphael, 1986) • Mapping It Out (Hoyt, 2000) • Justifying My Opinions (Hoyt, 2000) • Open-mind Portraits (Tompkins, 2004) • Coding the Text (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000) • Think Alouds (Davey, 1983) • Reading Guides • Discussion Circles • Grand Conversations (Eeds & Wells, 1989) • Literature Circles (Daniels, 1994) • Reader’s Workshop22 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 7. Important Cognitive Strategies for Composing and Creating (CC) Goal Phase Strategy Before Considering the task or prompt or finding a topic Activating prior knowledge and considering experiences Considering purpose and audience Considering and generating specific ideas and information that might be included Collecting and focusing ideas and information Planning and organizing ideas for drafting During Creating draft(s) and experimenting with possible product(s) Using language and its conventions to construct message Experimenting with communication features and techniques Conferring with others Reflecting, clarifying, self-monitoring, self-correcting, and using “fix-up” strategies After Revising for content and meaning (adding, deleting, substituting, and rethinking) Revising for organization (reordering) Revising for sentence structure and flow Revising for word choice, spelling, and usage Proofreading for mechanics and appearance (including punctuation and capitalization) Conferring with peers, teacher, and others Polishing, practising, and deciding how work will be shared Sharing, reflecting, and considering feedback Additional Strategies for Speaking: Composing and Creating • Talking Circles • Think, Pair, Share/Square (McTighe & Lyman, 1992) • Instructional Conversations (Goldenberg, 1993) • TAPS (Total Group, Alone, Partner, and Small Group) (Gregory & Chapman, 2002) • Grouptalk (Whipple, 1975; Moffett & Wagner, 1992) Writing: • Modelled Writing • Shared Writing/Language Experience (Van Allen, 1976) • Interactive Writing • Guided Writing • Pattern Writing • Discuss/Brainstorm/Web • KWL • Think-Pair-Share-Write (Robb, 2006) • Asking the 5Ws and H (who, what, where, when, why, and how) • Writing Frames Other Forms of Representing: • Discuss/Brainstorm/Web • Asking the 5Ws + H • Representing Task Sheet • Talking Drawings (Wood, 1994) • Sketch to Stretch (Harste, Short, & Burke, 1988) • Read/View/Listen, Talk, Act, Draw, Write (Cox, 1999)English Language Arts 5 23
  • Includes a Range of Texts In order for students to achieve the outcomes stated in this curriculum, students need to have access to a wide range of high-quality learning resources in visual, oral, print, multimedia, and electronic formats. The lists of learning resources that support this curriculum identify core and additional learning resources to support the English language arts program and student achievement of the learning outcomes designated for this grade level. Resources that have been evaluated for curriculum fit are listed on the Ministry of Education website. An effective English language arts program: • provides learning resources that help students achieve the curriculum outcomes • balances a variety of texts including print, non-print, human, electronic, and virtual resources • offers resources that are current, relevant, credible, and representative of many viewpoints that reflect the perspectives, cultures, and ways of knowing of First Nations, Métis, and other cultures • presents the cultural, literary, and artistic heritages of societies, past and present • responds to students’ interests and supports independent reading and inquiry • fosters opportunities for inquiry learning. Grade 5 students should have access to picture books, pattern books, chapter books, non-fiction, children’s classics, poetry, folk tales, and traditional narratives. Refer to the ministry website for a listing of various grade-appropriate texts that Grade 5 students might explore. Encourages Inquiry, Social Responsibility, and Self-reflection An effective English language arts program provides opportunities for student inquiry, encourages social responsibility, and invites self- reflection.Inquiry is a philosophical stance Inquiry learning provides students with opportunities to buildrather than a set of strategies, knowledge, abilities, and inquiring habits of mind that lead to deeperactivities, or a particular teaching understanding of their world and human experience. The inquirymethod. As such, inquiry promotes process focuses on the development of compelling questions,intentional and thoughtful learning formulated by teachers and students, to motivate and guide inquiriesfor teachers and children. into topics, problems, and issues related to curriculum content and(Mills & Donnelly, 2001, p. xviii) outcomes. Inquiry is more than a simple instructional strategy. It is a philosophical approach to teaching and learning, grounded in constructivist24 English Language Arts 5
  • research and methods, which engages students in investigationsthat lead to disciplinary and transdisciplinary understanding. Inquirybuilds on students’ inherent sense of curiosity and wonder, drawingon their diverse backgrounds, interests, and experiences. The processprovides opportunities for students to become active participants ina collaborative search for meaning and understanding. Students whoare engaged in inquiry: • construct deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving information • are directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge • encounter alternative perspectives and differing ideas that transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings • transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances • take ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning and mastery of curriculum content and skills. (Adapted from Kuhlthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2007)Inquiry learning is not a step-by-step process but rather a cyclicalprocess, with parts of the process being revisited and rethought as aresult of students’ discoveries, insights, and co-construction of newknowledge. Figure 2 represents this cyclical inquiry process.Figure 2. Constructing Understanding Through InquiryCurriculum Outcomes What are the things we wonder about and want to know more about? What questions do we have about the deeper mysteries or aspects of life? Interpret Collaborate Conclude Analyze Plan Investigate Re ect and Re ect and Revise How are we going to proceed? Revise Explore Create Observe Synthesize Acknowledge Sources Document Processes Resources What have we discovered and how will we show our deeper understanding? How are we going to use what we have discovered (e.g., apply, act, implement)?English Language Arts 5 25
  • Inquiry prompts and motivates students to investigate topics within meaningful contexts. The inquiry process is not linear or lock-step but is flexible and recursive. As they become more comfortable with the process, experienced inquirers will move back and forth among various phases as new questions arise. Well-formulated inquiry questions are broad in scope and rich in possibilities. Such questions encourage students to explore, observe, gather information, plan, analyze, interpret, synthesize, problem solve, take risks, create, conclude, document, reflect on learning, and develop new questions for further inquiry. Teachers and students can begin their inquiry at one or more curriculum entry points; however, the process may evolve into transdisciplinary integrated learning opportunities, as reflective of the holistic nature of our lives and interdependent global environment. An important part of any inquiry process is students’ reflection on their learning and the documentation needed to assess the learning and make it visible to students. Student documentation of the inquiry process in English language arts may take the form of reflective journals, notes, drafts, three-dimensional models, works of art, photographs, and video footage. Social responsibility encourages students to extend their learning beyond the classroom into the local, national, and international community. It invites students to consider how individuals or groups can shape the future in a positive way or address an issue, question, challenge, or problem that is important. Each unit at each grade level in English language arts offers opportunities to challenge students to consider what particular local, national, or global issues, questions, challenges, or problems are important and to consider what students might do to make their community or the world a better place. Social responsibility challenges students to address the important or compelling questions for deeper understanding posed in a unit. In any English language arts unit, teachers and students can plan and create a project to support efficacy. Social responsibility can help students: • Become complex thinkers by encouraging them to synthesize their learning and apply it to their community, country, and/or international world. • Become more aware of the interconnectedness of all things and the reciprocal relationships between themselves and their local and international community. • Become more independent by using the language skills and strategies that students are learning in ELA beyond the classroom.26 English Language Arts 5
  • • Become more motivated by choosing individual or group projects related to each unit. • Become contributors to their community and the world beyond that community. • Become more collaborative and respectful as they work with others to address the questions, issues, and problems considered in the unit. • Become agents of change. • Become socially responsible.Student self-reflection helps students take ownership of their ownlearning and become more self-directed and self-confident. TheAssess and Reflect K-12 goal in English language arts expects studentsto consider what they know and have learned, the progress andachievements made, and the goals they need to set to improve. Usingtools such as learning logs and diaries, discussion, questionnaires,reflective writing, and portfolios, students can reflect on their learningboth as a team and as individuals. Through self-reflection, studentscan determine their current and future learning needs and set goalsfor growth. Using Bloom’s taxonomy of questioning, teachers can helpstudents become self-reflective and self-directed: • What did I do? (Remember/Knowledge) • What knowledge, skills, and strategies did I use to complete the task? (Understand/Comprehension) • What steps did I take to achieve this? (Application) • What challenges or problems did I encounter, and how did I address these? (Analysis) • What are my strengths, and what would I like to learn more about, or what skills and strategies do I want to develop? (Evaluation) • How can I use this new knowledge and these new skills and strategies? (Create)English Language Arts 5 27
  • Outcomes and IndicatorsFocus: Communicating with Precision Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will develop their abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend and respond to a range of contemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest, and enjoyment.Outcomes IndicatorsCR5.1 Analyze and respond to a. View, listen to, read and respond to a variety of visual, multimedia,a variety of grade-level texts oral, and print texts that examine the diverse range of personal(including contemporary and identities, perspectives, and backgrounds (e.g., appearance,traditional visual, oral, written, culture, socio-economic status, abilities, age, gender, sexualand multimedia texts) that orientation, language, career path) including First Nations andaddress: Métis texts. • identity (e.g., Exploring b. View, listen to, and read a variety of texts related to the theme or Heritage) topic of study and show comprehension by: • community (e.g., Teamwork) • understanding, retelling, and explaining the ideas and • social responsibility (e.g., information presented in the texts What is Fair?). • analyzing the text structures and features • analyzing the texts and developing responses with evidence from the texts, personal experience, and research. c. Describe and build upon connections between previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts. d. Compare the challenges and situations encountered in daily life with those experienced by people in other times, places, and cultures as portrayed in a variety of texts including First Nations and Métis texts. e. Compare individuals and situations portrayed in various texts (including First Nations and Métis resources) to those encountered in real life. f. Draw on oral, print, and other media texts including First Nations and Métis texts to explain personal perspectives on cultural representations.28 English Language Arts 5
  • Outcomes IndicatorsCR5.2 View and evaluate, a. Gather information from a variety of media (e.g., photographs,critically, visual and multimedia web sites, maps, diagrams, posters, videos, advertising, double bartexts identifying the persuasive graphs, maps, videos).techniques including promises, b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, andflattery, and comparisons used after) to construct meaning when viewing.to influence or persuade anaudience. c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions of communication to construct and confirm meaning when viewing. d. Discuss purpose, perspectives, and biases and how visual texts including First Nations and Métis resources can be used to persuade others. e. Recognize point of view and distinguish between fact and opinion. f. Identify the values underlying visual messages and recognize persuasive techniques and purposes in oral presentations and various media (e.g., promises, dares, flattery, comparisons). g. Analyze visual texts (including First Nations and Métis art and other texts) as sources for information, entertainment, persuasion, interpretation of events, and transmission of culture. h. Identify how the language, explicit and implicit messages, and visual and multimedia features (e.g., sound, colour, movement) are used to influence the intended audience.CR5.3 Listen purposefully a. Listen purposefully to a range of texts from a variety of culturalto a range of texts from a traditions including First Nations and Métis and identify andvariety of cultural traditions summarize main ideas, supporting details, and opinions heard.(including oral traditions b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, andshared by First Nations and after) to construct meaning when listening.Métis Elders and KnowledgeKeepers) to understand ideas c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical,and instructions, to evaluate semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cuesthe message heard and the and conventions of communication to construct and confirmrequired follow-up action, and meaning when listening.to draw conclusions about d. Evaluate the content of a variety of oral communications and askspeaker’s verbal and non- questions to seek information not already discussed.verbal message(s), purpose, e. Interpret a speaker’s verbal and non-verbal messages, purposes,point of view, and techniques and perspectives including First Nations and Métis Elders andused in presentation. Knowledge Keepers. f. Listen to differentiate between fact and opinion, to analyze the message and presentation, and to draw conclusions about the ideas presented and strategies used.English Language Arts 5 29
  • Outcomes IndicatorsCR5.3 continued g. Listen purposefully to instructions and procedures and decide the best way to carry them out. h. Draw conclusions about speaker’s verbal and non-verbal message(s), purpose, point of view, and techniques used in presentation (including First Nations and Métis Elders and Knowledge Keepers).CR5.4 Read and demonstrate a. Determine the essential purpose, key ideas, arguments, andcomprehension of a range of perspectives of texts including First Nations and Métis texts.contemporary and classical b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, andgrade-appropriate fiction, after) to construct meaning when reading.script, poetry, and non-fiction(including magazines, reports, c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical,instructions, and procedures) semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cuesfrom various cultures including and conventions of communication to construct and confirmFirst Nations, Métis, and Inuit meaning when reading.and countries (including d. Understand how text features (e.g., format, graphics, sequence,Canada). diagrams, illustrations, charts, maps) make information and ideas accessible and usable. e. Distinguish among facts, supported inferences, and opinions in informational texts. f. Read and use grade-five appropriate informational and reference texts (e.g., dictionary, encyclopedia, how-to, explanations, biography) to identify main ideas, details, opinions, and reasons. g. Identify the characteristics of poetry, plays, fiction, and non-fiction including First Nations and Métis texts. h. Identify, in narrative texts (including First Nations and Métis texts), the main problem or conflict of the plot and the resolution; compare and contrast the actions, motives, and appearances of characters; evaluate the meaning of symbols; and understand that theme refers to the meaning or moral of a work and recognize themes (whether implied or stated directly). i. Evaluate the author’s use of various techniques (e.g., appeal of characters, logic and credibility of plots and settings, use of figurative language and imagery, strength of argument based on evidence) to influence readers’ perspectives. j. Read grade-appropriate texts silently (150-200 wcpm) for extended periods of time; read orally to increase fluency, accuracy, pacing, intonation, and expression (110-150 wcpm); adjust reading rate to purpose and text demands.30 English Language Arts 5
  • Compose and Create (CC). Students will develop their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.Outcomes IndicatorsCC5.1 Compose and create a a. Create spoken, written, and other representations that include:range of visual, multimedia, • a clear and specific messageoral, and written texts thatexplore: • a logical and coherent organization of ideas • identity (e.g., What Should • a competent use of language and conventions. I Do) b. Express and explain findings on a topic, question, problem, or issue • community (e.g., This is Our in an appropriate visual, multimedia, oral, and written format using Planet) inquiry. • social responsibility (e.g., c. Use inquiry to explore a problem, question, or issue related to a Teamwork) and express topic being studied in English language arts or a topic of personal personal thoughts shaped interest including: through inquiry. • summarizing personal knowledge and understanding of a selected topic to help formulate relevant questions appropriate to a specific audience and purpose for group or individual inquiry or research • gathering and recording ideas and information using a plan • answering inquiry or research questions using a variety of sources such as newspapers, diaries, Elders, interviews, and field trips • determining the usefulness of ideas and information for inquiry or research purpose and focus using pre-established criteria • using a variety of tools to access ideas and information • organizing ideas and information into categories (e.g., what, where, when, how, so what) • making notes using own words and providing publication dates and authorship of sources • assessing knowledge gained through inquiry or research • forming personal conclusions and generating new questions for further inquiry or research • explaining findings from inquiry or research on a topic, question, problem, or issue in an appropriate visual, oral, and written format.English Language Arts 5 31
  • Outcomes IndicatorsCC5.2 Demonstrate a variety a. Consider which form (e.g., drama, drawings, dance, diagrams,of ways to communicate music, three-dimensional objects, posters, cartoons, maps, graphs,understanding and response photographs, pictures, charts, and videos) is most appropriate forincluding illustrated reports, various tasks and identified purposes.dramatizations, posters, b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during,timelines, multimedia and after) to communicate meaning when using other forms ofpresentations, and summary representing.charts. c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to communicate meaning when using other forms of representing. d. Use graphic organizers to clarify and shape understanding. e. Prepare a clearly organized multimedia presentation using pre- established organizers and criteria. f. Integrate a variety of representations including illustrations, graphs, maps, and graphics into written and oral presentations. g. Present information clearly and appropriately for each medium and recognize that the conventions of language and the medium are designed to help the audience understand what is said or presented. h. Use computers and authoring software to compose texts and graphic representations. i. Include charts, graphs, tables, maps, graphics, and illustrations in researched inquiry presentations.CC5.3 Speak to express and a. Deliver focused and coherent presentations that engage thesupport a range of ideas and audience with appropriate verbal cues, facial expressions,information in formal and and gestures; that convey ideas clearly; and that relate to theinformal speaking situations background and interests of the audiences.(e.g., giving oral presentations b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, andand reports, retelling a after) to communicate meaning when speaking.narrative, explaining a display c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical,to others, working in groups) semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cuesfor particular audiences and and conventions to communicate meaning when speaking.purposes. d. Select a focus, organizational structure, and point of view for an oral presentation; decide what to say and how to say it; clarify and support spoken ideas with evidence and examples. e. Deliver narrative presentations that establish a situation, plot, point of view, and setting with descriptive words and phrases and show the listeners, through the explanations and narration, what happens.32 English Language Arts 5
  • Outcomes IndicatorsCC5.3 continued f. Deliver informative presentations about an important idea, issue, or event by framing questions to guide listeners, establishing a central idea or topic, and developing the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations. g. Deliver a narrative from a First Nations and Métis tradition that follows the teaching of the oral tradition. h. Deliver oral responses to literary and other texts (including First Nations and Métis texts) or presentations that include both personal responses and textual evidence or examples from the work to support insights and conclusions. i. Participate in a variety of oral presentations including dramatization (role play), discussion circles, introducing a visitor to the class or school, and giving directions. j. Fulfill role as group member and respect and respond sensitively to the ideas, opinions, and interpretations of others.CC5.4 Use a writing process a. Write clear multi-paragraph compositions (e.g., three to fiveto experiment with and paragraph report or essay of at least 300 words) that focus on aproduce multi-paragraph central idea, reflect awareness of the audience(s) and purpose(s),narrative (including stories contain clear introductions and conclusions, and includethat contain dialogue), paragraphs in a logical sequence.expository (including reports, b. Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, andexplanations, letters, and after) to communicate meaning when writing.requests), and persuasive c. Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical,(including letters) compositions semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cuesthat clearly develop topic and and conventions to communicate meaning when writing.provide transitions for thereader. d. Write narrative compositions that develop a situation or plot and point of view, describe the setting, and present an ending. e. Write expository compositions that establish a topic, include important ideas or events in a logical order, provide details and transitional expressions that clearly link one paragraph to another, and offer a concluding paragraph that summarizes important ideas. f. Write expository reports that explore key ideas, issues, or events in response to questions that direct an investigation, establish a controlling idea or topic sentence, and develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations. g. Use various note-making strategies (paraphrasing, summarizing, highlighting, graphic organizers, outlining) to glean information and ideas for expository or informational writing.English Language Arts 5 33
  • Outcomes IndicatorsCC5.4 continued h. Create documents by using electronic media and employing computer features (e.g., topic searches, thesaurus, spell checks). i. Write persuasive letters or compositions that state a clear position, support that position with relevant evidence, follow a simple organizational pattern, and address the reader’s need for clarity. j. Experiment with different forms including poems, short scripts, and journal entries to communicate and demonstrate understanding. Assess and Reflect (AR). Students will develop their abilities to assess and reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effective viewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers, and set goals for future improvement.Outcomes IndicatorsAR5.1 Identify strengths in a. Consider the types of strategies to utilize and whether or not theyviewing, listening, reading, will or do work for the task at hand.speaking, writing, and other b. Determine what strategies are best for the task and what strategiesforms of representing. will work best for self.AR5.2 Set goals to enhance c. Identify strengths in viewing, listening, reading, representing,the development and speaking, and writing and set goals to enhance the developmentimprovement of the skills and and improvement of the skills and strategies in each.strategies in viewing, listening,reading, speaking, writing, and d. Ask “What strategies did I use? What goals do I need to set for whatother forms of representing I am trying to accomplish? How will I know if I have met my goals?and take steps to achieve goals. What else could I do?” and develop a plan for improvement.34 English Language Arts 5
  • Assessment and Evaluation of StudentLearningAssessment and evaluation require thoughtful planning and Assessment involves the systematicimplementation to support the learning process and to inform collection of information aboutteaching. All assessment and evaluation of student achievement must student learning with respect to:be based on the outcomes in the provincial curriculum. • achievement of provincialThere are three interrelated purposes of assessment. Each type of curricula outcomes • effectiveness of teachingassessment, systematically implemented, contributes to an overall strategies employedpicture of an individual student’s achievement. • student self-reflection onAssessment for learning involves the use of information about learning.student progress to support and improve student learning, informinstructional practices, and: • is teacher-driven for student, teacher, and parent use • occurs throughout the teaching and learning process, using a variety of tools • engages teachers in providing differentiated instruction, feedback to students to enhance their learning, and information to parents in support of learning.Assessment as learning actively involves student reflection onlearning, monitoring of her/his own progress, and: • supports students in critically analyzing learning related to curricular outcomes • is student-driven with teacher guidance • occurs throughout the learning process.Assessment of learning involves teachers’ use of evidence of studentlearning to make judgements about student achievement and: • provides opportunity to report evidence of achievement related to curricular outcomes • occurs at the end of a learning cycle using a variety of tools • provides the foundation for discussions on placement or promotion.Evaluation compares assessment information against criteria based oncurriculum outcomes for the purpose of communicating to students,teachers, parents/caregivers, and others about student progress and tomake informed decisions about the teaching and learning process.The following pages show a sample holistic rubric for assessment andevaluation of the Comprehending and Responding and Composingand Creating Goals for English language arts with the Assessing andReflecting Goal embedded.English Language Arts 5 35
  • Table 8. Grade Five Rubric - Comprehend and Respond Comprehend and Respond (Viewing, Listening, Reading): Grade 5 Exceeding Expectations (Overall, comprehension and responses are accurate, include details, often insightful, and supported. Student checks understanding and uses effective strategies.) Comprehension Use of Strategies Cues and ConventionsDemonstrates a thorough and Employs, independently, task- Uses confidently and consistentlyaccurate understanding of the text relevant strategies before, during, the cues and conventions ofand offers insightful responses with and after viewing, listening, or communication and language toevidence to support responses. reading. construct meaning.Identifies and summarizes, thoroughly Uses prior knowledge and previews Knows reasons for viewing, listening,and accurately, main ideas and text features to make prediction; sets and reading; identifies intendedsupporting details; describes purpose; monitors comprehension audience and purpose for a text.characters, events, and setting; and uses/adjusts strategies; draws, Identifies and uses readily various textrecounts events and ideas in correct independently, on prior knowledge to structures, their elements, and theirsequence, and explains cause-effect make predictions and solve problems; organizational patterns to understand.relationships in texts viewed, listened makes inferences (often uses “betweento, and read. the lines” information); demonstrates Uses knowledge of sentence structure, a thorough understanding of elements, and related punctuation toShows insight in responses. text; reviews, recalls, paraphrases, understand what is listened to or read.Makes and explains personal summarizes, synthesizes, and offers Uses context and word structureconnections that show insight; makes insightful personal responses and (including roots, prefixes, and suffixes)connections to other texts and to critical judgements; re-views, re- to determine the meaning of words.world; gives evidence to explain the listens, and rereads and skims to findconnections. Uses phonics to say words correctly; information and ideas efficiently. recognizes features of words includingOffers responses and opinions Demonstrates consistent attention sound patterns to decode multi-with logical supporting reasons or to the speaker or task and ignores syllabic words.examples. distractions when listening, viewing, or Recognizes the characteristics of reading. different media and the key features Follows, independently, instructions and elements in visual and multimedia and multi-step oral directions. texts. Reads orally with appropriate fluency, accuracy, and expression. Reflects and sets goals for viewing, listening, and reading.36 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 8. (Continued) Grade Five Rubric - Comprehend and Respond Comprehend and Respond (Viewing, Listening, Reading): Grade 5 Meeting Expectations (Overall, comprehension and responses are generally accurate and logical and include details and reasoning to support responses. Student checks understanding and uses appropriate strategies.) Comprehension Use of Strategies Cues and Conventions Demonstrates a good understanding Uses, with practice and teacher Uses the cues and conventions of of text and offers appropriate and support, the important before, communication and language to thoughtful responses with reasonable during, and after strategies relevant construct meaning. evidence to support responses. to the task. Describes accurately the main topics Uses an expanding range of familiar Recognizes that a text was created for or ideas in texts viewed, listened to, before, during, and after strategies an intended purpose. and read (including prose fiction, non- to derive meaning from visual, Identifies and explains different fiction, script, and poetry). multimedia, oral, and written texts forms of texts; uses knowledge of the Identifies and describes specific details including tapping prior knowledge and elements and organization of different experience; predicting what text will and feelings in texts. texts; identifies conventions of texts. be about, setting purpose, identifying Retells and sequences ideas and events main ideas, making connections and Uses knowledge of word order to from texts viewed, listened to, and inferences, and constructing mental determine meaning of sentences; read. images; asking questions to self- uses the relationships of words in monitor; adjusting rate and strategy; sentences to help construct meaning; Offers responses to and opinions on uses punctuation to help understand viewing, listening, reading experiences noting key ideas and supports; recalling, paraphrasing, summarizing, meaning. supported by examples, details, and reasons. and responding personally to Uses a variety of strategies to text; offering and supporting an determine the meaning of unfamiliar Responds to questions or tasks interpretation of text; evaluating words including context and breaking accurately, clearly, and completely. author’s craft and techniques; re- into syllables; recognizes common Makes direct and concrete connections viewing, re-listening, and rereading. word families, using sound, using to self, other texts, and world. common prefixes and suffixes, and Demonstrates attention to the speaker or task and ignores most distractions. using a dictionary; understands frequently used specialized terms in Follows instruction and multiple-step subject areas; recognizes word play. oral directions. Recognizes features of words including Reads orally with appropriate fluency, R-vowel patterns, silent consonants, accuracy, and expression. digraphs, compound words, contractions, and easy multi-syllablic words. Recognizes and uses key features in text including colour, bold typeface, music, and sound effects.English Language Arts 5 37
  • Table 8. (Continued) Grade Five Rubric - Comprehend and Respond Comprehend and Respond (Viewing, Listening, Reading): Grade 5 Beginning to Meet Expectations (Overall, comprehension and responses are generally accurate and logical but include little detail and may be confusing or incomplete. Student may need occasional help or prompting. Student checks understanding and uses some appropriate strategies.) Comprehension Use of Strategies Cues and ConventionsDemonstrates some understanding Uses, with prompting and support, Uses some of the cues andof the text and offers generalized a few key before, during, and after conventions of communication andresponses with some evidence to viewing, listening, and reading language to construct meaning.support responses. strategies. Does not always know when to apply them to a new task.Focuses on literal meaning of texts Uses before, during, and after Uses, with support and prompting,viewed, listened to, and read; identifies strategies, with support and basic cues and conventions ofaccurately main ideas and characters prompting, that have been explicitly communication to help comprehendand recalls most key events; has taught including using prior text including:difficulty, often, sequencing events; knowledge to make predictions and Identifies the purpose of familiarmay omit some events; may have support understanding; predicting text forms and possible intendeddifficulty making inferences; uses some what text might be about; setting or audiences.relevant details to support responses; using a prompted purpose; noting keymakes concrete connections to own ideas and some supports; constructing Uses knowledge of text structure toexperiences; offers simple opinions or mental images; making, and trying make simple, obvious predictions.judgements. to confirm, predictions; making Notices word order and how sentence some basic inferences; recalling most punctuation clarifies meaning.Responds somewhat accurately butdoes not provide complete or sufficient ideas and events; demonstrating an Recognizes accurately most high- adequate understanding of text; givingdetail; experiences difficulty giving frequency words and uses, with a simple personal response to text;reasons or examples. support, context clues. noticing some elements of author’s craft and technique; re-viewing, re- Uses phonics and, if prompted, word listening, rereading to find specific structure to help figure out words. information (but is often inefficient). Identifies some key elements and Demonstrates attention to the speaker details, and the medium used in visual or task usually but inconsistently and multimedia texts. ignores distractions. Follows, with support and prompting, instructions and multiple-step oral directions. Reads orally with some fluency, accuracy, and expression.38 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 8. (Continued) Grade Five Rubric - Comprehend and Respond Comprehend and Respond (Viewing, Listening, Reading): Grade 5 Not Yet Meeting Expectations (Comprehension and responses are inaccurate or incomplete. Student needs one-to-one support and coaching. Student unable to check understanding or use appropriate strategies.) Comprehension Use of Strategies Cues and Conventions Demonstrates a limited or inadequate Requires repeated modelling of Has an uncertain grasp of the understanding of the text and offers before, during, and after viewing, basic cues and conventions of simplistic or irrelevant responses listening, and reading strategies and communication and language used to with little or no evidence to support requires continuous coaching on construct meaning. responses. when and how to use them. Unable to view, listen to, or read short Attempts to use, with support and Demonstrates limited or inadequate texts independently (requires one-to- prompting, a limited number of before, ability to recognize or use basic cues one support); identifies single topic during, and after strategies including and conventions of communication to or idea, main characters, and some setting a possible purpose; thinking help comprehend text including: events; recalls a few details; responds about what is known about topic Recognizes, with teacher guidance, to questions by guessing; may or event; predicting (but often just a purpose for viewing, listening, and have difficulty with literal meaning; guesses); sequencing (but has difficulty reading and a possible intended responds incompletely, vaguely, sequencing events or explaining ideas audience. or inaccurately; unable to make and relationships such as cause-effect); connections, without direct support, basic inferring (but often unable to Recognizes, with teacher guidance, to self, other texts, or world; offers make inferences); recalling some some basic features, structures, and responses and opinions that tend to be ideas and events but demonstrating a elements of a text. vague, inaccurate, or unsupported. limited or inadequate understanding Recognizes, with teacher guidance, of text; offering a simplistic or basic sentence structures, word unrelated personal response to text; order, and how punctuation clarifies does not usually revisit a text. meaning. Needs reminders to focus attention Uses, with teacher guidance, context on the speaker or task; distracted clues and word structure (prefixes, frequently. roots, and suffixes) to determine word Follows, with reminders, some meanings. instructions and multiple-step oral Uses, consistently, accurate sounding- directions but skips or ignores some out to figure out words. part(s). Recognizes, with teacher guidance, the Does not read fluently. medium and elements of visual and multimedia texts.English Language Arts 5 39
  • Table 9. Grade Five Rubric - Compose and Create Compose and Create (Speaking, Writing, and Other Forms of Representing): Grade 5 Exceeding Expectations(Overall, visual, multimedia, oral, and written compositions are original, thoughtful, and insightful. They are complete, well-planned, and well crafted for purpose and audience.) Message Use of Strategies Cues and ConventionsCompositions and presentations are Uses, confidently, task-relevant Demonstrates confident controloriginal and insightful. strategies before, during, and after of the elements of communication a speaking, writing, or other form of and language. Language is rich and representing task. varied.The visual, multimedia, oral, or written Demonstrates understanding of and The language is consciously wellmessage is original and insightful. effectively controls the appropriate chosen and well used. The languageThe message has a clear focus, before, during, and after strategies register is appropriate to audience andshows awareness of audience, and required to communicate meaning purpose. Tone and voice consistentlydemonstrates a logical understanding when creating visual, multimedia, maintain interest. A definite pointof subject matter (e.g., underlying oral, and print texts including of view is evident. Syntax is variedtheme or message from unit of exploring prior knowledge; identifying and polished. Word choices showstudy); supporting details are relevant possible approaches with ease and style and efficiency. Exceptions toand appropriate for the intended interest; considering a number of standard usage are used for stylisticmessage. The text shows thoughtful ways to proceed and find ideas and effect. The text adheres to acceptedand coherent organization and information; creating well-crafted standards of spelling, punctuation, anddevelopment. drafts and often experimenting with capitalization. Cursive writing is used end product; revising and polishing confidently. Any errors are a result ofIdeas are richly developed with details thoughtfully; sharing, confidently and risk taking.and examples. enthusiastically, final product withThe text is engaging, original, clear, audience.and focused. Revises and polishes compositions andOrganization and form enhance presentations independently.the main idea; ideas are presentedcoherently to move the viewer, listener,reader through the text.Effective sentence structure andprecise word choices (e.g., vivid verbs,descriptive words) are employed.40 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 9. (Continued) Grade Five Rubric - Compose and Create Compose and Create (Speaking, Writing, and Other Forms of Representing): Grade 5 Meeting Expectations (Overall, visual, multimedia, oral, and written compositions are clear and straightforward. They are adequately developed and appropriate to audience and purpose. They clearly present the main ideas.) Message Use of Strategies Cues and Conventions Compositions and presentations are Uses, with practice and teacher Demonstrates control over the clear and thoughtful. support, the important before, elements of communication and during, and after speaking, writing, language. Few errors. Errors do not and other forms of representing interfere with communication. tasks. The visual, multimedia, oral, or written Demonstrates understanding of and The language is straightforward, clear, message is clear and straightforward. uses, with relative ease, an expanding and appropriate. Appropriate language It has a recognizable focus and an range of before, during, and after register is used. Tone and voice are awareness of audience. It demonstrates strategies to communicate meaning evident. a clear understanding of the subject when creating visual, multimedia, oral, A purpose and a focus are established. matter. Most ideas are correct and and print texts including considering The composition sticks to the topic and supporting details are appropriate purpose, role, audiences, forms, and makes sense. Awareness of intended for the intended message. The text topic; generating and developing, with audience is revealed. Composition shows predictable and straightforward some direction, ideas; using a variety flows but has a few problems in organization and development. of strategies such as brainstorming, organization. Details are specific and visuals, formulating questions, etc.; Ideas and content are adequately make ideas clear. using organizers while planning; developed through details and creating drafts and experimenting Some variety in sentence structures examples. with end product, self-monitoring and and length is used. Common sentence The text is reasonably clear, focused, conferring with others; practising and constructions are correct. Most and well supported. sharing final product with audience. words and expressions fit the type of composition. Usage, spelling, Organization and form are appropriate Revises and polishes compositions. punctuation, and capitalization are and ideas are generally presented generally correct. Cursive writing is coherently. used with some support. Ideas are Appropriate and varied sentence clear despite any mechanical errors. structure and word choices are evident.English Language Arts 5 41
  • Table 9. (Continued) Grade Five Rubric - Compose and Create Compose and Create (Speaking, Writing, and Other Forms of Representing): Grade 5 Beginning to Meet Expectations (Overall, visual, multimedia, oral, and written compositions are straightforward/acceptable yet unrefined. They demonstrate limited awareness of purpose and audience and some control over language elements. Mechanical errors interfere occasionally with communication.) Message Use of Strategies Cues and ConventionsCompositions and presentations are Uses, with prompting and support, Demonstrates some control overstraightforward and unrefined. only a few before, during, and after the elements of communication speaking, writing, and other forms of and language and a basic use of representing strategies but does not the conventions. Errors interfere always know when to employ them. somewhat with communication.The visual, multimedia, oral, or Demonstrates some knowledge of The language is acceptable butwritten message is apparent but and uses the basic strategies needed unsophisticated. Language registerunrefined. It has a limited focus to communicate meaning (before, may not be appropriate for audience orand some awareness of audience. during, and after) when creating purpose.It demonstrates a basic or uneven visual, multimedia, oral, and print Purpose is established. Compositionunderstanding of the subject matter. texts including considering purpose, attempts to stick to the topic andSome of the ideas are correct and role, audiences, forms, and topic makes sense but is not fully clear.supporting details are adequate for occasionally; making limited use of Limited awareness of audience and/orthe intended message. The text shows organizers while planning; creating task is demonstrated.acceptable but unrefined organization simple drafts (may experiment withand development. end product if encouraged); beginning Parts that do not fit disrupt the flow. to self-monitor; conferring with others The composition lacks a smooth flowIdeas and content may be developed sometimes; completing rudimentary from beginning to middle to end.with limited details and examples. revisions; practising, with guidance, Details are not specific enough to addText has some focus and support. and sharing, with prompting, the final to the clarity of ideas. They may simply product. be listed or repeated.The text may be somewhatdisorganized or unclearly structured. Common and simple sentence constructions/patterns are used butBasic sentence structure and limited vary little in length and structure.vocabulary are used to convey a simplemessage. Words and expressions sometimes do not fit or enhance the type of composition. Words are sometimes vague. Errors are made in paragraphing, layout, usage, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. Cursive writing is not always used and writer needs support and instruction. Errors interfere somewhat with communication.42 English Language Arts 5
  • Table 9. (Continued) Grade Five Rubric - Compose and Create Compose and Create (Speaking, Writing, and Other Forms of Representing): Grade 5 Not Yet Meeting Expectations (Overall, visual, multimedia, oral, and written compositions are limited, unfocused, and/or unclear. They demonstrate uneven/uncertain control over the language elements. Frequent mechanical errors often impede understanding.) Message Use of Strategies Cues and Conventions Compositions and presentations are Requires repeated modelling of Demonstrates an uncertain and basic. They are limited, unfocused before, during, and after speaking, simplistic grasp of the basic elements and/or unclear. writing, and other forms of of communication and language. representing strategies and requires Errors interfere with communication. continuous coaching on when and how to use them. The message is limited, over- Demonstrates limited or inadequate The language is unclear, inappropriate, generalized, or unclear. It has an knowledge of and uses only some of or immature. unclear focus and shows little or the before, during, and after strategies Language register may not be no awareness of audience. Ideas needed to communicate meaning appropriate for audience or purpose. are poorly developed, elementary, when creating visual, multimedia, oral, A minimal grasp of the conventions of or unclear. Few supporting details and print texts including showing language is demonstrated. are included; some are vague or little awareness of purpose, role, inappropriate to the intended audiences, forms, and topic; using, with Purpose or focus is not clear. message. The text shows limited, support, teacher-selected organizers Composition does not stick to the topic unclear, or unfocused organization and while planning; creating drafts rarely; or make sense. Little or no awareness development. conferring, with prompting, with of the audience and/or task is evident. adults; revising, with direction, in a The parts of the composition do not Ideas and content are supported by limited way; refusing or rarely sharing fit together well. Details are lacking, few, if any, details and examples. final product. inappropriate, or random. There is little discernible shape or direction. Sentences are incomplete, run-on, or simple in structure. Awkward sentence structure and inadequate vocabulary which interfere Word choice is often immature, with understanding are used. overused, or incorrect. Words and expressions may not fit the type of composition. The profusion of structural and mechanical errors, including handwriting, makes the message difficult to understand. Errors seriously interfere with communication.English Language Arts 5 43
  • Progress ReportingEffective language arts programs employ appropriate assessment, evaluation, and reporting processes. In Englishlanguage arts, assessment and evaluation should: • reflect the three K-12 goals of English language arts and the grade-level learning outcomes associated with each goal • focus on what students have learned and can do • be congruent with instruction and based on meaningful tasks • be based on appropriate criteria that students know and understand • inform students and parents in a clear, accurate, and practical way.In addition to newsletters, folders, and portfolios, report cards and parent-student-teacher interviews are part ofschool communication with parents. Although report card formats vary, there should be space for feedback onthe language arts K-12 goals and strands (see sample form below).Table 10. Sample Feedback Form English Language Arts Outcomes Achievement Comments K-12 Goals Level (Strengths, Needs, Next Steps) Comprehends and Views. responds competently and confidently to a range of Listens. texts. Reads. Composes and creates Speaks. competently and confidently in a variety of Writes. forms. Uses other forms of representing. Assesses and reflects on Assesses strengths and learning. needs. Sets goals.How teachers determine grades, marks, or comments should be based on the grade-level outcomes and reflectthe knowledge, process, and product evaluations used throughout the reporting period.Connections with Other Areas of StudyThere are many possibilities for connecting Grade 5 English Language Arts learning with the learning occurringin other subject areas. When making such connections, however, teachers must be cautious not to lose theintegrity of the learning in any of the subjects. Making connections between subject areas gives studentsexperience with transferring knowledge, skills, and strategies and provides rich contexts in which studentsare able to initiate, make sense of, and extend their learnings. When students and teachers make connectionsbetween subject areas, the possibilities for transdisciplinary inquiries and deeper understanding arise.44 English Language Arts 5
  • All areas of study share a common interest in students developingtheir abilities to communicate their learning through speaking,writing, and other forms of representing (Compose and Create Goal).All areas of study require students to apply their skills and strategiesfor viewing, listening, and reading (Comprehend and Respond Goal).All areas of study require students to develop their abilities to reflectupon their knowledge, skills, and strategies (Assess and Reflect Goal).Students should have many opportunities in each area of study toapply authentically what they are learning in English language arts.English language arts also provides many opportunities for studentsto apply learning from other subject areas. The contexts, units,questions for deeper understanding, and oral, print, and other textsin the English language arts program provide many opportunities formeaningful connections and possible integration with other areas ofstudy. Some examples are shown in Table 11.Table 11. Connections to Other Areas of Study Context Opportunities to Make Connections With ... Personal and Philosophical Health Education, Physical Education, Arts Education Social, Cultural, and Social Studies, Arts Education, Physical Historical Education, Health Education Imaginative and Literary Arts Education Communicative Arts Education, Social Studies, Science, Health Education, Physical Education, Mathematics Environmental and Science, Health Education, Physical Education TechnologicalBy using a particular context and identifying a common theme to useas an organizer, teachers can ensure that the outcomes from more thanone subject area can be achieved and students can make connections.Integrated, interdisciplinary instruction in a thematic, inquiry, author/genre, or interdisciplinary unit, however, must be more than justa series of activities. An integrated unit must facilitate students’learning of the related disciplines and students’ understanding ofthe conceptual connections. The unit must support understandingof ways of knowing the world. In addition, it is necessary to addresseach subject area’s outcomes. If deep understanding is to occur, theunit cannot be based on superficial or arbitrarily connected activities(Brophy & Alleman, 1991). The outcomes and activities of one area ofstudy must not be obscured by the outcomes or activities of anotherarea of study (Education Review Office, 1996, p. 13).English Language Arts 5 45
  • GlossaryContexts are broad organizers for balancing an English language arts program by ensuring different perspectivesand ways of knowing are included at each grade level. All instructional units should be related to one ormore of the five contexts identified in the English language arts curriculum. The five contexts are (i) personaland philosophical, (ii) social, cultural, and historical, (iii) imaginative and literary, (iv) communicative, and (v)environmental and technological. These contexts also allow for interdisciplinary integration.Convention is an accepted practice or agreed-upon rule in representational, spoken, or written language.Cueing Systems are sets of cues or clues built into the structure or patterns of communication texts.Discourse is a continuous stretch of communication longer than a sentence.Efficacy is producing or ensuring the desired effect; power or capacity to produce desired effect; effectiveness inoperation; effective as a means of addressing an issue, question, challenge, or problem.Genre is an identifiable category used to classify texts, usually by form, technique, or content (e.g., novel).Grade-appropriate Texts are oral, visual, multimedia (including electronic), and print texts designated as beingappropriate for shared, guided, and independent viewing, listening, and reading at a specific grade level. Thesetexts are intended to reflect curriculum outcomes at different levels of difficulty, in different genres, and fromdifferent cultural and social perspectives.Gradual Release of Responsibility (Scaffolding) is instructional support that moves students in stages from ahigh level of teacher support to independent practice.Graphic Organizer is a visual means by which the relationships between and among ideas are portrayed (e.g., aVenn diagram).Graphophonic Cues and Conventions refer to the sounds of speech (phonology) and how these sounds areorganized in patterns, pronounced, and graphically represented (spelled).Guided Reading is when the teacher uses a before, during, and after structure to guide students as they read aselected text and the teacher models key reading strategies.Guided Writing is writing in which the teacher teaches a procedure, strategy, or skill and the students then usewhat they have learned to do their own writing.Indicators are representative of what students need to know and/or be able to do in order to achieve anoutcome. Indicators represent the breadth and the depth of the outcome. The list provided in the curriculumis not an exhaustive list. Teachers may develop additional and/or alternative indicators but those teacher-developed indicators must be reflective of and consistent with the breadth and depth that is defined by thegiven indicators.Inquiry involves students in some type of “research” on a specific topic, problem, or issue for learning and action.Inquiry is a way of opening up spaces for students’ interests and involving them in as many different aspects of atopic, problem, or issue as students can find.Interactive Writing is when the teacher and students create the text and share the pen to do the writing and talkabout the conventions.Language Literacy, in a contemporary view, is broader and more demanding than the traditional definitions thatwere limited to the ability to read and write. Literacy now includes the capacity to accomplish a wide range ofviewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, writing, and other language tasks associated with everydaylife. It is multimodal in that meaning can be represented and communicated through multiple channels –linguistic (including print), visual, audio, and multimedia (including digital media).46 English Language Arts 5
  • Listening is attending to and getting meaning from what is heard using cognitive processing includingassociating ideas, organizing, imagining, and appreciating what is heard – the receptive form of oral language.Metacognition is the ability to think about and reflect on one’s own thinking and learning processes.Modelled Reading is when the teacher or other fluent reader reads aloud to the students.Modelled Writing is when the teacher demonstrates in front of students, creating the text and thinking aloudabout the writing strategies and skills being used.Multimedia Texts are texts that use a combination of two or more media (i.e., audio, images, video, animation,graphics, print text, digital applications). Multimedia texts can encompass interactive texts and complexinteractive simulations.Onsets are part of the single-syllable word that precedes the vowel.Other Cues and Conventions associated with effective communication include handwriting, font choices,graphics, illustrations, layout, and additional enhancements such as colour, sound, and movement.Outcome is a statement of what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of a course in aparticular area of study at a particular grade level.Phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in the language.Phonemic awareness is to consciously attend to the sounds in the language.Portfolio Assessment is a compilation of evidence collected over time of a student’s learning. It demonstratesthe student’s efforts, progress, and achievement. A portfolio can be cumulative, working/developmental, orshowcase in nature.Pragmatic Cues and Conventions refer to the style of language that is used in a given context and take intoconsideration the communication purpose, situation, and audience. The pragmatic cueing system is oftenconsidered to be the social aspect of language.Questions for Deeper Understanding are questions that are thought provoking, probe a matter of considerableimportance, and require movement beyond present understanding and studying. They often lead to otherquestions posed by students.Reading is an interactive-constructive process in which readers comprehend, interpret, and respond to print textusing the cues and conventions of that text.Register (language) is a socially defined variety of language such as conversational, informal, formal, frozen, orslang.Representing is conveying information or expressing oneself using verbal or written means as well as non-verbalmeans such as drawings, models, graphics, photography, dramatization, video, or physical performance.Rimes are part of the single syllable word that includes the vowel and all succeeding consonants.Rubrics offer criteria that describe student performance at various levels of proficiency. They provide guidelinesfor judging quality and make expectations explicit. Holistic (yield a single score or rating) and analytic (yieldfeedback on specific dimensions or features) rubrics can be used to judge the degree, understanding, orproficiency revealed through students’ products or presentations.Semantic, Lexical, and Morphological Cues and Conventions refer to the meaning and structure of words.Shared Reading is reading aloud by the teacher while the students follow along using individual copies, a classchart, or a big book.English Language Arts 5 47
  • Shared Writing/Language Experience is when the teacher and students create the text together; the teacherdoes the actual writing, and the students assist with spelling.Skill is an acquired ability to perform well and proficiently.Speaking is the act of communicating through oral language. It is the act of transmitting and exchanginginformation, ideas, and experiences using oral language in formal and informal situations. Speech is theexpressive form of oral language.Strand is one of the core elements of an integrated English language arts program. The six language strandsidentified in this curriculum are viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing.Strategy is a systematic plan for solving a problem or executing a task.Syntactical Cues and Conventions refer to the structure (word order) and parts of sentences, and the rules thatgovern the sentences (e.g., subject-verb agreement).Text is any form of communication, whether visual, oral, written, or multimedia (including digital media), thatconstitutes a coherent, identifiable unit or artefact (e.g., poem, poster, conversation, model) with a definablecommunicative function. It refers to visual communications such as illustrations, video, and computer displays;oral communications, including conversations, speeches, dramatizations; and printed communications in theirvaried forms.Textual Cues and Conventions refer to the type or kind of text and the features that are associated with itsorganization.Theme is an overarching idea, question, or topic that is developed in a unit and provides a focus and frame forthe unit. The theme acts as a unifying concept through which all the content, skills, strategies, materials, andactions for both teachers and students can be organized.Unit (an instructional unit) is a focused and organized block of time that helps students through a variety ofexperiences, lessons, and texts. It is planned to help students achieve a set of curriculum outcomes. A multi-genre thematic or topical unit is built around a theme or topic and includes a range of visual, oral, print, andmultimedia (including electronic) texts. A multi-genre inquiry unit is built around important questions or issuesthat students want to learn more about through research. A genre unit is focused on a specific genre of text (e.g.,narrative) and an author unit is focused on the work of a particular author or illustrator.Viewing is attending to and getting meaning from visual representation including pictures, signs, videos, charts,drawings, diagrams, sculptures, mime, tableaux, drama/dance, and other performances.WCPM stands for Words Correct per Minute.Writing is a recursive process of recording language graphically by hand or other means to explore andcommunicate ideas, information, and experiences; the writing process consists of many aspects includingplanning, drafting, revising, and publishing.48 English Language Arts 5
  • ReferencesBeck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Brophy, J. & Alleman, J. (1991). A caveat: Curriculum integration isn’t always a good idea. Educational Leadership, 49, 66.Carr, E. M. & Ogle, D. (1987). K-W-L plus: A strategy for comprehension and summarization. Journal of Reading, 30, 626-631.Cox, C. (1999). Teaching language arts: A student- and response-centered classroom. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Daniels, H. (1994). Literature circles: Voice and choice in the student-centered classroom. York, ME: Stenhouse.Davey, B. (1983). Think aloud – modelling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. Journal of Reading, 27, 44-47.Education Review Office. (1996). Science in schools – Implementing the 1995 science curriculum (5). Wellington: Crown Copyright.Eeds, M. & Wells, D. (1989). Grand conversations: An exploration of meaning construction in literary study groups. Research in the Teaching of English, 23, 4-29.Fullan, M., Hill, P., & Crévola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Goldenberg, C. (1993). Instructional conversations: Promoting comprehension through discussion. The Reading Teacher, 46, 316-326.Gregory, G. H. & Chapman, C. (2002). Differentiated instructional strategies: One size doesn’t fit all. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.Harste, J. C. (2000). Six points of departure. In Berghoff, B., Egawa, K. A., Harste, J. C., & Hoonan, B. T. (Eds.). Beyond reading and writing: Inquiry, curriculum, and multiple ways of knowing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.Harste, J. C., Short, K. B., & Burke, C. L. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. York, ME: Stenhouse.Hoyt, L. (2000). Snapshots: Literacy minilessons up close. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Jamieson, D. G. & Tremblay, R.E. (2005). Newsletter. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L.K., & Caspari, A.K. (2007). Guided inquiry: A framework for learning through school libraries in 21st century schools. Westport, CN: Libraries Unlimited.Laverick, C. (2002). B-D-A strategy: Reinventing the wheel can be a good thing. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 46, 144-149.Manzo, A. V. (1969). The reQuest procedure. Journal of Reading, 11, 123-126.Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.English Language Arts 5 49
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  • Feedback FormThe Ministry of Education welcomes your response to this curriculum and invites you to complete and return thisfeedback form.Grade 5 English Language Arts Curriculum1. Please indicate your role in the learning community: parent teacher resource teacher guidance counsellor school administrator school board trustee teacher librarian school community council member other ___________________________________________________ What was your purpose for looking at or using this curriculum?2. a) Please indicate which format(s) of the curriculum you used: print online b) Please indicate which format(s) of the curriculum you prefer: print online4. Please respond to each of the following statements by circling the applicable number.The curriculum content is: Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagreeappropriate for its intended purpose 1 2 3 4suitable for your use 1 2 3 4clear and well organized 1 2 3 4visually appealing 1 2 3 4informative 1 2 3 45. Explain which aspects you found to be: Most useful: Least useful:English Language Arts 5 51
  • 6. Additional comments:7. Optional: Name: ______________________________________ School: ______________________________________ Phone: ____________________ Fax: ____________________Thank you for taking the time to provide this valuable feedback.Please return the completed feedback form to: Executive Director Curriculum and E-Learning Branch Ministry of Education 2220 College Avenue Regina SK S4P 4V9 Fax: 306-787-222352 English Language Arts 5